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Quiz 1 / Test

by: Natalia Lombana

Quiz 1 / Test PHIL 3000 R14

Natalia Lombana

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Nicomachean Ethics Books 1, 2, 3 Philosophy
Philosophical Ethics
Gyula Klima
Study Guide
Philosophical, ethics, Nicomachean Ethics, Nicomachean, philosophy
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalia Lombana on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 3000 R14 at Fordham University taught by Gyula Klima in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Philosophical Ethics in phil at Fordham University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Test 1 Notes 1. What is human action as such? ● Human action is performed for some end ● An action we are liberated to do, have free will to make any decision ● Human action as such is nothing but human action determined by  rational human power which include will & intellect ● Actions determined by choice for the sake of a further end. (09/02) ● Exclusive to humanity, rational poers 9will, intellect, reason)  2. Is there one ultimate end for all? ● Yes, because although humans act to achieve different ends, they all  want to reach the same ultimate end, which is HAPPINESS. ● Happiness is the ultimate end to a human life achieved through human  action as such performed with excellence (09/02) 3. Why can’t money be the ultimate end? ● Money is a material used to purchase things, so it is a means to an end.  The only value money has in reality is as a currency or unit of exchange, which means  money cannot be an ultimate end because the entire purpose of money is to achieve  another end.  4. Why is Plato wrong (according to A.) about the ultimate good? Plato thought the ultimate good was the mind.  According to Aristotle, Plato is wrong about the ultimate good. He presents two arguments: a. Good is NOT univocal - no single form corresponding to it → based off the Platonics’ own principles and the theory of forms, there cannot be one form of goodness as such because every form is based off an infinite number of other forms. Additionally, the term ‘good’ is not univocal, there are multiple definitions and uses of good, and they can be applied in many contexts, etc., so there is not just one ultimate good. b. Good is a transcendental analogical term, so there’s not one term of  goodness (by P’s terms) that can be reached.  c. Even if there were a perfection of goodness, what use of speculation  would be for us to try to find the ultimate end/happiness in our life. ­ “AMICAS PLATO, SED MAGIIS AMICA VERITAS” (translation: Plato is a friend but truth is more of a friend) (I love Plato, but I love the truth more) → Aristotle’s conclusion at the end of the discussion on platonics. 5. What are Aristotle’s objections to Plato on the ultimate good? Aristotle has metaphysical objections and ethical objections. ● Metaphysical objections: there’s an infinity of forms ­ ad hominem  argument, (third man) says that there cannot be just one form of goodness corresponding  to the word good.  ● Ethical Objections: the term good doesn't have just one meaning.  Platonics claim that there is a single form.  ● Practical Objection: human happiness is an imminent goal in this life.  Even if there was an ultimate good, that would tell us nothing about how to practically  achieve human happiness.  6. What is Aristotle’s proof of the essential definition of human happiness? (Based on  his methodology) Premises:  1. A thing is in possession of its end, it performs its function with  excellence a. There’s induction from experiencing principles b. There’s deduction from principles to further experience 2. The function of a human being as such is the activity of the rational soul. 3. A human being is in possession of their end when they perform the  activity of the rational soul with excellence. 4. Happiness is the ultimate end of humans 5. Happiness is the activity of the rational soul performed with excellence  (ARETE) ­ VIRTUE 7. What is the relationship between virtue and human happiness?  ● Happiness and virtue are connected because of rational human power. Virtue is essential  for happiness, but happiness is also assisted by sufficient external goods. so 8.  Can you be a happy person without virtues? NO  9. Can you have all the virtues in the world and not be happy? Yes, good character will  make you a good person but you can still suffer and not be happy 10. How does Aristotle deduce the essential definition of Eudaimonia (Eudemonia)? Performance is performed with excellence they are healthy, productive, living their life in a  perfect state. Deduction of the essential definition of happiness: 1. A thing is in possession of its ultimate end (is in its entelcheia) when it  performs its function with excellence 2. The function of human beings is in the activity of the rational soul (self­ evidence) 3. Human beings are in possession of their ultimate end when they perform  the activity of the rational soul with excellence 4. The ultimate end of human beings is happiness 5. Human beings are in possession of happiness when they perform the  activity of the rational soul with excellence. 6. Happiness is the activity of the rational soul performed with excellence 11. What is, then, the relationship between virtue and happiness? BASED OFF Q10. a. Need virtues to achieve excellence...need excellence to achieve  happiness  b. Can you be happy without virtue? No, because you need virtue to keep  the positive things that life and chance throw at you. Virtue is the acquired ability that  perfects powers. Powers determine what types of actions can be performed, and these  actions can be performed with arete (virtue / excellence). ARETE is an acquired or innate ability enhancing a person’s powers and ability t perform an action.  c. Types of powers:  i. Irrational → vegetative, sensory ii. Rations → will (ability to choose, moral virtues), intellect (ability to think, intellectual virtues) 12. What kinds of virtues are there? a. Irrational → corresponding to vegetatie and sensory powers, actions of humans are affected by this but are not human action as such b. Rational → involving will and intellect  i. Will → ability to choose, affected by moral  virtue  1. Learn by habit and constant practice 2. Acquired character trait (moral virtue)  that allows you to make the right choices.  ii. Intellect → ability to think, affected by intellectual virtue  1. Learn by instruction  13. What is the paradox of acquiring moral virtue? a. In order to perform moral actions, you have to have virtues & good  moral character. b. We are all born able to be morally virtuous, but only by behaving  properly can we train ourselves to be virtuous.  c. There is a golden mean / golden middle, aurea madietas, for making the right choices. A moral virtue is a trait of the character that allows you to make the right  choice between excess and deficiency (under doing it).  14. What is moral virtue and how is it related to morally good action? a. Moral Virtue­ acquired habit of will and character enabling you to make  the right choices b. FORMULA of right choice ­ mean/middle between excess and defect 15. Why is good to have a virtue? a. Virtues assist the preparation of all powers, providing better performance of our actions 16. What kinds of virtues does Aristotle distinguish? On what metaphysical grounds? a. Rational Virtues­ moral virtue (will­choosing), Intellectual virtue  (Intellect­thinking) b. Moral virtues are acquired depositions of will 17. What are moral virtues? a. Moral virtue ­ acquired habit of will and character enabling you to make  the right choices. Enabling you to choose well. How do we choose well? Choose the  middle between excess and defect. 18. Does Aristotle encourage mediocrity? ­ NO, because you want to perform in excellence. Choose excellence  wisely.  19. What is the relationship between virtue and virtuous action? a. In order to make the right choice, you have to have the inclination to  make the right judgement in the first place. Moral virtues are assisting the moral actions  to build moral choices.. Gaining POSITIVE FEEDBACK. Virtues need to be fed by  virtuous actions. 20. What are the conditions of moral responsibility for one's action? a. You are responsible for your actions b. 2 types of limiting conditions - lacking knowledge, lacking compulsion ← Alleviating conditions of your responsibility...making responsibility lighter c. The more control you have, the more responsible you are. d. Responsibility of your current action is directly proportional to rational  control plus your control over past actions 21. What is the relationship between action, responsibility, and character? ­ you are responsible for your actions and your actions stem from your moral character - What makes up human character? → combination of virtues and vices of human action ­Responsibility for virtues & vices: virtuous actions & habitual honesty­responsibility/ ­ One is to blame if and only if the action and / or disposition is voluntary. According to  aristotle, a voluntary action or trait has two distinctive features. 1) Control condition ­ the action  or train must have its origin in the agent and it must be up to the agent whether to perform that  action or possess the trait (it cannot be compelled externally), 2) A proposes that the agent must  be aware of what it is he / he is doing or bringing about.  ***Metaphysically, you are always free to choose.**** 


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