Anthropology and the Human Experience Study Guide EXAM2
Anthropology and the Human Experience Study Guide EXAM2 ANTY 101H - 01
Popular in Anthro & the Human Experience
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
ANTH 101 001
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paige Hamrock on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTY 101H - 01 at University of Montana taught by Richard A. Sattler (P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Anthro & the Human Experience in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Montana.
Reviews for Anthropology and the Human Experience Study Guide EXAM2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/04/16
Anthropology Study Guide: Test 2 Evolution of Hominines - The evolutionary line leading to humans diverged from that leading to chimpanzees and bonobos between 5 million and perhaps as much as 8 million years ago. - Humans differ from apes in several different ways. These differences began with our earliest ancestors. - The differences include habitat, diet, posture, skin color, body hair, intelligence, and cultural development. - Each difference impacts a variety of subsystems and has impacted our evolution. Habitat - Rapid climate change as the catalyst for evolution! - Human beings evolved during a period of extreme climatic ﬂuctuation. - These conditions favor ﬂexibility and a lack of specialization. Our ancestors were good at this and quickly adapted to the new conditions. - Due to rapid climate change our ancestors moved from the trees to the grassland. Shift from arboreal forest to terrestrial savannah. - This had an impact on diet, teeth, posture, and hands/feet. Diet - Along with the shift to terrestrial life comes a change in diet. - Dietary shift from leaves and fruits to seeds, roots, and tubers - This had a major impact on teeth, face, skull, and rib cage. Bipedalism - Moving out of the trees and onto the savannah resulted in a shift from quadrupedal to fully upright bipedal posture. - Several theories for why bipedalism developed which include, freeing of the hands, increased visibility over tall savannah grasses, ease of long distance travel, and most likely to regulate body temperature. - However there are some disadvantages of bipedalism, which include, greater visibility to predators, exposed belly, move slower than quadrupeds, and have a harder time shifting direction than quadrupeds. Earliest Deﬁnite Hominines - The earliest deﬁnite hominids are the australopithecines. - Australopithecines are generally divided into gracile and robust forms. - Early australopithecines remain very ape-like, however they have slightly larger brains than chimps and have a fully upright posture. - With later australopithecines we see more variation. This is when we distinguish between robust and gracile australopithecines. Evolutionary Phylogenies - There are numerous arguments about relationships among the various australopithecines and their relationships to modern humans. - However, no one can be quite sure given the fragmentary data and gaps in fossil record. Genus Homo - Homo is the genus that comprises the species Homo Sapiens, which includes modern humans, as well as several extinct species classiﬁed as ancestral to or closely related. - A few examples of these are Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Homo Ergaster, Homo Hiedldelbergensis, Homo Antecessor, and Homo Neanderthalensis. Homo Habilis - Homo habilis, sometimes nicknamed “handy man”, was named so since habilis was the ﬁrst species that we have deﬁnite evidence for tool making. - Habilis existed 2.6-1.5 million years ago. - Homo Habilis tool tradition was widespread with little variation. - Mostly crude cobble tools. Oldawan Tradition - The tool tradition associated with Homo Habilis is called the Oldawan tradition. - It is named after Olduvai Gorge, the place in which the ﬁrst Homo Habilis tools were found. - These tools were made by a technique known as percussion ﬂaking. This is simply when one stone is struck with another to remove a ﬂake. - These tools, such as the Oldawan chopper, were fairly simple/crude, but it does show a sophisticated understanding in what type of materials were needed and how the rocks should be struck. - Lastly, these tools were most likely used for breaking the bones of animals that had been scavenged, which was Homo Habilis’s subsistence pattern. Homo Erectus - Homo Erectus emerges about 2 million years ago in east Africa. The oldest skeletons date to 1.8 million years ago. - Home Erectus emerges during a period of marked climatic ﬂuctuation. - This is a time period known as the Pleistocene. During this time there was dramatic ﬂuctuations in climate with several ice ages. Homo Erectus Features - The evolution of Home Erectus can largely been seen as the evolution of the brain. Cranial capacity ranging from 750 cc in early Homo Erectus, all the way up to 1250 cc by late. - Homo Erectus was of about modern stature, but more robust. Pretty much the same as us neck down. - With Homo Erectus we see an increased amount of sexual dimorphism. - Weak chin, low, sloping forehead. - Large brow ridge. Homo Erectus Environment - Home Erectus is unique as this species is the ﬁrst deﬁnite human like species to move out of Africa. - There are numerous skulls from Africa, Asia, and even Europe. Homo Erectus Technology - Home Erectus is associated with the Acheulean Tradition. - This is similar to the Oldawan tradition, only Acheulean is a bit more advanced and reﬁned. - Wooden spears were another technology used by Erectus. It is not known if other species used wooden spears before Erectus based on the fact that wood does not preserve well. - Lastly, ﬁre is a major technological advancement that we ﬁnd during the time of Homo Erectus. Archaic Homo Sapiens - Between 400,000-200,000 years ago Homo Erectus transformed into Home Sapiens. - This change appears ﬁrst in East and South Africa, but Archaic Homo Sapiens quickly spread out. - Archaic Homo Sapiens retain many of the features of Erectus, including low forehead, prominent brow ridges, weak chin, robust bones, etc. Neanderthals - Neanderthals are a species of Archaic Homo Sapiens. - They are found in mainly Europe, with other forms in Asia and Africa. - Neanderthals were a large brained species (1450 cc), that began to have some of the qualities we would consider distinctly modern human (art, music, etc.) - Although they retained many features of Homo Erectus they could probably pass relatively unnoticed in modern populations. Cultural Evolution - Heaps in symbolic thought: - There is evidence for Neanderthal care for the sick, aged, and inﬁrm. This sets them apart from previous species who would not help those who were struggling. - Neanderthals also buried their dead. This could indicate that stye had religion or a belief in the afterlife. - The lithic tradition associated with Neanderthals is the Mousterian tradition. - The Mousterian tradition differs from the Acheulian in that the Mousterian has a much smaller proportion of large core tools such as hand axes and cleavers. - The Mousterian tradition uses the Levallois technique (prepared core) and ﬂake technology. - The Mousterian tradition is the ﬁrst to be highly diversiﬁed and specialized. - The Mousterian tradition is also the ﬁrst to use hafting which greatly increased efﬁciency. Modern Homo Sapiens - Modern humans and archaic Homo Sapiens overlap for about 20,000 years outside of Africa, and much longer in Africa. - The movement of modern Homo Sapiens out of Africa is more of a cultural revolution than a physical one. The physical differences between archaic and modern humans was rather minor at ﬁrst. - There are several models that scholars use to explain the ﬁrst humans outside of Africa. Multiregional Model - Argues that all of existing human populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa independently made the transition from archaic to modern. - Argues that high levels of gene ﬂow prevented speciation. - Sees no clear discontinuities in fossils. Out of Africa (Replacement Model) - This model suggest that humans evolved in only Africa and spread out from there about 50,000 years ago, totally replacing archaic Homo Sapiens. - Modern humans originate only in Africa before 120,000 BP. - Evidence for this model comes from paleontology(fossils), archaeology(artifacts), but mostly relies on genetics. - Whichever model is correct it is important to keep in mind that pretty much as soon as modern human evolved there is a disappearance of archaic forms. Homo Sapiens Behavior - Increased habitat range. - Expanded dietary breadth. - Numerous technological innovations. - Economic and social innovations. - New forms of symbolic behavior. Human Creativity - Humans are very creative creatures. With modern Homo Sapiens comes a lot of new technological advances and symbolic behavior. - First use of images and representational art. - More elaborately ritualized burials. - Advances in tools. EX: atlatl or the spear thrower - First time we see long distance trade, - And this is the ﬁrst example of boats/watercraft (occupations of Australia by 50,000-60,000 BP).
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'