Intro Human Resource Management
Intro Human Resource Management 301
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joanne Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 301 at Rutgers University taught by Sargam Garg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Resources in 533 at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 Some information about the exam: o 40 questions o All multiple choice Example questions: 1. Your company is currently faced with a labor shortage. You need to correct the situation, but want to choose an option that is fast, yet can be “undone” when the shortage goes away (revocability). Of the following options, which one does NOT meet both of these conditions? A. Overtime B. New external hires C. Temporary workers D. Outsourcing Answer: B. New external Hires HRM Overview Three methods to assess whether HRM matters ● Conceptual Arguments First Tactic: A Conceptual Analysis Resourcebased view (RBV) focus on internal resources Firm resources: ? Valuable ? Rare ? Inimitable ? Nonsubstitutable ● Case Studies Examine companies that do well financially and see if they do a good job managing HRM. Examine companies that struggle financially and see if they do a poor job managing HRM. ● Quantitative Analysis Look at companies who have been recognized for their HRM quality, to see if their practices have seemed to create a sustainable competitive advantage. Example of companies: Zappos, Amazon Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 The “resourcebased view” of the firm o What are some kinds of “resources”? ● Tangible (physical) and intangible (nonphysical) Tangible resources: Land, buildings, machinery, equipment and capital Intangible resources: Brand reputation, trademarks, intellectual property Stay within company o What is a competitive advantage? ● When a company implements a value creating strategy that is not being implemented by current and potential competitors (Basically, what makes you different from other companies and it’s not imitable) o What factors contribute to making resources valuable and that, in turn, give companies a competitive advantage? ● Rare, inimitable, nonsubstitutable, valuable q Study of 968 firms regarding their HRM practices conducted by Huselid (1995), Know the results specific amounts/percentages. ● one standard deviation increase in high performance work practices was associated with a 7.05% decrease in turnover ● $18,000 increase in stock market value ● $27,044 increase in sales per employee q What is psychological contract? ● expectations of employee contributions and what the company will provide in return ■ Includes pay, benefits and training in exchange for commitment and performance ■ Governs how employees evaluate company decisions and how they act on the job Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 HR Challenges q The two general HR challenges that we discussed ● Organizational demands ● Environmental issues q Strategy as an organizational demand o The two types of strategies ● Cost Leadership Strategy: offering lowest costs for products / services Ex: Walmart ● Differentiation Strategy: Providing something unique for which customers are willing to pay Ex: The Container Store, Apple o Their implications for managing employees Cost leadership ● Jobs are narrow in focus and emphasize standardized and repetitive actions ● Behaviors are fairly well understood ● Individuals are hired with basic skills ● Employees trained to understand expectations ● Employees paid based on jobs they perform Differentiation ● Jobs geared toward creativity or customer service ● Employees hired with specific skills and new perspectives ● Jobs require cooperation, creativity and knowledge sharing ● Pay based on individual potential or team accomplishments Company characteristics as an organizational demand: Compare concerns between companies in different stages of development (young versus old companies) Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 Young companies: tend to focus more on growth and wealth / survival Old companies: tend to focus more on career growth, training, ● Focus on customer retention / future opportunities ● Have more resources and established policies ● Are more bureaucratic Organizational culture as an organizational demand: o Definition ● Assumptions, values and beliefs that affect how companies behave o Factors that shape culture ● Values / beliefs of a company’s founders ● Important decisions made in company’s history ● HR practices that signal value, behavior ● Management practices and actions ● Mergers and acquisitions ● Strong cultures provide clear, consistent signals ● Weak cultures are ambiguous and lack a clear message ● Informal or unwritten ● Observed in how employees talk to one another ● Seen in employees’ interaction with customers Possible responses to injustice ● Speaking up, silence, neglect, leaving, destructive behaviors What are the implications of conducting the business in an ethically and socially responsible way Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 ● Ethics and social responsibility ■ Involves how companies behave toward their stakeholders ■ Includes consistent monitoring of all facets of operations ■ Can help foster positive reputation and consumer support ■ Companies rated as best corporate citizens financially outperform their counterparts Job Analysis The components that comprise job descriptions ● Dimensions of the job ● task within each dimension ● Rate all of those tasks according to importance The components that comprise job specifications ● KSAO (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Other factors) What is job analysis ● The process of getting the TDR expected to be performed in the job as well as the COMPETENCIES (KSAO) for the employees to have to perform in the job. ● The process to getting job information. Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other characteristics o Definitions ● Knowledge: Factual & procedural information (“know what”) ● Skills: proficiency at performing a task (“know how”) ● Abilities: Enduring capability (“can do”) ● Others: personality, experiences o What characteristics are trainable and which ones are not (or, less trainable) ● Trainable: Knowledge and Skills ● Less trainable: Abilities and Other characteristics o Be able to apply this information to an example about who to hire §I can know what is wrong with my computer but not have the skills to fix it (knowledge or skill?) §I can be taught to read a map but still not have a good sense of direction (skill or ability?) Tools for job analysis o Types of tools Job Element Inventory Position Analysis Questionnaire Occupational Information Network (O*NET) replaced DOT Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) o Pros and cons of each tool 1) Job Element Inventory Pro’s: ● Inexpensive ● Easy to use ● LittleNo Mistake. Con’s: ● Does not include any special tools for identifying KSAOs 2) Position Analysis Questionnaire: Pro’s: ● dimensions are linked to a general aptitude test Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 ● Dimensions are broad (covers input, output, processes, and work context) Con’s: ● Requires a reading level of a college graduate to complete the test ● Standard format leads to an abstract characterization of jobs 3) O*Net & DOT Pro’s: ● Offer manager an online resource to help with job analysis process ● Online potential for enhancing the management the people across the whole economy Con’s: ● Much more research is needed ● Expensive ● Difficult to collect and update data. Why is job analysis information important for example: compensation, training, etc.? To find the perfect fit for the job? In training: ● design training to improve the Knowledge and Skills inherent in important tasks ● Form basis of our evaluation for training success In compensation: ● The KSAO’s become “compensable factors” used in Job Evaluation to assign a base salary to a given job. The rarer the KSAO, the more money the organization must pay for it. ● Fulfillment of important tasks becomes a key input into meritbased pay plans. In selection: ● KSAO becomes the thing that we look for in resumes, iv, references, ability test and etc In Legal Issues in Selection: Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 ● Important tasks become “essential job functions” under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Companies can refuse to hire disabled applications if they cannot perform these functions (vs. “marginal job functions”), with some exceptions. In Performance Management: ● Performance of the important tasks (& KSAOs) is what gets measured with our evaluation instruments. What is an organization chart? ● a graphic representation of the structure of an organization, showing the relationships of the positions or jobs within it. Job Design The four broad approaches to job design o Goals of each o How each is conducted Motivational: maximize intrinsic enjoyment jobs are designed to be intrinsically motivated: tasks are challenging / Fulfilling Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 Mechanistic, Biological, Perceptual Motor: maximize efficiency & safety Mechanistic Memomotion (fast speed, and change placement) , Micromotion (low speed, record employee doing the job) Biological structure, job or task, reduce fatigue or physical stress Perceptual Motor similar to biological, but more about cognition/mental. Within the motivational approach, the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) o The five core job characteristics (VISAF) ● Variety, Identity, Autonomy, Significance, Feedback o The three critical psychological states ● Meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work, knowledge of results o The goal of the motivational approach ● maximize intrinsic enjoyment o Tradeoffs of the motivational approach Negative outcomes: training time, likelihood of errors, overload & stress o The name of the survey used to compute a “satisfaction” score using the JCM ● Job diagnostic survey From the article “Why Silicon Valley is Rethinking the Cubicle Office,” what job design is MOST applicable to Intel’s switch from cubicles to an open office design ● Mechanistic approach memomotion analysis Planning q Planning process Definition: Making sure individuals with the right skills sets are where they need to be at the right time to meet current and future needs Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 ● Forecasts of labor demands ● Forecasts of labor supply ● Forecasts of labor surplus or shortage ● Goal setting and strategic planning ● Program implementation and evaluation Definition of labor demand and labor supply ● Labor demand: number and types of employees the company needs. ● Labor supply: current or potential employees to perform jobs. What is transition matrix ● Tracks movement of employees throughout an organization What is productivity ratio ● Number of employees needed to achieve output level q Specific options for how to correct a surplus o Which options are faster Downsizing Pay reduction Demotions Work sharing o Which options result in human suffering Hiring freeze Natural attrition Early retirement Retraining High human suffering: Downsizing, Pay reduction, Demotion (reduction in status). q Specific options for how to correct a shortage o Which options are faster Overtime Temporary workers Outsourcing o Which options are revocable (can be “undone” when the shortage is corrected) Overtime Temporary workers Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 Outsourcing Retrained transfers Turnover reduction (?) Moderately revocable Recruitment q Four factors that make organizations more or less attractive to candidates ● Vacancy characteristics Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 ● Personnel policies ● Recruitment sources ● Recruiter characteristics q With regard to vacancy characteristics, three potential decisionmaking strategies that candidates might use to decide which job to accept ● Compensatory Strategy ● Noncompensatory Strategy ● The “Implicit” favorite q The three policies that affect vacancy desirability ● Promoting from within ● Leadthemarket pay ● Image advertising q The outcome upon which recruiter characteristics has an impact ● Decision to accept second interview q What are advantages and disadvantages of using internal and external recruitment sources ● Advantage of using internal sources: cheaper, internal employees have more knowledge about organization, get up to speed more quickly to their new role ● Disadvantage of using internal sources: not practical in small firms, may not be a good fit for the position ● Advantage of using external sources: brings in fresh ideas ● Disadvantage of using external sources: risky to use as they will need more time to adapt to new role (decline in performance at first), need training q Realistic job previews o What are they are devices used in the early stages of personnel selection to provide potential applicants with information on both positive and negative aspects of the job o What can they help improve Perception of employee fairness Initial turnover Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 q What is succession management ● is the process of identifying those jobs considered to be at the core of the organization too critical to be left vacant or filled by any but the best qualified persons—and then creating a strategic plan to fill them with experienced and capable employees. ● On going process of preparing employees to assume other positions in the organization Things you need to know for Exam: What makes HR lead to competitive advantages? Rare resources and other three things that make it lead to competitive advantage. What are different ways we assess if HR matters? Quantitative analysis other What is appreciation strategy? Different job characteristics TDR (task, duties, responsibilities) Dictionary of occupational titles: what is it replaced by? O*NET micromotion, memomotion, process engineering Read: why silicon valley is rethinking cubicles and boeing Benchmarking Labor surplus/demands What does it mean? Different ways of shortage Outsourcing Article Read it goals of recruitment (the three main goals) Introduction to Human Resource Management Professor. Sargam Garg Section 05 disadvantage of external recruitment? *What is the thing recruiters have the greatest impact on? ● Second interview Three different compensation strategies Workforce Planning ● Forecasting tools ● Dealing with a labor shortage + surplus Goals of recruitment
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