PY 355 Chapters 4-6 Study Guide
PY 355 Chapters 4-6 Study Guide PY 355
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelynn Jones on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 355 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Walter Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.
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PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Approaches to Psychological Measurement 4.1 What factors must be considered when selecting the methods for an observational study (3 important decisions to make, and the characteristics associated with each) 1. Will the observation occur in a natural or contrived setting? 2. Will the participants know they are being observed? 3. How will the participants’ behavior be recorded? 4.2 Compare and contrast naturalistic observation and contrived observation - A naturalistic observation is an observation of ongoing behav ior as it occurs naturally with no intrusion or intervention by the researcher. A contrived observation is behavior that is observed in settings that are arranged specifically for observing and recording behavior. 4.3 Compare and contrast disguised observatio n and non-disguised observation. Identify potential problems associated with each m ethod. - In a disguised observation the participant does not know that they are being observed. In some cases this can be an issue about a participants’ rights of privacy. In a non- disguised observation the participants know that they are being observed. This can cause issues because if someone knows that they are being watched they may act in a different way which could cause the results to be not accurate. 4.4 Identify measures of behavior latency and duration. - Measures of latency: reaction time, task completion time, and interbehavior latency. Duration- how long a particular behavior lasts. a. Which measure was utilized in the social behavior experiment conduct ed by Conger and Killeen 1974? Measures of behavior latency 4.5 What name is given to the measure of how consistent observational ratings are between, or among, multiple observers? - Reliability. 4.6 How do psychophysiological and neuroscientific approaches to measurement differ from other approaches to behavioral observation? How are they alike? - Psychophysiological and neuroscientific approaches study biochemical, anatomical, physiological, genetic, and developmen tal processes involving the nervous system. Physiological processes are used to measure some of these observations that cannot always be seen. - Be able to think of an experimental question best suited for each of the 5 psychophysiological and neuroscientif ic methods listed in the PPTs and textbook. Or, reiterate an example from class. 1. Measures of neural electrical activity (EEG) - Abnormalities in REM sleep 2. Neuroimaging (fMRI)- Different areas activated when someone is picturing playing tennis and when someone is picturing their normal walk to work 3. Measures of autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate, respiration) - identifying anxiety or measure reaction to different types of questions 4. Blood and saliva assays (cortisol)- identify cortisol levels to see how anxious a person is or the presence of drugs/toxins 5. Precise measurement of overt reactions (EMG) - measure muscle contractions 4.7 Regarding interviews and questionnaires, what is meant by an item? What is meant by a construct? How might the two relate? PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide - An item is the questions and statements in self repo rt measures. A construct is just an idea in psychology or a concept. Each item can relate to separate constructs or they can all relate to the same or similar constructs. a. What on earth is a double -barreled item? - Asking two questions at once such as have you ever tried Pepsi or crack cocaine? Or Do you enjoy listening to music and exercising? b. When should researchers make assumptions about respondents? - Only when it is warra nted. 4.8 Distinguish among the three common forms of bias in self -report measures. 1. Social desirability response bias - the tendency to answer questions in a socially acceptable way 2. Acquiescence response style - the tendency to agree with statements, regardless of their content 3. Nay-saying response style- the tendency to disagree with statements, regardless of the content 4.9 What sets archival data apart from other forms of observational data? - Archival data is useful for studying: social and psychological phenomena of the past, social and behavioral changes over time, topics that involve articles, advertisements, or speeches, and anything that must be studied after it has occurred. Archival data is found by analyzing data from existing records. Observational data is data that is analyzed by the researchers at a given time. 4.10 What term is given to the conversion of textual information into numerical data? What steps might be involved in this proces s? - Content analysis. Steps: decide what units of text will be analyzed, define how the units of text will be coded, classify into categories or rate, and raters code the textual material for all participants. PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 Selecting Research Participants 5.1 Know the definitions for the following key terms/concepts: sample /sampling- the process by which a researcher selects participants for a study probability sample- a sample that is selected such that the likelihood that any particular individual in the population will be selected for the sample can be identified. nonprobability sampling- researchers do not know the probability that a particular case will be chosen for the sample representative sample- a sample from which we can draw accurate, unbiased estimates of the characteristics of the population sampling error- the extent to which characteristics of individuals selected for the sample differ from those of the population error of estimation- indicates the degree to which the data obtained from the sample are expected to deviate from the population sampling frame- a list of the population from which the sample is to be drawn stratified random sample- the population is divided into strata, then participants are randomly selected from each stratum stratum- a subset of the population that shares a particular characteristic such as gender, race, location convenience sampling- use whatever participants are readily available purposive sampling- researchers use their judgment to decide which participants to include in the sample, trying to choose respondents who are typical of the population quota sampling- convenience sample in which the researcher takes steps to ensure that certain kinds of participants are obtained in particular proportions economic sample- a sample that provides a reasonably accurate estima te of the population at reasonable effort and cost power- the ability of a research design to detect any effects of the variables being studied that exist in the data cluster sample- based on naturally occurring groups that are usually in close proxim ity simple random sample- every possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected from the population systematic sampling- involves taking every so many individuals for the sample 5.2 Distinguish between cluster sampling and stratified random sampling. - Cluster sampling is based on naturally occurring groups that are usually in close proximity. Stratified random sampling is when the population is divided into different strata and then participants are randomly selected. These participants may not always be close in proximity compared to a cluster sampling. 5.3 What are the distinctions between quota sampling and purposive sampling? - Quota sampling is a convenience sample in which the resear cher takes steps to ensure that certain kinds of participants are obtained in particular proportions. Purposive sampling is when researchers use their judgment to decide which participants to include in the sample, trying to choose respondents who are typi cal of the population. The main difference between the two is that purposive the researchers decide exactly which participants to include, in quota the researchers take steps to get certain kinds of participants but do not decide exactly who they are using and still has a little bit of randomability to it. PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide 5.4 How are stratum different than clusters? - Stratum are subset of the population that shares a particular characteristic. In a cluster they are usually close in proximity, however, stratum are not necessarily close in proximity but they share a certain characteristic. 5.5 What are the differences between systematic sampling and simple random s ampling? - Systematic sampling involves taking every so many individuals for a sample. Simple random sampling is every possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected from the population. In systematic sampling not everyone has the same chance of being selected from the population. 5.6 What 3 factors influence the extent of sampling error that is to be expected? - 3 factors that influence the extent of sampling error is sample size, population size, and the variance of the data. Sampling error will be small with a large sample size, a small population, and/or a small level of variance in the data. PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6 Descriptive Research 6.1 Define descriptive research- is designed to describe the characteristics or behaviors of a given population in a systematic and accurate fashion 6.2 Be able to define cross-sectional survey design- sample consists of a “cross section” of the population successive independent samples survey design - two or more samples of respondents answer the same questions at different points in time longitudinal survey design- a single sample of respondents is questioned more than once Also, be prepared to describe the distinction among these design strategies. 6.3 What are the conceptual differences between demographic research and epidemiological research? Are these methods considered nomothetic or ideographic? As a comparison, consider the goals of case studies and/or the distinction between applied and basic research. - Demographic research is concerned with describing patterns of basic life events and experiences. Epidemiological research studies the occurrence of disease in different groups of people. These methods are considered to be nomothetic. 6.4 Be familiar with quantitative and graphical approaches to summarizing data collected from descriptive research. Which quantitative methods would likely not be used to characterize descriptive research data? a. Distinguish among the following; simple frequency distribution- indicates the number of participants who obtained each score; scores arranged lowest to highest grouped frequency distributio n- shows the frequency of a subset of scores (class intervals of equal sizes); often shows relative frequen cy relative frequency distribution - proportion of the total number of scores that falls in each class interval cumulative frequency distribution - used to determine the number of observations that lie above or below a particular value in a data set b. Distinguish among the following; Histogram- are used when the variable on the X axis is on an interval or ratio scale of measurement frequency polygon- axes are labeled as they are for the histogram but lines are drawn to connect the frequencies of the class intervals bar graph- are used when the variable is on a nominal or ordinal scale of measurement scatterplot- displays values for typically two variables for a set of data c. What purpose is served by the addition of error bars to graphical summaries? Inversel y, what information is missing in the absence of error bars? - Error bars are included because they add another description that characterizes standard deviation/variance/standard error when the average or mean does not. These bars add a visual description of the variance which you cannot identify if they are not included at all. 6.5 What on earth is a… measure of central tendency - convey information about a distribution by providing information about the average or most typical score PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide normal distribution- rises to a rounded peak at its center and tapers off at both tails; most scores will fall toward the middle of the range of scores confidence interval- a range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it positive skew- more low scores than high scores negative skew- more high scores than low scores standard deviation (SD)- the square root of the variance, generally easier to interpret z-score- describes a particular participant’s score relative to the rest of the data 6.6 What percentage of a normal distribution fall s within 1 SD (i.e., above and below) of the mean ? What percentage fall outside + 3 SD? - 68% of the scores fall plus or minus 1 SD from the mean. 34% fall below and 34% fall above the mean. Only about 4% fall outside of + 3 SD.
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