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Exam test 2 review

by: Celeste Terrell

Exam test 2 review COMM 2089

Celeste Terrell

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About this Document

Cues, theories,
Pamara Chang
Study Guide
communication, Internet, everyday, life
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Celeste Terrell on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2089 at University of Cincinnati taught by Pamara Chang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 2 Test Review Butler lies ● Availability management- ​activities and social processes related to initiating, concluding, or coordinating social interaction ● Butlers served to manage availability. Now often managed through technology -different types of availability management via different types of technologies ● Butler Messages- ​text messages sent to manage one’s availability or unavailability Unavailability Management -Constant connectivity is often assumed -Can be useful for coordination -People also seek to avoid communication -Deception is a strategy for availability management Butler Lies-​ deceptive butler messages; deceptive text messages sent to manage one’s (un) availability ● Used to avoid interaction or explain a communication failure ● Exploit ambiguities in online communication ● Depend on norms and technological features ● Serve to maintain relationships ● Example: ​Can’t talk, going to sleep, ‘ he said #butterlie it was only 9pm Message Types (****Chart goes here****) Summary of the research of butler lie findings ● Butler lies occur more frequently than other lies ● Receivers expect that they are being lied to ● Receiver s are worse at detecting butler lies ● Senders feel worse about deceptions Cues Filtered In/Out Cues Given -intentionally selected by individual to form an Impression Cues Given Off -Intentionally or naturally forthcoming from individual’s presence or behavior Theory ● Warranting- ​a way of demonstrating or justifying that a claim about oneself is true. ● Done through claim’s; relationship to “honest signals”, things that are hard to mimic or fake. ● A ​warrant​ is a cue one cues to assess the accuracy of a person’s Given information, profile, etc. What increases the warranting value of a piece of information ? 1) Information that is ​DIFFICULT​ for the user to manipulate has ​HIGH​ warranting value 2) Information that is ​EASY​ for the user to manipulate has ​LOW​ warranting value The value or degree of warrant depends on ● Anonymity afforded by the medium (email vs. SNS) ● Social structure in which relationship is embedded (e.g., social network) ● Symbolic efforts for credibility = information that can be verified (partial warranting) Cues Given = ​Weak w ​ arrants Cues Given Off = ​Strong ​warrants 2. Compare Several Theories Cues filtered Out (CFO) ● Social presence theory ● Reduced social context cues ● Media richness Non-Determinist Approaches ● Social​ ​identification / Deindividuation ● Social information processing ● Hyper-personal model Cues Filtered Out (CFO Perspective) ● The “functions served by nonverbal cues in FtF interaction go unmet” in CMC, as a result, CMC “must always be impersonal” ● Claims that CMC is never as good as FtF ● Technological deterministic view that technology (which has a lack of nonverbal cues) influences and serves bad and impersonal communication *​Social presence theory* ● Bandwidth: “ number of communication cue systems a technology can convey” ● media differ in ​the degree to which they allow people to perceive others as being psychologically present ● nonverbal cues (visual/audio) make communicators more ​Salient ​ to each other/enhance warmth and friendliness ● More cues (greater bandwidth), the greater the​ social presence Reduced Social Context Cues ● Social context cues are not verbalized- low bandwidth in text based systems to result in low social presence ● Focused on lack of nonverbal cues to express purpose, decorum, status, and effect ● Leads to focus on task oriented or factual tasks, and hostile, disinhibited. *Media Richness Theory* ● Optimal match between ​equivocality ​of a communication task and the ​richness​ of the medium Equivocality-​ ambiguous, vague or deceptive communication Richness- ​1. Multiplicity of cues 2. Availability of feedback 3. Message personalization 4. Language variety ● Choose rich media for more equivocal tasks Ex:hiring a new employee ● Choose lean media for less equivocal tasks Ex:setting a meeting time Social Information Processing (SIP) ● Rejected view that absence of nonverbal cues restricts the capability to exchange ​social info/communication capabilities ● Cues are ​adapted ​into the verbal channel, which must be typed and read ● Exchange of social information takes more time in CMC (time is a critical variable in SIP) ● Exchange of social information takes m ​ ore time ​ n CMC ● Anticipated future interaction (AFI) ● Important in FtF, ​stronger effects in CMC ● Findings of SIP hold only when people believe they will be interacting with the person in the future Social Identification Deindividuation Theory (SIDE) ● Conceptualizes that individuals have multiple layers of self whose relative salience is situation-dependent ● When personal identity is salient - self-categorization highlights one’s unique and individual identity ● When social identity is salient- self- categorization highlights the group membership with which one is identified and leads to adhesive behaviors to group norms ● Deindividualization effects: the tendency to perceive the self and others not as individuals with a range of idiosyncratic characteristics and ways of behaving, but as representative of social groups or wider social categories that are made salient during interaction Visually ​ nonymous environment ​of CMC heightens Social Identity ● People relate self to others based on group memberships ● Group identities or individual differences can be salient Deindividuation Effects -Certain conditions promote loss of self-awareness ● Crowd behavior, etc. IF: Group identity is salient ● Visual anonymity IF: Members are visually anonymous SIDE Theory predicts: Interpersonal attraction and social acceptance come from identification with group norms ● Stereotyped representations of out-group members ● Behavioral discrimination and greater group adherence Hyperpersonal Model 1. Over-attribution processes (receiver) 2. Selective self-presentation (channel) 3. Cognitive reallocation (channel) 4. Behavioral confirmation (feedback) Mixed-Mode Relationships ● Most current CMC theories focus on relationship initiation, but online relationships usually combine online and offline settings ● Getting to know someone before you meet them What would current theories predict MMRs? ● SIP-need more time online ● SIDE-identifying more with group ● Hyperpersonal-ability to become ‘more’ close online Impressions Formed and Impressions Managed The 11 concepts written on the whiteboard 1. Foggy mirror-person authentically believes that presentation is actual self 2. Actual self, ideal self, and ought self 3. Tangram- FtF 4. Tangram- CMC 5. Overattribution process 6. Selective self presentation 7. Cognitive re-allocation 8. Behavioral confirmation 9. Recursive arms race 10. Limitations of ellison study 11. NEO- five factor inventory The Three Selves R elationship Consequences Actual Self ● Who you really are -Easiest to keep up Ideal Self ● Who you aspire to be -Best for attracting new friend/ romantic partners Ought Self ● Who everyone expects you to be -Required to maintain existing relationships and standing Findings Recursive “arms race” ● Repeated sequence of behaviors ● Rules are settled, exploited, resettled Psychological Dynamics in Social Networks Social networking sites Web-based services that allow individuals to: 1. Construct a public or semi-public within a bounded system 2. Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection 3. View their list of connections and those made by others within the system


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