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Biology 2108K Unit 2 Study Guide

by: Aneri Patel

Biology 2108K Unit 2 Study Guide 2108K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > 2108K > Biology 2108K Unit 2 Study Guide
Aneri Patel

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Prinicples of Biology II
Dr. Jonathan B Sylvester
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aneri Patel on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2108K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Jonathan B Sylvester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Prinicples of Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Unit 2 Review - Bryophytes= make transition made the transition onto land; multicellular sporophytes - Vascular plants= sporophytes were vascularized gametophytes makes gametes and they get around with water so they cannot be vascularized - Spores- o Lycophytes o Ferns and horsetails (HAPLOID) - Gametes- o Gymnosperms o Angiosperms o don’t release spores, they stay attached and grow into gametophyte- also involved in seed production o critical evolution (these are the majority of plants) - seed producing plants the males are never actually exposed to the environment o produce pollen-male gametophyte o completely different from the they spores - **seed bearing plants the spores remain attached and they don’t go anywhere they grow into your gametophyte o Pollen for your ovaries o It allows the plant when and where the to germinate; packaged with food - Dispersion of Seeds: o Gymnosperm- wind o Angiosperm- fruits or wind - **Seed Structure(Gymnosperms): WIND o Difference in ploidy diploid sandwich o Seed coat (made by the sporophyte parent) keeps from drying out and safety [2n] o Female Gametophyte FOOD SOURCE for the embryo [1n] That’s what we eat; it sacrifices itself by taking in sugars and providing nutrients o Embryo will turn into the new tree- result of fusion of the egg and the sperm [2n] - Seed Diversity: o Large seeds-(coconuts, etc.) eaten and lost but some are dispersed by the animals o Buoyant (float on water) - ANGIOSPERMS: (newest most derived group to evolved) ANIMALS o Started off as gymnosperms subset of gymnosperms that had to compete under the canopy because they didn’t receive very much wind they could not effectively distribute themselves Cooped to use animals and insects to entice them and increase that they will effectively disperse their pollen  cones modified to become FLOWERD Have become as diverse as animals with flowers for each type of animal - Flower Organization (4 whorls): o Whorls: center axis of things being arranged around it  Sepals- outers most part of the flower referred to as the flower bud: surround and protect flower from harm when it’s still maturing  Petals- highly modified leaves that usually retain color to entice animals or insects photosynthesis  Stamens- (gametophytes) Male parts [POLLEN]  Analogous to male cones in gymnosperms; highly reduced  Carpels- female parts; fused to be one unit but multiple structures  Necture= attract insects [OVARY] o Butterflies. Bees. Hummingbirds. Etc.  wouldn’t exist without flowers o Flowers change scents, colors, and shapes to attract different creatures to disperse their pollen and seeds more effectively - Pollination & Pollen Tubes= o Pollen male gametophytes o Pollen lands on they carpel and makes pollen tubes which then allow the sperm to swim down it to the ovaries and germinate the ovaries  Stamens-  Anthers (contains the pollen)  Filaments (help the stamen extend out or stick out in order for insects to pick up the pollen more effectively)  Carpels-  Stigma (facilitates pollination- pollen attaches to this)  Styles (contains the ovaries)- female gametophytes “technically not a part of the carpel” o Gymnosperm- spreads pollen and seeds by the wind o Angiosperms- used animals/ insects to disperse their pollen and their seeds  REVERSAL: derived group of creatures evolve in a way that they reacquire ancestral traits  Ex. Pollen, grass, trees, etc. - Increase Outcrossing: o Self-noncompatible: [ancestral trait]- FAVORABLE  Cannot mate with itself: cannot use it’s own pollen to pollinate the same stigma  Increases genetic diversity o Self-compatible: [derived trait]- UNFAVORABLE  Grass= main ones that can do this- increases genetic diversity by very little nd  2 option it’s better than nothing  Corn, wheat, barely GRASSES - Gametogenesis in Angiosperms: o Ovaries: undergo meiosis and make  Female gametophyte ovaries OVULE [eggs inside- gamete HAPLOID] o Anthers: under go meiosis sporangium precursor to make just some pollen (coated with pollenin; male gametophyte (HAPLOID))  Spermgamete - Angiosperm Life Cycle o Revolves around the flowers o Anthers pollen; the egg is within the ovaries and the ovule stays attached to flowers o Pollen lands on the stigma from a different flower which then allows growth of pollen which forms tubs to the ovaries o The tubes allow the sperm to swim down to the ovaries and fuse with the ovule diploid zygote  Start to build seeds and make new types of tissues endosperm [triploid] - [DIPLOIDstRIPLOID-DIPLOID] o 1 diploid is made by the parents o 2ndtriploidthe endosperm created by act of fertilization= “double fertilization” o 3 embryo  fusion of egg and sperm - Triploid endosperm= new tissue becomes food source for the seed created by… - Double-fertilization= female gametophyte o Receives a signal (you are about to be fertilized) and fuses two of its cells to become diploid o When sperm arrives one fertilizes the egg and the other fertilizes the other cell o EVERY POLLEN HAS TWO SPERM - Angiosperm make their own tissues (endosperm) o Endosperm- rice, peanuts, corn, etc. we’re eating the endosperm o Fruit ARE NOT its fruits so that’s not endosperms - Gymnosperms its mediated by the female gametophyte - Flower to Fruit o Fruit evolved soon after flowers as a way to entice animals  Comes from the left overs of the flowers o Example= APPLE BLOSSOM 1. Fertilized- sepals close over the carpel in the middle petals, anthers fall off. 2. Carpel contains the seeds from fertilization of ovaries 3. Sepals closes sequesters sugars and carbohydrates entice and spread the seed in the middle o Seed coat protected against stomach acid so when you poop it out it has its own fertilizer o Poisonous fruits= if eaten before its ripe so you won’t eat it when it is not ready to be eaten. o Dispersal: animals most important agents of seed dispersal  Know why they little wind spreading thing is reversal - Vegetation Reproduction: o Plants have ability to make copiers of themselves; reproduce asexually o Bamboo= asexually reproduces - General Themes: o Alternation of generations: plants reproduction; hallmark of plants reproduction  Earlier plants were usually haploid  Seed bearing plant most of the lives  diploid and only sex cells haploid  Plants use of water vs. air for dispersal and fertilization  Earliest groups of plants started off in the water 1. Green Algae- fertilizers and disperse via water 2. Bryophytes- water to fertilize and disperse via wind 3. Vascular Plants- a. Spore bearing= disperse spores via the air but rely on water to fertilizer b. Seed bearing= don’t use water at all use pollen to fertilizer via wind; disperse via air through seeds - Green Algae= (haploid) most ancestral; live in water o Come in a variety of forms  unicellular green algae, multicellular, complex multicellular o Looks like collection of individual protist ; nothing but land plants that live in the water tendency to switch from haploid to diploid o Male release sperm land on female egg and make diploid zygote when connected (only time in their live when they are diploid)  Then its released as a diploid zygote that goes through rounds of meiosis to make haploid cells  As it disperses it under goes meiosis it becomes haploid once again  The sperm (dispersed) has to go to the eggs (retained) o [SEXUAL REPRODUCTIO]  Reproduction “styles” vary - Bryophytes= Mosses o You still need water for fertilization and cannot grow very high-sperm swims through rain water; must wait for rain o Gametophyte (makes gametes) = green leafy part is haploid once fertilization occurs the diploid is retained on the female gametophyte  Diploid then grows into the sporophyte-undergo rounds of meiosis to make (brown stalk) o Sporophytes= DIPOID  Multicellular component that can continuously make haploid spores depends on gametophyte for all of its resources  Cannot do photosynthesis, cannot make its own sugars has to get all its nutrients from the female gametophyte o Fertilization results in a diploid sporophyte grows from the gametophyte (haploid) and the resulting spores are haploid get germinated and turn into another moss  Typically, you only see the gametophyte only see the sporophyte (diploid) after a lot of rain; sporangium is at the very top and its purpose is to make a lot of spore [haploid]  Sporophyte grows from the female gametophyte  Sporopollenin: every single spore is covered with this protein coat; extremely tough protein so that it can prevent from desiccation until there is rain  Must be dispersed through the air so it can protect the spore - Vascular Plants- Life Cycle st o Spore Producing- ferns (1 vascular plants)  Before ferns the gametophyte was the clear dominant portion but with ferns it’s half and half  Still need water to fertilize gametophytes are small and close to the ground because of rain water  Sort of like moss but do no vascular tissue  Have none of the characteristics to a typical fern  Male Gametophyte (makes sperms) are small when it rains it the sperm travels to the egg on the female gametophyte grows into sporophyte  Sporophyte (makes spores) becomes INDEPENDENT now it is the large vascular plant (dominant)  Sporangium are capsules underneath the ferns; complex- multicellular  Can make spores as long as its alive they are haploid  Gametophyte dies after sporophyte grows its own roots; purpose is to make it gametes after fertilizations it dies (lives for only a season or two)  *****Major groups of plants which is the gametophyte and sporophyte which is dominant and which is now***** o Seed-Bearing Producing  Gymnosperms= evolved around the same time as the dinosaurs and they covered the plant for over 150 million years  Angiosperms= took over the planet but there are still a few gymnosperms left 1. Gymnosperms PINE TREES (representative) Sperm refers to the seed= seed bearing plants  Sporophyte dominant what the tree is  Gametophyte highly reduced and grows from the sporophyte; relies on the sporophyte We are exact opposite of the mosses Gametophytes are in the cones have two cones - Male cones= open in the spring [yellow/orange] o Pollen within the cone is the MALE GAMETOPHYTE {POLLEN} no need for water o Pollen gets dispersed which then finds the FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE {OVARY} which are in the female cone o The egg and the sperm fuses to form a fertilized female gametophyte (sacrifices itself to make the seed) builds a new seed  Which are then dispersed through the air o Seed lands germinates brand new trees which are diploid o Gametophytes are never growing by themselves and it comes from the sporophyte. 1. Green Algae= not really a gametophyte or sporophyte basically only haploid; only diploid as a zygote 2. Bryophyte= gametophytes is dominant and the sporophyte grows from it 3. Vascular plants= a. Spore dispersing- gametophyte is less dominant; sporophyte is less dominant; sporophyte is independent b. **Seed bearing plants (MOST DERIVED) i. Gametophytes completely dependent on the sporophyte to survive


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