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Bio. 152 Study Guide Test 2

by: Vania Notetaker

Bio. 152 Study Guide Test 2 Bio 152

Marketplace > Virginia Commonwealth University > Biology > Bio 152 > Bio 152 Study Guide Test 2
Vania Notetaker
Virginia Commonwealth University
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Introduction to Biological Science II
Alaina Campbell
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vania Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 152 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Alaina Campbell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Science II in Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Bio 152 Study guide 26.1 Bacteria cell is small but powerful -2 micrometers -They have no membrane bound nuclei -No energy producing organelles -Out number eukaryotic cells -Carry DNA in the form of plasmids -Replicate independently of the cell’s circular chromosome -Cell walls for shape and protection -Made of peptidoglycan; sugar and polypeptides cross-linked -Reproduce by binary fission (they replicate quickly causing evolution to happen faster) -Horizontal gene transfer promotes genetic diversity in bacteria -Conjugation +DNA transfer between temporarily joined cells -Transformation +Uptake of DNA from the cells surrounding (surface proteins on cells that help) +Swap own DNA with homologous foreign allele -Transduction +Swap genes between the various host cells +Foreign genes incorporated during recombination -Ribosomes differ between Bacteria and Archaea -Archaea sister groups with Eukarya 26.2 Carbon Cycle Prokaryotic cells real foundation of Carbon Cycle, able to make and break up organic molecules throughout the full breathe of habitats on Earth -Bacteria & Archaea can use alternative donors and acceptors for photosynthesis and respiration -Most photosynthetic bacteria do not produce oxygen -Only have one photosystem -Photosynthesis without oxygen (anoxygenic) -Absorb sunlight using bacteriochlorophyll -Use H2S, H2, and FE2+ as electron donor -Respiration with oxygen -Many bacteria respire without oxygen -Use NO3-, SO42-, and FE3+ as electron acceptors Fermentation -Partial oxidation of carbon/organic compounds -Involves multiple groups of fermenters -Downfall – Less energy 26.3 Other biogeochemical cycles -Complementary metabolic pathway -Happens with carbon, sulfur, nitrogen etc. -Amino acid has sulfur Sulfur cycle -We get our sulfur from plants. -Sulfur found in ground, soil etc. Nitrogen cycle -Nitrogen found in the atmosphere Nitrogen fixation- takes nitrogen from the atmosphere and put it in a form that plants can use Denitrification – change Ammonia into nitrogen gas to get it back in the atmosphere Anammox – bacteria that converts Ammonia into Nitrogen gas 26.4 Diversity of Bacteria -Bacterial phylogeny is a work in progress Proteobacteria -Most diverse bacteria Gram-positive bacteria -Organisms cause and cure diseases Cyanobacteria – capable oxygenic photosynthesis (no caell diff.) Aphanothece – small single cells Chroococcus – envelope made of polysaccharides Oscillatoria – filaments with no cell differentiation Anabaena – strings of undifferentiated cells at either end of the filament 26.5 Diversity of Archaea -Life originated in a hot environment -Reside in extreme environment to avoid competition for resources Hyperthermophiles; require high temperatures Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota both include acid-loving microorganisms -Euryarchaeota archaeons include heat-loving, methane- producing, and salt-loving microorganisms Thaumarchaeota may be the most abundant cells in the ocean 26.6 Prokaryotes have coevolved with eukaryotes -Soybean and nitrogen fixing bacteria -Cows and methanogenic archaeons/clams and methane-oxidizing bacteria -Squid and bioluminescent bacteria Human Microbiome -Fecal transport; can fight obesity 27.2 Symbiont and symbiosis; mutual benefiting relationship b/ two organisms Endosymbiosis; living inside an organism -Origin of chloroplast Endosymbiotic hypothesis -Similarities between chloroplast and cyanobacteria -2 membranes (one of the cyanobacteria -2 photosystems -Chloroplast has circular DNA -Sequence more similar to cyanobacteria -Original genes migrate to the nucleus Symbiosis of heterotrophic host and photosynthetic cell common in eukaryotic domain *Chloroplast originated first in green then red algae Hypothesis extends to mitochondria -Engulfed proteobacteria…mitochondria -Organization and biochemistry -Mitochondria has DNA (also migrates to nucleus) All eukaryotic cells once had mitochondria, though some are lost or changed (hydrogeneosomes or mitosomes for anaerobic process) Hypothesis 1: -Archaea-like prokaryotes engulf a proteobacteria -Overtime becomes apart of the organism (organelles formed first) Hypothesis 2: -Engulf proteobacteria by Archaea -Overtime it became an organelle while organelles form 27.3 Eukaryotic Diversity -Kingdoms: Plants, animals, fungi and protists Protists; not monophyletic and not always recognized -“Algae” and protozoa -Seaweed (microscopic) -Very diverse, many features from convergent evolution Opisthokonts -Fungi more related to animals than plants Animal-1.3 million species (because of insects) Fungi- 75000 species Choanoflagellates; closely related to animals (mostly unicellular) -They like to pair up in a multicellular-like structure Heterotrophic, “posterior polle” where flagella is located Ameobozoans (fake feet; pray on other structures) -Cause dysentery -About 6000 species -Slime molds **Plastmodial Haploid cells fuse -- > zygote (mitosis; cell doesn’t divide only nuclei does) -- > coenocyctic plasmodia *Not related to plants, animals or fungi Reproduction stage (sporangia; reproductive structure) -- > cell walls form (meiosis) -- > spores (that can be dispersed) **Cellular Aggregate together to move through environment -Towards food source -Get away from harm Create a structure similar to sporangia for reproduction Archaeplastids -Most photosynthetic -Red algae; multicellular, marine, chlorophyll and biliproteins (aver, nuri, carrageenan and agar(plates use to culture organisms)) -Viridoplante- land plants are sister groups -Green algae 1000 species, chlorophyll a & b *plagella and 2 membrane chloroplast -Marine and freshwater, single- celled flagellates to large seaweed Stramenopila, Alveolates and Rhizarians Stramenopila Unicellular organism, giant kelps, algae and protozoa, free living cells and parasites Flagellum -Brown seaweed (giant kelp) -Diatoms (silica, half of (primary production; photosynthesis) in sec) -Oomycetes (water molds, potato blight, other pathogens) Alveolata Cortical alveoli (calcium ion storage) -Dinoflagellates (some photosynthetic, red tides) -Ciliates (heterotrophic, 2 nuclei, cilia) -Apicomplexan (plasmodium and malaria) Summary of Endosymbiosis -Green and red algae (cyanobacteria) -Euglenids and chlorarachniophyte alga (green algae Symbiont) -Cryptophyte algae, haptophyte and stramenopiles (red algae Symbiont) (And also chapter 28)


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