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Midterm Study Guide

by: Jacob Warren

Midterm Study Guide COM 230

Jacob Warren

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I know many people have their own study guide, but this study guide covers everything our teacher said would be on the exam. If you study this, you should receive a good score.
Small Group Communication
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Warren on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 230 at Arizona State University taught by Truscelli in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Small Group Communication in Business Communication at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
COM 230 Midterm Study Guide Channels of Communication  Source: Originator of the ideas and feelings expressed  Message: The information being communicated  Receiver: Someone who interpret the message  Channel: The means by which the message is expressed to the receiver Small Group Specifics  Group contains 3­12 people  Have a common purpose  Feel a sense of belonging; have a sense of identity with the group  Each member influence others Team vs. Group 1. Teams develop clear, well­defined goals o Groups all have goals, but they may be less measurable or clear      2. Teams develop clearly defined roles, duties and responsibilities for members o Groups may perform roles and duties, but on a team greater care must be  devoted to explicitly ensuring that the individual roles and duties are clear and  linked to a common goal or outcome      3. Teams have clearly defined rules for and expectations about operation o Rule: a prescription for acceptable behavior  Groups often have expectations, but in a team they are often clearly  stated and written down      4. Teams have coordinated and collaborative methods for accomplishing the work o Groups may accomplish their goal with less coordination and collaboration Groupthink  When groups agree primarily in order to avoid conflict o Group members may pressure other to conform to the majority opinion Maslow’s Hierarchy  All humans have basic needs that can be arranged in a hierarchy   People do not concern themselves with higher­level needs until lower­level needs are  satisfied o Physiological: air, food, water o Safety: security and protection o Belongingness: being a part of a group o Esteem: respect, feeling accepted o Self­actualization: meaning in life, personal growth  People need to satisfy interpersonal needs  The higher we move up the hierarchy the more important communication becomes in  need satisfaction Schutz’s Theory  Three basic human needs influence individuals as they form and interact in groups o Inclusion: recognized as a unique individual and understood o Control: to gain status and power; needing and giving control o Affection: giving and receiving emotional warmth and love  Formation patterns repeat themselves over time as the group develops Why people select groups  Interpersonal Attraction o Complementary: people may be attracted to others who exhibit qualities that they do not have but they admire o Proximity: tend to be attracted to people who are physically close to us, who we  communicate with and see often o Physical Attractiveness: influences people in initial stages, but tends to diminish  over time  Group Attraction o Individuals may be attracted to the group itself o Group activities: People who are interested in the same activities tend to form  groups o Group goals: People may be attracted to the group’s goal o The need for affiliation: Basic to human nature and can make group membership  attractive Hidden Agenda  Individual needs and goals that are hidden or unclarified to the rest group while working  towards group goal Process of group socialization  Forming; anxiety and uncertainty about belonging to the group and resulting  cautiousness in behavior  Storming: competition, individuality, and conflict emerge as group members try to satisfy  their individual needs  Norming: Characterized by attempts to resolve earlier conflicts often by negotiating clear guidelines for the group  Performing: cooperation and productive work  As group membership changes, groups contain members experiencing different  membership phases; when new members join a group, the group reforms and will likely  repeat the “forming” and “storming’ phases development Bypass  When two people assign different meanings to the same word o Feedback: any response by listeners that lets speakers know whether they have  been understood correctly o People can influence, but can’t control, the meaning others derive from  messages Types of Listeners  Listening style: preferred way of making sense out of the spoken messages you hear o People­Oriented Listeners: most comfortable listening to other people’s feeling  and emotions o Action­Oriented Listeners: prefer information that is well organized, brief, and  error free o Content­Oriented Listeners: prefer information­rich content; most comfortable  listening to complete, detailed information o Time­Oriented Listeners: prefer brief messages  Beneficial to have variety of listening styles in a group Nonverbal Communication  Nonverbal Communication in Groups o Communication that does not rely on written or spoken words. This includes any  body language o More time is spent communicating nonverbally than verbally o Only 7% of emotional meaning of a message is communicated through its verbal  content o When verbal and nonverbal messages are contradicting, people are more likely  to believe verbal message  Nonverbal Behavior o Emblems: nonverbal cues that have specific verbal counterparts and are shared  by all group members o Illustrators: nonverbal behaviors that add meaning to accompanying verbal  messages o Affect display: nonverbal cues that communicate emotions o Regulators: nonverbal behavior that help a group control the flow of  communication o Adapters: nonverbal acts that satisfy personal needs and help people to adapt to  their immediate environment  Roles one can have in groups  Group task roles (p. 106) o Initiator­contributor o Information seeker o Opinion seeker o Information giver o Opinion giver o Elaborator o Coordinator o Orienter (summarizer) o Evaluator­critic o Energizer o Procedural Technician o Recorder  Individual roles (p. 107) o Aggressor o Blocker o Recognition seeker o Self­confessor o Joker o Dominator o Help Seeker o Special­interest pleader  Stereotyping individuals can lock them into roles  Roles are dynamic and changing Structuration  Groups do things based on the way those things were done in other groups o Use norms they had learned from previous groups Types of Power (page 116)  Power bases: sum of the resources that individuals use to control or influence others o Legitimate Power: power through election, appointment, etc. o Reference Power: power through interpersonal attraction o Expert Power: power through knowledge and resources o Reward Power: power based on ability to reward behaviors o Coercive Power: negative side of reward power; perception that you can be  punished for acting or not acting in a certain way Social Exchange Theory  Relationships can be described in terms of their rewards and costs, profits, and losses  (profit=rewards­cost)  o As long as rewards exceed costs, a relationship maintains attractive Systems Theory  An open system (a group) is composed of interdependent variables, that receives input,  processes the input, and yields an output.  o Receives group members, resources, or knowledge o Processes those member, resources, or knowledge o Yields the outcomes of the group  Group made of interdependent variables (ch 2)  One thing has an effect on another  Synergy, entropy, equifinality  Functional Theory  The effect or consequence of a given behavior within a group system; communication  has a function on the group  The theory proposes that effective group problem solving and decision making are likely  to occur when: o 1. Group members attempt to satisfy task requirements o 2. Group members use communication to overcome constraints such as stress  from deadlines, interpersonal conflict o 3. Group members take the time to review the process through which they  arrived at choices and if necessary, reconsider their choice Why we use small group theory  Figure 2.1  Small group communication as a constellation of variables, each related to every other;  communication establishes and maintains the relationships among these essential  variables  Useful in everyday life  You observe phenomenon, witness repeated events, know there must be something  going on (ch 2) 5 step problem solving agenda 1. Identify and define the problem 2. Analyze the Problem 3. Generate several possible solutions 4. Select the best solution or combination of solutions 5. Test and implement the solution Fallacies  False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts of arrive at a conclusion without  adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate o Causal: assuming one thing in caused another without evidence o Either/or: only two approaches to a solution o Bandwagon: convincing someone that something is a good idea because  “everybody” thinks so o Hasty Generalization: reaching a conclusion based on too little evidence that  doesn’t exist o Attacking the Person: attacking irrelevant personal characteristics o Red herring: undermining the topic by using irrelevant arguments and  distractions Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning  Reasoning: the process of drawing a conclusion from evidence o Inductive: arriving at general conclusion through the use of specific examples,  facts, statistics, and opinions o Deductive: drawing a specific conclusion from a general statement or principle Phases of Creativity  Creativity: the generation, application, combination, and extension of new ideas; creating something that was not in existence prior 1. Ideas of generation: brainstorm new ideas and possibilities 2. Development: Ideas are extended and information is gathered 3. Finalization and closure: group agrees on best ideas 4. Evaluation: assessing the value and worth of the idea selected


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