Unit 2 Study Guide Ch. 10 & 12
Unit 2 Study Guide Ch. 10 & 12 1005
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Banks on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1005 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Mr. Skyler Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology 2 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Study Guide Unit 2 Ch. 10 & 12 Chapter 10 – Questions 1 What is Developmental psychology : 2 What are 5 challenges that arise when examining human development? 3 Explain each of the challenges from the previous answer 4 Define Cohort effect: 5 What is the difference for gitudinal designs? 6 What are some of the advantages and disadvantages for longitudinal designs? 7 Define Geneenvironment interaction: 8 What is Gene expression? 9 What does the term renatal refer to? 10 What are teratogens: 11 What does alcohol consumption cause in newborns? 12 What are genetic disorder and how do they form? 13 What does being born premature mean? 14 What are motor behaviors ? 15 Explain the ucking and rooting reflexe? 16 Give a few examples of some major milestones in a childhood. 17 True or False, almost all children accomplish these milestones in the same order and the same timing. 18 Define adolescence: 19 What are the differences between primary and secondary sex characteristics? Give examples of each. 20 What are menarche and spermarche? 21 What are two things that influence the timing of puberty? 22 What happens in physical development for adults as they grow older? 23 What is Cognitive Psychology: 24 Define Cognitive Development : 25 What are the 3 heories of Cognitive Development ? 26 What was Piaget’s Theory? 27 What is assimilationvs. ccommodation ? 28 What are Piaget’s 4 Stages and what do they focus on? 29 What is Vygotsky’s Theory? 30 What are the ognitive Landmarks of Early Development ? 31 Define Temperament : 32 What is attachment : 33 What are the 4 categories of behavior? 34 What are the 4 parenting styles? 35 What is the difference between xand gender ? 36 Gender role vs. nder identity: 37 What are moral dilemmas ? 38 What does Piaget say about more development? 39 What are the 3 major stages of Kohlberg’s Moral Development? 40 What is a midlife crisis? Chapter 12 – Questions 1. What is stres? 2. What is a traumatic event ? 3. What are the 3 approaches to stress? Explain them. 4. What is the difference between primary appraisal and econdary appraisal ? 5. Define problemfocused coping and emotion focused coping ? 6. Define hassle: 7. What is general adaptation syndrome ? 8. Name the 3 stages from the previous question. 9. True or False, women are more likely to tend and befriend than males. 10. Name some PTSD symptoms. 11. What is the mmune system : 12. What is psychoneuroimmunology ? 13. Why is social support important? 14. What are the 5 types of control? 15. Explain what crisis debriefing is. 16. What are the 3 C’s? 17. What is an ptimist ? 18. What is the theory on having spiritual or religious involvement and being more healthy? 19. What is rumination ? 20. What are 4 behaviors to promote health? Chapter 10 – Answers 1 The study of how humans and behavior changes over the life span. 2 Post Hoc Fallacy, Bidirectional Influences, CrossSectional Designs, Influence of Early Experiences, and The Nature vs. Nurture Debate. 3 Post Hoc Fallacy: Logical error where you assume that A causes B just because B came after A. Bidirectional Influences: As children and teens grow older, the play more of a role in selecting their environments. CrossSectional Designs: examine differences between groups. In developmental research: examine people of different ages at a single time. Influence of Early Experiences: early life experiences have the power to impact development The Nature vs. Nurture Debate: The debate on whether our developed more by our nature or nurture during our adolescence. They both play a large role in our development. 1 Sets of people who lived during one period may differ from sets of people who lived during a different period. 2 They track the development of the same group of participants over time. 3 Advantages: Account for cohort effects Helps avoid posthoc fallacies Disadvantages: Costly Timeconsuming Attrition: participants dropping out Not experimental: can’t infer cause and effect relationships 1 The impact of genes on behavior depends on the environment where behavior develops. 2 The activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout development. 3 It refers to before birth, during or related to pregnancy. 4 Environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development. 5 It can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. 6 They are errors in cells continue to get copied through cell division and can cause many irregularities. 7 It means being born prior to 36 weeks. 8 They are bodily motions that occur as result of selfinitiated force that moves the bones and muscles. Sucking reflex: if we put something in a newborns babies mouth, it will clamp down and 9 suck as if it is breast feeding. Rooting reflex is the act of newborns automatically turning their faces towards a physical touch on their faces or lips. 1 Sitting up, crawling, standing unsupported, & walking. 2 False, almost all children accomplish these milestones in the same order, but timing of the milestones vary immensely. 3 It is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood commonly associated with the teenage years. Primary sex characteristics are physical features such as the reproductive organs that 4 distinguish the sexes. Secondary sex characteristics are the nonreproductive changes that distinguish the sexes. 1 Menarche is the start of menstruation. Spermarche is boys’ first or ability to ejaculate. 1 Genetics and environmental differences. 2 In middlelate adulthood there is: Decline in muscle tone Increase in body fat Decline of vision, hearing, and smell Decline of fertility in women’s 30’s and 40’s Menopause: the termination of menstruation 3 The study of mental processes. 4 How children acquire the ability to learn, think, reason, communicate, and remember. 5 Stagelike vs. continuous changes in understanding Domaingeneral vs. domainspeific accounts Principal source of learning 6 That children learn differently than adults and that they go through stages of learning and development. 7 Assimilation is the process of absorbing new experiences into current knowledge. Accommodation is the process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience. 8 Sensorimotor Stage: focus on the here and now, what is visible Preoperational Stage: ability to construct mental representations of experience Concrete operations: can perform mental operations, but only for physical events Formal operations: ability to understand hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now 9 Emphasized social and cultural influences on cognitive development. 10 Naïve physics/ physical reasoning Categorization and classification Concept of self and others/ theory of mind Counting and math 11 Basic emotional style that appears early in development. 12 The strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest too. 13 Secure attachment Insecureavoidant attachment Insecureanxious attachment Disorganized attachment 14 Permissive: lenient, little discipline, affectionate Authoritarian: very strict, punishing, little affection Authoritative: supportive but sets firm limits Uninvolved (disengaged): neglectful and ignoring 15 Sex is the biological status, anatomy Gender is the psychological characteristics, thoughts, behavior, emotions, what makes us 16 Role is the set of behaviors that are traditionally or stereotyped as male or female Identity is peoples’ sense of being male or female, what they identify as 17 Situations in which there is no clear right or wrong answer. 18 That moral development is limited by our cognitive development. 19 Preconventional: focus on punishment and reward Conventional: focus on societal values Post Conventional: focus on internal moral principles or what is right 20 It is a phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about the aging process and an attempt to regain youth. Chapter 12 – Answers 1. The tension, discomfort or physical symptoms that arise when a stressor strains our ability to cope effectively. 2. A stressor so severe that it can produce long term psychological or health consequences. 3 . Stressors as a stimuli: what types of events cause stress Stress as a response: assess psychological and physical reactions to stress Stress as a transaction approach: examines how people interpret and cope with stress 4. Primary is the initial decision whether an event is harmful or not Secondary is our perceptions regarding our ability to cope with an event 5. Problem focused is taking the problem head on Emotion focused is adopting a positive outlook on stressful situations and attempting to reduce painful situations 6. Minor annoyances that strain our ability to cope 7. The pattern of response to stress in 3 stages. 8. Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion 9. True, women seek social support to get through hard times more than males. 10. Intrusive symptoms, avoidance, change in thinking or mood, hyperarousal. 11. Our body’s defense against invading bacteria, viruses, and other potentially illness producing organisms and substances. 12. The study of the relationship between the immune system and central nervous system (brain and spinal chord) 13. It can provide emotional comfort, financial assistance, help with making decisions and solving problems. 14. Behavioral control: ability to do something to reduce the impact of a stressful situation. Cognitive control: ability to think differently about negative emotions. Decisional control: ability to choose among alternative courses of action. Informational control: ability to acquire information about a stressful event Emotional control: ability to suppress and express emotions 15. A single 34 hour session conducted soon after a trauma designed to ward off PTSD. 16. Challenge, committed, and control. 17. An individual with a positive outlook of the world, don’t dwell on the negative. 18. The thought is that people who are spiritually or religiously involved have lower mortality, better immune response, and better surgical outcomes. Possibly because they are more socially supported, are positive, and have more selfcontrol. 19. The act of focusing on the negative, how bad we feel, and constantly analyzing what caused problems. 20. Quit smoking, Stop drinking, achieve a healthy weight, and exercise.
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