Chemistry Exam 2
Chemistry Exam 2 Chem 1411-322
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julian Martin on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1411-322 at Blinn College taught by Dr. Lizette Bartell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at Blinn College.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
General Concepts Elements in Group 1(G1) - Lose 1 electron and become +1 G2 - Lose 2 electrons and become +2 G3(the 13th column) - lose 3 electrons and become +3 G4 - can either lose or gain 4 electrons and become +4/-4 respectively G5 - gains 3 electrons and becomes -3 G6 - gains 2 and becomes -2 G7 - gains 1 and becomes -1 G8 - is stable and doesn't like to lose or gain any electrons The metals in Columns 3-12 in between the columns G2 and G3 stated above vary in their charge You will know or state the charge by placing it in parenthesis after the name In roman numerals Ie Fe(III) or Iron(III) Cations: Positively charged ions Anions: negatively charged ions - onions make you cry, crying is bad, onion sounds like anion, anion is negative. Memorize these polyatomic ions they will not be given to you on the exam Carbonate - CO3^-2 Chlorate - ClO3^- Nitrate -NO3^- Phosphate - PO4^-3 Sulfate - SO4^-2 You will need to know the following because you will not be told whether a compound is molecular or ionic: Molecular compounds are made up of a nonmetals and a nonmetal Ionic compounds are made up of a metal and a nonmetal Molecular compounds are named by Stating how many of each element there is using prefixes before the element's name The prefixes are as follows Mono- one (used only with second element) Di- two Tri- three Tetra- four Penta- 5 Hexa- 6 Hepta- 7 Octa- 8 Nona- 9 Ionic compound naming The name of the first element followed by the name of the second with an ide ending Acid naming H+another element is hydro(name of element)ic acid When they have polyatomic ions If the polyatomic ends in ite then it is (name of polyatomic)ous acid If the polyatomic ends in ate then it is (name of polyatomic)ic acid Moles and molar mass 1 mole = 6.0221x10^23 How to convert X g (Something) 1 mole Something 6.0221x10^23 Z atoms in something Molecules something Y grams Something 1 mole something 1 molecule something X=the amount of grams you have (probably what is given by the question) Y=the molar mass which you can find using the periodic table in most cases ie H2O has a molar mass of 18 (this can be given by the question if you are asked to convert form moles into something else Z= the amount of atoms in a molecule ie H2O has 3 atoms The chart above can be manipulated to convert from any point to any point in any direction Other words for molar mass which you will likely see on the test include Formula Weight Molecular Weight Atomic Weight Atomic Mass Redox Reactions An oxidation number is just a fancy way of saying the charge Decreasing charge=reduced=oxidizing agent=gaining electrons Increasing charge=oxidized=reducing agent=losing electrons Rules for finding oxidation number of compounds 1. H is always +1 2. G1 is +1 and G2 is +2 3. F -1 O-2 Cl-1 Br -1 I -1 in that order from left to right 4. Most electronegative The closest to F is the most electronegative Lewis dot structures Pretty easy Just remember the least electronegative (farthest from F) is the center Resonance structures are when the molecule can be arranged in multiple different ways Be sure to check the charges Balancing equations Also pretty easy Just count properly and for the more complex ones write down the numbers so you don’t lose track If something is weird don’t freak out just relax and think about it Bond strength Triple bond = strongest Double bond Single bond = weakest If the bonds are the same then the next factor is the bond strength The small the atom the stronger the bond The bigger the atom the weaker the bond The general trend for atomic radius is down and to the left is larger The closest to Fr is the largest
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