Psychology Test Two Study Guide
Psychology Test Two Study Guide Psychology 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Corri Chanel Oliver on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 101 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Sherry Connell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at The University of Tennessee - Martin.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
I. Learning- any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. a. When people learn anything, some part of the brain is physically changed to record what they have learned. b. Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning. c. Examples of learning- writing, speaking, dressing, etc. II. Ivan Pavlov- Russians physiologist who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs. a. Classical Conditioning- learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex. b. Little Albert Experiment c. Involuntary Behavior d. Lemonade in Class Experiment i. Lemonade------ Salivate ii. Pavlov-------Salivate iii. Pavlov=Lemonade 1. 7 pairings 2. 0.5-1 Second iv. Unconditioned Stimulus- Lemonade v. Unconditioned Response- Salivation vi. Conditioned Stimulus- Pavlov vii. Conditioned Response- Salivation e. Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)- a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response i. Unconditioned means unlearned or naturally occurring f. Unconditioned Response- an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus. g. Conditioned Stimulus(CS)- stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. i. Conditioned means learned ii. Neutral Stimulus (NS) can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus h. Conditioned Response(CR) i. Operant Conditioning- the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences j. Thorndike’s Law of Effect i. If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. ii. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend to not be repeated. iii. Cat Experiment k. B.F. Skinner i. Behaviorist ii. Study only observable, measurable behavior iii. Named “operant conditioning” 1. Operant- Any voluntary behavior iv. Learning depends on what happens after the response: The consequence. l. Reinforcement- any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again. i. Primary- naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need such as hunger, thirst, or touch. ii. Secondary- becomes a reinforcement after being paired with a primary reinforcement such as praise, tokens, and gold stars. iii. Positive- the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus. iv. Negative- the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. 1. Taking an aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced: removal of headache. m. Punishment- any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again. i. Punishment by Application- the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus. ii. Punishment by Removal- the removal of a pleasurable stimulus. iii. Severe Punishment 1. May cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished. 2. May encourage lying to avoid punishment. 3. Creates fear, anxiety, and aggression. iv. Punishment should immediately follow the behavior that is being punished. v. Punishment should be consistent. vi. Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior. n. Partial Reinforcement Effect- a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses tends to be very resistant to extinction. o. Continuous Reinforcement- reinforcement of each and every correct response. p. Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement- Interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same. q. Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement- Interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event. r. Fixed Ration Schedule of Reinforcement- number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same. s. Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement- number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event. t. Shaping- reinforcement of simple steps, leading to a desired complex behavior. u. Successive Approximation- small steps, one after another, that lead to a particular goal behavior. III. Observational Learning- learning new behavior by watching a model perform behavior. A. Memory- Any indication that learning has persisted over time. a. Memory: An active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters that information as it stores away, and then retrieves the information from storage. B. Processes of Memory a. Encoding: the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage system. b. Storage: holding onto information for some period of time. c. Retrieval: getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used. C. Information Processing Model a. Sensory Memory- all information lost in a second or so st i. 1 stage of memory processing ii. Information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems iii. Iconic Memory- visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second 1. Capacity- everything that can be seen at one time 2. Duration- info that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new info, a process called masking iv. Eidetic Imagery- the rare ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more v. Echoic Memory- the brief memory of something a person has just heard 1. Capacity- limited to what can be heard at any one moment; smaller than the capacity of iconic memory 2. Duration- lasts longer than iconic; about 2-4 seconds b. Short Term Memory (STM; working memory)- unrehearsed information is lost in about 15-30 seconds i. Memory system held for brief periods of time while being used ii. Selective Attention- the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input iii. Digital Span Test- a series of numbers is read to subjects who are then asked to recall the number in order 1. Conclusion- capacity of STM is about 7 items of info plus or minus 2 items (5-9 Bits) 2. Magical Number-7 3. Chunking- bits of info are combined into meaningful units, or chunks, so that more info can be held in STM 4. Maintenance Rehearsal- saying bits of info to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short term memory iv. STM lasts about 12-30 seconds without rehearsal v. STM is susceptible to interference 1. If counting is interrupted, one will have to start over vi. Selective Attention c. Long Term Memory- the memory system in which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently i. Elaborative Rehearsal- a method of transferring info from STM into LTM by making that info meaningful in some way ii. Nondeclarative (Implicit) Memory- memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. (cerebellum) 1. Unconscious, but affect conscious behavior 2. Emotional associations, habits, and simple conditioned reflexes that may or may not be in conscious awareness 3. Temporal Lobe 4. Cerebellum iii. Declarative (Explicit) Memory- info that is conscious and known 1. Memory for facts 2. Processed by hippocampus D. Forgetting a. Curve of Forgetting (Ebbinghaus)- a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually. i. Distributed practice- spacing one’s study sessions 1. Produces better retrieval ii. Massed practice- studying a complete body of information all at once. b. Encoding Failure- failure to process information into memory c. Memory Trace- physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed i. Decay- loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used. ii. Disuse- another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear iii. Memories recalled after many years are not explained by memory trace theory. d. Proactive interference- memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information. e. Retroactive interference- memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information. E. Consolidation- changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed. a. Long term potential- changes in number and sensitivity of receptor sites/synapses through repeated stimulation. F. Hippocampus- area of the brain responsible for the formation of LTMs a. See the case of H.M. i. Hippocampus removed due to epilepsy ii. Not able to store new information G. Retrograde Amnesia- loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past. H. Anterograde Amnesia- loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories a. Senile Dementia b. The case of H.M. I. Sleep is important in forming memories a. Memories rehearsed during sleep as well as during waking are more likely to be consolidated. b. One can’t learn something new while sleeping, but new information can be better consolidated while sleeping c. Sleep deprivation severely interferes with hippocampal function and memory J. Even brief exercise can be good for your memory. K. Fish is brain food? a. Omega 3 fatty acid called DHA appears to help memory cells communicate. Friday: 1AM-8AM Saturday: 4PM-10PM, 2AM-10AM Sunday: 1AM-7AM Monday: 12AM-7:00AM 1.0 2.1 3.1 4.0 5.3 6.0 7.0 8. 2 9.1 10.1 11. 0 12. 2 A. Consciousness- a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment. B. Waking Consciousness- C. Microsleeps- brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds D. Sleep Deprivation- any significant loss of sleep a. Results in irritability and problems with concentration
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