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CLS 1500 - 05 Study Guide for Quiz 2

by: Logan Jean Hylinski

CLS 1500 - 05 Study Guide for Quiz 2 CLS 1500 - 05

Marketplace > Wright State University > Classics > CLS 1500 - 05 > CLS 1500 05 Study Guide for Quiz 2
Logan Jean Hylinski
GPA 3.666

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About this Document

This is a pretty hefty document that touches on everything we've learned in class since the first quiz with an emphasis on topics that will be on the second.
Introduction to Greek and Roman Culture
Dr. Bruce Laforse
Study Guide
Greek, Roman, Classics, Culture, archaicGreece, sparta, Spartan, Persian War, CLS, persians
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Logan Jean Hylinski on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLS 1500 - 05 at Wright State University taught by Dr. Bruce Laforse in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Greek and Roman Culture in Classics at Wright State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Logan Jean Hylinski Wright State University CLS 1500 ­ 05 Quiz 2 Study Guide: (This guide does not include material covered in class Wed., October 5th) Timeline: ● Bronze Age: 3000 ­ 1000 BC; palace centers rules ● Dark Ages: 1000 ­ 750 BC; no one body ruled ● Archaic Period: 750 ­ 479 BC; the Polis ruled The Greek language was maintained throughout all. Developement of Athenian Democracy ● Cylon (c. 630): Olympic victor who tries and fails to become the dominant  power; the Alcmeonid family dominates. ● Draco (c. 620): writes down and codifies laws, public authority to handle  disputes as opposed to families exacting justice on each other. (Draconian:  incredibly strict) ● Political issues among elites and non­elites (agrokoi and demiourgoi =  farmers and craftsmen); indebtedness, debt­slavery, economic depression ● Everyone asked Solon to help and to revise the laws and government (c.  594) Solon’s Solutions ● Economic ○ Got rid of all debts ○ Freed debt slaves (NOT all slaves, just those in debt slavery) ○ Recalled all exiles ○ Only allowed olive exports ○ Brought weights and measures in line w/ Corinth and  Euboea cities ● Political ○ WEALTH, NOT BIRTH ○ Reorganized society into 4 classes based on wealth  ■ Pentakosiomedimnoi ­ 500 Bushelmen ■ Hippeis (Knights) ­ 300 Bushels ■ Yeomen ­ 200 Bushels ■ Thetes ­ Less than 200 and landless ○ Everyone but Thetes had the ability to hold office ○ HELIAIA: court in which all male citizens served (even  Thetes) ○ Established a new law code that replaced Draco’s (but kept  his laws regarding homicide) Solon: the results ● After all of his reforms, Solon leaves for 10 years (probably because he  was the one who could change the laws and if he was gone nobody could  pressure him to change to system) ● With Solon’s system, non­elites get much more political power ● The conflict and strife remains ● After a while, Peisistratus become tyrant with his sons (they hold power  from 546­510 BC) The Peisistratids (546 ­ 510 BC) ● At first they were incredibly popular because they do things for the  community ○ Sponsored athletes ○ Built public buildings ○ Held/Funded festivals (More festivals = more breaks from  work) ○ Established local roads and courts ○ Protected the grain routes ○ Had a tax to support farmers ● Peisistratus dies in 527 and his eldest son Hippias takes over ● The reign starts to fall apart when another of P.’s sons, Hippiarchos is  killed by Harmodius and Aristogeiton (the Tyrant Slayers) in 514 ● This death causes Hippias’s tyranny to become harsher until he is booted  out of power in 510 and he flees to Persia Cleisthenes & Isonomia ● “Equality before the law” ● Tribes with trittyes are formed to replace old tribes.  Trittyes are made up  of one third from each region (coast, inland, city) The Deme ● Basic unit of the trittyes ● Could be a village, a cluster of villages, or a district within the city ● varied in size ● Approx. 139 total ● Each deme had it’s own council, festivals, cults, etc. Different Political Bodies ● Assembly (Ekklesia): all male citizens (18 and up) = sovereign power in  state ● Council (Boule): each tribe sent 50 men to make up to council of 500 for  lesser business ○ Over age 30 ○ Must be willing ○ Can only serve 2 non­consecutive years ○ Picked by lot ● Eventually groups like the 9 Archons started to lose power as most offices  were now picked by lot ● When you went into office you had a pre­ and post­ office audit ● Ostracism: annual opportunity to banish a person for 10 year (like Tribal  Council on Survivor) Three Main Classes of Spartan Society ● Spartiates: “equals”, warriors ● Perioikoi: “dwellers about”, farmers, craftsmen ● Helots: state­owned slaves, worked to land Lycurgus Rhetra a was a document that laid out laws (Ephors weren't included in this)  ● 2 kings ● Gergousia: Council of elders ● Appellate: assembly ● 5 Ephors: the overseers, could overturn laws and impeach kings ● Eugenics was important: have the best, strongest kids ● Kyrpteia: secret service to spy on and murder helots ● Yearly war on helots to kill them without punishment ● Economy: iron spits for money ● Creates rule to give land and helots once someone is a full citizen Spartiates ● Receive allotment of land after scrutiny ● Scrutiny was where you took your newborn baby to be looked over and if  he would be strong, he could live, if there was something wrong with him, he  would be left somewhere to die (all girls were raised) ● Spartiates became full citizens at 30 and were selected by a mess­club ● A mess club was a group that you had to donate a certain amount of  produce to every month to maintain your citizenship ● Citizens could only be soldiers, all other trades were thought less of. ● Silver & gold money illegal ● Lived on produce from their land ● Your time was to be spent training and debating Agoge ● Public education for children and young adults ● Live there until you're 30 ● Teaches conformity, obedience, group solidarity, military skills ● Barefoot, few clothes, shabby living conditions ­ meant to strengthen you ● All adults could punish anyone's child Helots and Perioikoi Helots ● Messenians and Laconians in origin ● Labored to provide food ● Owned by the state ● Annual beatings, drunken rituals, generally treated like trash ● Served as auxiliaries in Spartan army, were occasionally upgraded to  perioikoi for their service Perioikoi ● Free but disenfranchised ● Craftsmen, farmers, traders ● Allowed to use money ● Served in army as hoplites Marriage and Sex at Sparta ● Marry between 18 ­ 30 ● Childbirth as respected as battle ● Monogamous but you could borrow someone's wife ● Erastes/eromenos (lover/beloved): grown man and young boy, supposed  to teach, but in other cities (apparently not Sparta) involved sex ● Low birth rate Decline in Manpower ● No immigrants ● Low birth rate ● 9000 citizen males in Archaic period ● Major earthquake in 464 (nearly all ephebes were killed) & Helot Revolt ● Many Spartans served abroad as mercenaries Sparta: A Quick Summary ● A mixed constitution: kings, boards, and democratic elements ● Secrecy valued: encouraged myths and legends ● Very small percentage are full citizens ● Agoge produced good followers but poor leaders ● Very stable society THE PERSIAN WARS (important to know) ● Phase 1: Ionian Revolt 499­494 ○ Athenians help Ionian cities vs. Persians ○ Caused by economic pressure, dissatisfaction with Persian  controlled tyrants, and more ○ Battle of Lade (494) ● Phase 2: Marathon 490 ○ Miltiades/Athens vs Hippias/Persians ○ Darius: punish Athens for helping Ionians ○ Miltiades’ daring charge to break the Persian line ○ 1st Greek victory, 6400 Persians killed, 192 Athenians killed ● Phase 3: Xerxes invades 480 ○ Xerxes gathers huge force to invade Greece ○ Xerxes bridges the Hellespont (a couple times because it  wasn't easy) ○ Leonidas and 300 Spartans at Thermopylae (480) ○ Ephialtes tries to sell out the Spartans ○ Naval battle in straits of Salamis (480) ○ (479) Greeks win at Plataea Look over map of Greece and know the locations of the battles


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