Sociology Exam #2 Study Guide
Sociology Exam #2 Study Guide 1311
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SOCI 1311 - 004
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Belma Radoncic on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dorthy, Kalanzi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Socialization The lifelong social experience by which people develop human potential and learn patterns of their culture Personality One’s consistent patterns of: o Thinking o Feeling o Acting Nature vs. Nurture Socio-biologists believe nature creates personality and behavior, human behavior is instinctive o “Nurture is our nature” Behaviorists believe that nurture creates personality, most of who and what we are is learned (behaviorism) o Theory developed by John B. Watson o Thus people everywhere are equally human, differing only in their cultural patterns Social Isolation Harry and Margaret Harlow (psychologists) tested monkeys in various conditions of social isolation Found that complete isolation (with adequate nutrition) seriously disturbed the monkey’s development In conclusion, we need socialization to develop properly Freud Theory of Personality Development The Id o Represents the human being’s basic drives, which are unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction o Present at birth o Society opposes the self-centered id, which is why one of the first words a child learns is “no” The Superego o The cultural values and norms internalized by an individual o Operates our conscious o Tells us why we cannot have everything that we want The Ego o A person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure- seeking drives with the demands of society o The balance of the Id and superego o As ego arises as we become aware of our distinct existence and face the fact that we cannot have everything we want The Id vs. Ego vs. Superego The Id and superego are at a constant combat; ego balances out the two. Freuds Major Contributions to Sociology Internalization of social norms as the superego Childhood experiences have a lifelong impact Personality Development Cont’d George Herbert Mead and the deviation of the self The Self o The part of an individual’s personality composed of self- awareness and self-image o Not there at birth, it develops o Develops only with social experience The “I” o The active side of the self o Operates as the subject, being active and spontaneous The “Me” o The objective side of the self o Works as an object, the way we imagine others see us The Looking Glass Self By Charles Cooley, o Self-image is based on how others respond to us o Self-image is based on how we think others see us o “Self-image based on how we think others see us” Mead’s Self Development Stages Stage 1: Imitation o Ex. Baby repeating words Stage 2: Play o Ex. Taking roles of significant others Stage 3: Games o Ex. Lean to take roles of several other people at the same time Stage 4: Acquisition of the generalized o Ex. Widespread cultural norms and values we use to evaluate ourselves Mead Freud I and Me Id and Superego Rejected the biological origins of I Id and superego originate in biology and Me Work together cooperatively Locked in combat Agents of Socialization The Family The School Prison Gangs Military Government Religion The Family The most important agent A loving family produces a well-adjusted child Parental attention o Bonding and encouragement The household environment o Stimulates development Social position o Religion, ethnicity, and social class The School Children come to understand the importance of factors such as race and social position Schools join with families in socializing children into gender roles The Peer Group Members experience anticipatory socialization Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position Media TV Race and gender inequality in media representation Violence in mass media Video games and violence o Characters show no remorse or punishment Total Institutions and Socialization A total institution is a setting where people are isolated from society and manipulated by staff Characteristics o Staff supervises all daily activities o Environment is standardized o Formal rules o Daily schedules o Ex. Military, boot camp, prison, boarding school, rehabilitation centers Re-Socialization Process Radically changing a person’s personality by carefully controlling the environment Erving Goffman Re-Socialization Procedures: o Staff breaks down existing identity, repossess your belongings Ex. Uniforms o Staff rebuilds your personality by using rewards and punishments Are we free within society? Society shapes how we think, feel, and act. If this is so, then in what sense are we free? Social Interaction The process by which people act and react in relations to others. We approach the process of social interaction from the symbolic interaction paradigm Status Social interaction is affected by people’s statuses A social position than an individual occupies Status Set All the statuses a person holds at a given time Change over the life course Ex. A teenage girl may be a daughter to her parents, a sister to her brother, a student at her school, etc. Types of Statuses Ascribed o A social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntary in life. Ex. Being a daughter, Cuban, a teenager, etc. Achieved o A social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort. Ex. Professor, nurse, athlete, etc. Master o A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life o Can be positive or negative Role Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status The social construction of reality is the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction “Street Smarts” To survive on the street, construct a favorable outcome Ex. If you pass by gangsters, construct a situation that gives an impression that no one messed with you *The Thomas Theorem Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences Means that reality is initially “soft” as it is being shaped, it can be “hard” in its effects *Dramaturgical Analysis Goffman introduced the idea of examining social interaction in terms of theatrical performances *The Presentation of Self Where one tries to create impressions in the minds of others Presenting self as one wants to be seen The key is impression management o Making oneself appear in the best light possible Society as a Theater Role performance includes: o A social setting or stage o Wearing costumes (you dress as expected) o Play with your voice (tone) o Use and control your gestures, etc. Irving Goffman Behavior is also partially socially constructed by: o Gender o Age o Social status Non-Verbal Communication Interactions involving body language: o Gestures o Facial expressions o Voice o Demeanor o Personal space All non-verbal communication is cultural specific. Ex. Eye contact *Body language can contradict verbal communication because non- verbal communication is hard to control Emotions There is a biological side to emotions. Ex. Everyone cries, laughs, gets angry, etc. The cultural side of emotions cause us to suppress emotions *Gender & Language The social construction of language in reference to gender conveys notions of power Feminine terms are more likely to change to a negative meaning Primary Groups Small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships The family is every society’s most important primary group First groups we experience in life Personal Orientation o Define each other according to who they are in terms of family or personal ties Ex. Family, close friendships Secondary Groups A large and impersonal social group whose members purse a specific goal or activity Have characteristics opposite of primary groups Weak emotional ties, little personal knowledge of one another Short term Goal Orientation o Look to one another for what they are, that is, what they can do for each other Ex. Coworkers, peers in college class, political organizations Types of Leadership Instrumental Leadership o Group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks o Members look to instrumental leaders to make plans, give orders, and get things done o Uninterested in personal ties o Leaders give orders and reward or punish members according to how much the members contribute to the group’s efforts o Enjoy more respect from members Expressive Leadership o Group leadership that focuses on the groups well-being o Leaders take less interest in achieving goals than in raising group morale and minimizing tensions and conflict among members o Build more personal primary ties o Generally receives more personal affection Authoritarian Leadership Focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making, and demands that group members obey orders Wins little affection from group, but appreciated in a crisis Democratic Leadership Makes a point of including everyone in the decision-making process More expressive Generally, draw on the ideas of all members to develop creative solutions to problems Laissez-Faire Leadership Allows the group to function more or less on its own Least effective in promoting group goals Utilitarian Organizations Pays people for their efforts Just about everyone who works for income belongs to this organization Usually a matter of individual choice Ex. Large businesses generate profits for their owners and income for their employees Normative Organizations People join not for income, but to pursue some goal they think is morally worthwhile Include community service groups, political parties, and religious organizations Ex, Red Cross, PTA Coercive Organizations Involuntary, forces to join these organization as a form of punishment or treatment Special physical features such as locked doors, barred windows, and are supervised by security personnel Isolate people for a period of time in order to change their attitudes and behaviors Ex. Prisons, psychiatric hospitals Group Size The Dyad o A social group with two members o Very intimate o Very unstable, both members of a dyad must work to keep the relationship going; if either withdraws, the group collapses. o Ex. Marriages, relationships, close friendships The Triad o A social group with three members o More stable than a dyad because one member can act as a mediator o More types of interaction between members o Ex. Married couple with a counselor Bureaucratic Organizations An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently Max Weber’s 6 Characteristics of Bureaucracies o Specialization of labor o Hierarchy of positions o Rules and regulations o Technical competence o Impersonality o Formal, written communications Problems of Bureaucracies Alienate and dehumanize people No room for creativity, just follow orders and rules Ritualism o A focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goals Work becomes monotonous Characterized by oligarchy o The rule of the many by a few o Those at top don’t care much about subordinates Deviance Recognized violation of cultural norm Deviant actions cause us to regard another person as an “outsider” Crime is one category of deviance o The violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law o Ex. Driving while intoxicating, assaulting a fellow student Social Control Deviance calls for social control o Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors o Often this process is informal, such as parents scolding or when friends make fun of a classmates’ choice of style o Serious deviance may involve the criminal justice system The organizations – police, courts, and prison officials – that respond to alleged violations of the law Social Theories of Deviance Structural Functionalists Conflict Theorists Symbolic Interactionists The Social Foundations of Deviance Deviance varies according to cultural norms People become deviant as others define them that way How societies set normal and how they define rule breaking both involve social power Structural Functional Analysis These theories talk about the functions of deviance Examples of structural functionalists: Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton Durkheim’s 4 Functions of Deviance o Deviance affirms cultural values and norms o Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries o Responding to deviance promotes social unity o Deviance encourage change Because of the functions of deviance, Durkheim concluded that deviance is necessary for society What Causes Deviance? Merton’s Strain Theory o Deviance results from strain o Ex. The “strain” caused by society’s push to success (the American Dream) without providing all members the means to get the dream. o What drives people into crime is strain from trying to achieve the cultural goal and lack of access to sufficient means to acquire the same goal o Merton indicated that people respond to this strain differently, creating different kinds of deviants Innovators Using unconventional means (street crime) rather than conventional means (hard work at a “straight” job) to achieve a culturally approved goal (wealth) Ritualists Do not care much about becoming rich but rigidly stick to the rules (conventional means) anyway in order to at least feel “respectable” Retreatists Inability to succeed. Rejecting both cultural goals and conventional means so that a person in effect “drops out.” Ex. Homeless, addicts Rebels Reject both cultural definition of success and the conventional means of achieving it, but they go one step further by forming a counterculture supporting alternatives to the existing social order Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory According to Sutherland, deviant behavior is learned If one associates with deviants, he/she is more likely to take part in it Associate may reward you for conforming, or punish you for distancing yourself Hirschi’s Control Theory What controls us is the imagination of consequences for our behavior 4 Types of Social Controls o Attachment Strong social attachments encourage conformity. Weak family, peer and school relationships leave people freer to engage in deviance o Opportunity The greater a person’s access to legitimate opportunity, the greater the advantages of conformity. By contrast, someone with little confidence in future success is more likely to drift towards deviance o Involvement Extensive involvement in legitimate activities. People who simply “hang out” waiting for something to happen have time and energy to be involved in deviant activity o Belief Strong belief in conventional morality and respect for authority figures restrain tendencies toward deviance Gender and Deviance The world applies more normative controls to females as opposed to men
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