BIO 110 EXAM 2 Study Guide Cont'd
BIO 110 EXAM 2 Study Guide Cont'd BIOL 110
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylen Harrison on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Patricia L. Mire-Watson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Exam 2 cont’d Kaylen Harrison CH 11 38. List the criteria for genetic material. • Genetic material must be able to: o Contain the information that’s needed to make you what you are and construct the organism o Account for the differences between individuals of that type o Has to be passed from parent to offspring and from cell to cell during cell division o In order for a species to continue, the DNA has to be passed on to future generations in order for cells to reproduce o In order to do this, it has to be accurately copied o If wasn’t accurately copied there would be MUTATION • Mutation is bad, but can also be good b/c we are all mutants and if there had never been mutations going all the way back from the very first DNA that got copied in the very first primitive cells on our planet, if there had never been any mutations, NONE of us would be here • Life would have stayed static, there would be no evolution, no changes in life overtime o So copying of the DNA is mostly accurate 39. Describe the structure of DNA. Include nucleotides, phosphodiester bonds, backbone, base pairing, hydrogen bonding, complementary and antiparallel in your description. • Levels of DNA structure --Fig. 11. 3 o DNA is described as being a Double Helix • Double=2 • Helix=spiral o DNA molecule is made up of 2 strands and wrapped around in a spiral together -- that's they're named double helix o Each strand of DNA or RNA is formed by linking the monomers together • What are the monomers of nucleic acids??? § Nucleotides o Nucleotides are the monomers that get linked together to form a polymer and the polymer is known as the nucleic acid o Nucleotides are the building blocks that make up either DNA or RNA strands o In living things, in cells, such as ourselves, DNA doesn’t just hang out in the nucleus by itself o Its wrapped around proteins and divided up into individual molecules o So if you took out one of your cells and looked at it, you wouldn't just have one single long DNA molecule in there o Would have individual DNA molecules o Each one of those DNA molecules can grasp around a protein o The molecules wrapped around the proteins are called CHROMOSOMES o There are 46 chromosomes in a human cell • This means we have 46 molecules of DNA • Each of those wrapped around proteins o All of the complete genetic material inside a cell or living thing is known as genomes. o The genome provides the information that's needed to establish the characteristics of that organism • Nucleotides o Made up of 3 things • Phosphate group • Sugar--that has 5 parts =Pentose • Base -that has nitrogen in it =Nitrogenous Base • DNA Nucleotide --Fig. 11.4 o There's a phosphate group • What's in a phosphate group??? § Phosphorous and oxygens around it § Has a charge associated with it ==negative o This group is attached to a sugar ==Pentose sugar • Called pentose b/c have 5 carbons • Sugar called ==Deoxyribose o Attached to sugar is a nitrogenous base • Come in 4 flavors in DNA § Adenine (A) § Guanine (G) § Cytosine ( C) § Thymine (T) • Adenine and Guanine are DOUBLE RINGS (Purines) • Thymine and Cytosine are SINGLE RINGS (Pyrimidines) • RNA Nucleotide o 3 components • Phosphate group • Pentose Sugar § Ribose • Ribose vs. Deoxyribose A. Ribose has the extra oxygen B. De=means lacking --so lacking an oxygen • Has its oxygen in a hydroxyl group • Nitrogenous base § Adenine and Guanine are DOUBLE RINGS (Purines) § Uracil and Cytosine are SINGLE BONDS (Pyrimidines) • Numbering System o Number our carbons in the sugar o Start to the right of the oxygen facing up 1-5 o The prime (') next to the numbers are used to distinguish between carbons in one sugar and the carbons in the rings of the base o The rings of the base and the nitrogens are numbered in a similar way o Which carbon is the phosphate group attached to ???? • The 5' o Which carbon is the base attached to ??? • The 1' • Strands --Fig. 11.6 o If link some nucleotides together get a strand that is a polynucleotide strand o We see that the individual nucleotides are linked together between the 3' carbon of one sugar and the phosphate of another nucleotide o This bond between the 3' carbon of the sugar of the nucleotide above it and the phosphate below it is called a phosphodiester bond (phosphodiester linkage) o This is a covalent bond so strong o To make a polynucleotide, phosphodiester bonds have to be formed o When look at a strand, there's this repeated sequence over and over again, where you see a sugar, a phosphate, a sugar, a phosphate and so on • This makes up the BACKBONE of the strand o The bases protrude out, away from the backbone o The strand has DIRRECTIONALITY • The top carbon is the 5'--call this end of the strand the 5' end • The carbon closest tot eh other end is the 3' --called this the 3' end of the strand • When talking about a DNA sequence or RNA sequence, what we use to indicate the sequence is by what the bases are and abbreviate the bases with just a letter • Going from 5' to 3'. Strand would be read as TACG. 40. List the 5 scientists involved in figuring out the structure of DNA and their contributions. 1. Watson 2. Crick 3. Maurice Wilkins 4. Rosalind Franklin 5. Chargoff • DNA Structure o Has not always been known o Occurred in 1950's, involving a collaboration of many that eventually came up with the structure o The names Watson and Crick is heard more often • Their contribution was building the ball-and-stick model of the DNA structure § To make this, they used all the information from other people o Maurice Wilkins • Helped understand bonding relationships o Rosalind Franklin • An x-ray diffraction specialist • Provided crucial information that told them it was a double helix o Chargroff--Analyzed base composition of DNA • Figured out the A, G, T, C o Rosalind • X-ray diffraction is extremely hard • Have to get a material in a pure state and has to be in a crystal structure • Wilkins helped make this possible • She took this crystal and pure DNA and did X-ray diffraction which runs beams through it and based on the structure you get a print like a x-ray film of what the structure look like • This means that the DNA was a double helix o Watson, Crick, and Rosalind were awarded the Nobel Prize but Rosalind died by that time from cancer due to all the x-ray exposures. At that time, they didn’t realize x- ray's causes cancer • DNA--Fig. 11.8 o Double helix o 2 strands of polynucleotides that are wrapped around each other in a helical arrangement o The back bone (indicated by the red ribbon) is the sugar phosphates o Bases stick out of the inside of the backbone o Bases are bonded to each other by hydrogen bonds • Individually these are weak but stronger cumulative o The way the bases pair/bond together is specific • A-T • G-C § Known as Chargoff's rule b/c he figured this out o Takes 10 bases to make a turn of the helix o The 2 strands are called antiparallel meaning they are opposite in direction o On one strand, the sugars are pointing up and on another, the sugars are pointing down • One strand runs 5' to 3' • other strand runs 3' to 5' 41. Explain the basics of DNA replication. Why is it called "semiconservative"? • Semiconservative Replication --refers to the fact that each new molecule is partly conservative--part of it is old and part if it is new o In order for DNA to be copied, the type of copying/replication that it undergoes is called SEMICONSERVATIVE o Means that if you look at new DNA molecule, that has just been made, one of the strands are brand new and it's called the DAUGHTER STRAND o The other strand is an old strand, an original strand o When a single DNA molecule replicates, you get two DNA molecules, but if look at them, one strand of each molecule will contain an old strand (PARENT MOLECULE) and a new strand (DAUGHTER STRAND) • Fig. 11.12 o Original DNA molecule ==RED o It’s in the process of being replicated o What's happening to the original DNA molecule??? • Its separating b/c the daughter strands (blue) are attaching to each parent strand o The parent strand is serving as a template to make the daughter strand • Serve as a template, because the bases can only pair in a certain way o On the template strand, if there's a T, the daughter strand will have an A • If a C, then daughter strand will have a G o The same thing happens to the other parent strand and its being copied using the template of the parent strand as well o You started out with a piece of DNA that has this sequence and by the time this finishes, will end up with 2 molecules of DNA and they each now have the same sequence as the original DNA does and they are each made of one daughter strand and one parent strand
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