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Exam II Study Guide and Practice

by: Megan Spiegel

Exam II Study Guide and Practice Chem 177

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Chemsitry > Chem 177 > Exam II Study Guide and Practice
Megan Spiegel
GPA 3.85

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About this Document

Concepts form chapters 3B, 4 and 5A
General Chemistry I
Dr. Anderson
Study Guide
General Chemistry, Enthalpy, stoichiometry, hess'slaw, Chem177, limiting reactions
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 177 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Anderson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemsitry at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chemistry 177 Exam II Study Guide Chapters 3B - 4 - 5A Chapter Summaries Chapter 3B - Stoichiometry:​ the study of quantities consumed and produced by chemical reactions 3.6 Quantitative Informations from Balanced Equations - Used to predict the amounts of substances consumed or produced in chemical reactions - Know how to balance equations - Practice!! ___ FeBr​ +_3​ H​ SO​ →2​__F4​ (SO​ )​ + 2​_HBr 4​ 3​ ​(Answers: 2, 3, 1, 6) ___C​ H4​O6​+3​__H​ O → 2​_C​ H​ O​ 2​ 4​ 2 (Answers: 1, 1, 2) 3.7 Limiting Reactants - Used to find which compound is used up first in a chemical reaction - Practice!! 1.) ​ The number of moles of H2O produced from 1.57 mole of O​ is…” 2​ 2.)​ “Calculate the mass of CO​ produced when 1.00 gram butane (C​ H​ ) is burned…” 2​ 4​ 10​ ** All three steps above can be combined into one big problem ** 3.)​ Find the Limiting Reactant “We have mixture of 10 mol H2 and 7 mol O2” 2H​ (2​​ g)​ + O​ 2​g)​ → 2H​ O​ ​(2​ 2​ “Number of moles of O2 needed to react with all the H2 is…” - Practice on your own!! Theoretical Yield and. Percent Yield - Used to enhance the overall accuracy and precision of calculations - Equation: Percent Yield = (Actual Yield) / (Theoretical Yield) • 100 - Practice!! - Solutions!! 1. 2. 3. Chapter 4 - Aqueous solution:​ where water is the dissolving medium [noted as: (aq)] ​ ​ ​ - Solubility​: the amount of substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature ▲Solubility Rules ▲Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions - Pb(NO​ )​ (aq) + 2 KI(aq) → PbI​ (s) + 2KNO​ (aq) ← ​does not indicate ionic character 3​ 2​ 2​ 3​ - Molecular equations: ​ shows the complete chemical formulas of reactants and products; because it shows the formulas without indicating ionic character ​ 2(x • Cr) = 12+ → Cr = +6 O​2​ 2- and Cr = 6+ - Practice!! - The Activity Series:​ a list of metals arrange in order of decreasing oxidation 4.5 Molarity - Expresses the concentration of a solution - Equation: M = moles/ Liters - Practice!! - Dilution Practice!! (from book page 149) We want to prepare 250.0 mL of 0.100 M CuSO4 solution by diluting a 1.00 M CuSO4 stock solution. Moles solute before dilution = moles solute after dilution M1 • V1 = M2 • V2 Because we know both the VOLUME (250.0mL) and the CONCENTRATION (1.00mol/L) of the dilute solution, we can calculate the number of moles it contains: Moles of CuSO4 in the dilute solution = (0.2500 L) • (0.100mol CuSO4 / 1 L) = 0.0250 mol CuSO4 The volume of stock solution needed to provide 0.0250 mol CuSO4 is therefore: Liters of concentrated solution = (0.0250mol CuSO4) • (1 L / 1.00mol CuSO4) = 0.0250L Chapter 5 5.1 Energy - Kinetic energy equation: 2​ E​ k​½ mv​ ← where m is mass and v is velocity - Practice!! - Most important form of potential energy is electrostatic potential energy - Equation: E​ el​kQ​ • Q1​) / d2​ ← where d is distance and Q1 and Q2 are interacting 9​ 2​ objects; ​k = a constant (8.99 x 10​ J-m/C​ ) - System: ​the portion we single out for study 1. Open- matter and energy can be exchanged with the surroundings 2. Closed- exchange energy but not matter with their surroundings; however it can exchange with its surroundings in the form of work or heat 3. Isolated- neither matter nor energy can be exchanged - Surroundings:​ everything else - The magnitude of work equals the product of force and the distance an object moves W = F • d​ ← d being distance and F being force 5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics - Energy can be neither created nor destroyed - Internal Energy:​ E, of a system is the sum of all kinetic and potential energies of the components of the system - In thermodynamics we are mostly concerned with the change in E (ΔE) - The change in E i defined as: ΔE = E​ final​E​initial - Positive ΔE = ​ E(final) > E(initial ; a system has gained energy from its surroundings - Negative ΔE​ = E(final) < E(initial) ; a system has lost energy to its surroundings - In a chemical reaction the reactants are E(initial) and the products are E(final) - ΔE can be related to heat and work - Equation: ΔE = q + w​ ← where q is heat and w is work - When heat is added to a system or work is done on a system its internal energy increases - When heat is transferred to a system from its surroundings q has a positive value - When work is done on the system by its surroundings w has a positive value - Work done by the system and heat lost by the system have negative values - Endothermic:​ when the system absorbs heat - Heat flows into the system from its surroundings - Exothermic:​ a process in which the system loses heat - Heat exits and flows out of the system to its surroundings - The conditions that influence internal energy are temperature and pressure ​ - Solutions!! 5.6 Hess’s Law How to Solve: - Practice!! - Solutions!!


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