Test 1 terms Study Guide
Test 1 terms Study Guide Hist 103
Virginia Commonwealth University
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Reconstruction Era (1865-1877) -Period after the Civil War in which rebuilding programs were instituted in the South -Involved re-instating the 11 rebel states (whom all practiced slavery) -4 states ( border states) did not join the confederacy, and joined the Northerners to ﬁght against the South (MD, DE, KE, MI). -golden opportunity, slaves were able to establish themselves in a social and economic way. -11 states said that had withdrawn (succeed) from the United states formed a brand new country- confederates -3 Amendments passed (13,14, and 15) 13th Amendment -Ended slavery in the US and added to the Constitution in 1865 -4 1/2 million slaves were freed however now they were impoverished Andrew Johnson -Lincoln (R) was killed 5 days after the Civil War - Andrew Johnson (D) took his place -Lincoln chose Johnson as VP, to increase his chance of being re-elected -Johnson was rated as one of the worst Presidents -opposed the Freedman's Bureau -First President to be impeached The Freedman's Bureau -Created by congress under the inﬂuence of Radical Republicans -Consisted of men and women, white or black who lived in the loyal states during the Civil War -intended to provide a primitive welfare agency -established schools for AA, provided food, performed marriages, located family members that had been separated, and gave land to every married couple (40 acres and a mule). Johnson's Plan (The Presidential Plan of Reconstruction) -Johnson wanted to make it relatively easy on the confederate states A. 10% of registered voters had to swear allegiance to US B. Elections had to be held for new public ofﬁcials C. All land had to be returned to its original owner The Black Codes -designed to press the African American population in those states and keep them in a condition that was almost equivalent to slavery -Made it illegal for them to carry a gun, congregate in groups, to be unemployed -To be considered employed, they had to be employed by a white person and had to sign a contract-obligated to work for 1 year 14th Amendment -Gave the deﬁnition of the word "citizen"/"citizenship", all citizens must be given equal protection under the law -All males must be allowed to vote within a state 15th Amendment -Passed in 1870 -Cannot prevent voting based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude Women's Loyal League -Members included, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony -Goal was to give voting rights to women -Created a petition that got 400,000 signature in support of the 13th Amendment -Appalled at the 14th amendment because it excluded women Congressional Plan (of Reconstruction) -Put all of the states that were in the confederate states of america under military occupation and rule -All males must be allowed to vote - Ratify 14 Amendment -Hold General elections -By 1870 pretty much all confederate states followed the Congressional Plan Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson -Johnson had left Lincoln's cabinet in tact, but he couldn't get along with the Sec. of War - Stanton -Tenure of Ofﬁce Act made it difﬁcult for the president to ﬁre any of its cabinet members -However Johnson ﬂaunted the law by immediately ﬁring Stanton, at this point he had committed a crime and was there for impeached - Some senators however, did not ﬁnd him guilty because they knew he was set up and they were afraid that the ofﬁce of the President would be permanently weakened. Compromise of 1877 -The agreement that ﬁnally resolved the 1876 election and ofﬁcially ended the Reconstruction. In exchange for the Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, winning the presidency , Hayes agreed to withdraw the last federal troops from the former Confederate states. -This deal effectively completed the Southern return to white-only, Democratic-dominated electoral politics. Jim Crow Laws -Legal codes of segregation -Restrooms and restaurants were separated, and most notoriously schools -Literacy Tests, poll taxes (pay in order to vote) and grandfather clause Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 -Supreme Court Case (highest court in the US) - Plessy was a man of mixed race and he got on a train in Louisiana, he took a seat that said whites only. He was arrested and thrown out of the car. Not a violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment, for people to be required to use separate facilities based on their race as long the facilities are equal Booker T. Washington -Was a former slave, determined to get an education, walked all the way to Hampton Institute -Wound up becoming an educator himself at Tuskegee Institite -At the Atlanta Compromise Speech, he talked about how the races could be separate but that African Americans could go ahead and prosper economically -was criticized by some (including W.E.B DuBois) Election of 1880 -Republicans: James A Garﬁeld (won) vs Democrats Winﬁeld Scott Hancock -Wasn't based on who was best for the job but for Political patronage -4 Months into Garﬁeld's presidency he was shot at a railroad station, by a mentally challenged lawyer who shot Garﬁeld because he didn't give him a job. Garﬁeld died 2 weeks later. and Chester Arthur became President. The Pendleton Act -Made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than "pull" Opening of the West 1840's -Migrating west ward from the eastern part of the US -Traveled in wagon trains, Would typically bypass The Great Plains to avoid the Native Americans -Sioux- about 500,000 of them living in the plains, nomadic-chasing American Bison (buffalo) they had horses -Also the Gold Rush 1849 in CA -Congress decided to build the ﬁrst Transcontinental Railroad -the rise of the heavy industry -Creation of the Reservation system Needed to clear NA off the land that they were occupying to open up the west for railroads and towns John D Rockefeller -Despised because he held a monopoly on oil -Did everything he could to have a monopoly so that he could have control of all the oil in the industrialized world. -In 1870 he primarily sold Kerosene Andrew Carnegie -Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons" First Transcontinental Railroad * -Completed in 1869, massive effort -Brought European and African American cultures to the United States -Subsidized from the US government Immigration 1865-1914 -New immigrants came from parts of Europe -Newspaper ads made it seem like anybody can be rich in America -"Streets paved with gold" -Had to pass health tests, looking for people with tuberculosis -The Population doubled, millions came into the US Progressive Era -(1990-1917) Ends because of WWI. Period of reform. More people than jobs. 31 million people living in the US because of immigration Homestead Strike 1892 -occurred at a factory owned by Andrew Carnegie, most of the workers were highly skilled steel workers- they were told not to strike Election of 1896 -William McKinley(republican) versus William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) - A time where the majority of people were poor and a small amount were extremely wealthy -Bryan focused on farming , and empathized with factory workers and coal miners, asked for unlimited coinage of silver-Proposed that that the federal government purchase all of the silver that was being brought up in these silver mines-use the silver to make coins and get money circulating -McKinley was a former congressmen, and was supported by Mark Hannah, got railroad owners to support him, never left his home-railroad offered free trips to his house-won (workers were afraid of the inﬂation of Bryans plan) President Theodore Roosevelt -26th President of the United States, founder of the Rough Riders, progressive President. Spanish American War -(WMc) , an 1898 conﬂict between the united states and spain, in which the united states supported cubans' ﬁght for indepedence. started because of yellow journalism (Hearsts NY and Pulitzer's NYW) and the explosion of U.S.S. Maine Panama Canal -Made it easer to travel from the Atlantic to the Paciﬁc -A French company had begun working on the canal, but ran out of money and was forced to quit. Asked President Roosevelt to help pay for the rest. Asked for 40 million , and congress agreed to pay it. A problem with the Canal, was that Panama was actually the colony of Columbia, so the US needed to get permission to own and operate the canal. Offered to pay Columbia 10 million, for a yearly rental-Columbia demanded 25 million. US refused--and the french canal company would use is resources to start a rebellion against Columbia Roosevelt promised that he would send the US ﬂeet down to Panama in order to frighten the government Muckrakers -A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) Ida Tarbell -(1857-1944) Investigative journalist; she wrote a report condemning the corrupt business practices of John D. Rockefeller in McClure's magazine. These articles became the basis for her book, The History of the Standard Oil Company (charged more for its products then was necessary) reason why she was so aggressive about the oil company because her father had owned a small oil company and Rockefeller had put her father out of business. Upton Sinclair -Wrote "The Jungle" the characters were ﬁctional and it was a story, an amusing story that people read for pleasure. Sinclair carefully investigated the industry that he exposed in the jungle. Exposed the meat packing industry which was situated in Chicago, IL. He went after its unsanitary practices as well as its absolute abuse of its workers. Discovered that they would mix expired meat with edible meat, most of the meat was canned. Also a common practice of mixing saw dust with ground meat to add weight-sell more. Meat packing houses were ﬁlthy invested with vermin, workers were ill. Caused roosevelt to pass the food and drug act as well as the meat inspection act Muller vs. Oregon 1908 - Louis D Branders got the Supreme Court to accept laws protecting women against the harmful effects of factory labor Antarctic Coal Strike of 1902 -140,000 coal miners went on strike simultaneously, went on strike for better pay -Soon there was a shortage of coal, and people began to freeze with no heat and factories had to be shut down. Roosevelt became enraged at the miner company owners and demanded a meeting with them. Told the owners to negotiate with the miners, and if they didn't he would take away their mines and have soldiers get the coal-was aware that this was unconstitutional Roosevelt's conservation acts - President McKinley -Elected President in 1896. -Was assassinated at the Worlds Fair in NY in 1901, was shaking fans hands and was shot twice in the abdomen. Roosevelt was sworn in as president Puerto Rico and the Philippines ... Chapter 22 Freedmen’s Bureau: Smooth transition for former slaves into freedom. Provided support to blacks such a schools, medical care, food, marriage, located family, gave married couple 40 acres and a mule. Created by Congress under the inﬂuence of Radical Republicans. 10% Plan: 10% of registered voters must swear to be loyal to the US gov. for state to be reintegrated into the Union Wade-Davis Bill: Only white men citizens take an oath could serve in the state constitution conventions. Required 50% state’s voters take the oath of allegiance. Black Codes: Preserved slavery. Illegal to carry a fun, congregate groups, be unemployed. Employed by white person under year contract. Paciﬁc Railroad Act: Civil Rights Act: Response to Black Codes created by southern states. All people born in US were citizens. Johnson vetoed. Congress passed anyway. 14th Amendment: Gave “citizenship” deﬁnition. Must be given equal opportunity under the law. All males allowed to vote within a state. Reconstruction Act: 15th Amendment: All men given right to vote. Women’s Loyal League: Members: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B Anthony. Goal to given women the right to vote. Petition got 400,000 signatures in support of 13th amendment prohibiting slavery. Union League: Network of political clubs educating blacks on civic duties. Built black churches and schools. Represented black grievances before employers and government. Tenure of Ofﬁce Act: Require the president to secure Senate consent before removing any federal ofﬁceholder. Force Acts: Disfranchisement of blacks through schemes like literacy tests unfairly administered by whites. Seward’s Folly: Sec. of State William Seward purchases Alaska from Russia. Chapter 23 Panic of 1873: Nation’s economic collapse. More railroads, mines, factories than markets could bear. Bank loans went unpaid. Gilded Age: 30 years post Civil war, political seesaw was delicately balanced in this era. Compromise of 1877: Resolved election and ended the Reconstruction in exchange for Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes. Withdrew troops from former Confederate states, returning South to white only. Civil Rights Act of 1875: Equal accommodations in public places and prohibits racial discrimination in jury selection. Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court case. Plessy, mixed race, arrested for sitting in white only seat on a train in LS. Ruled separate but equal. Chinese Exclusion Act: Chinese prohibited immigrating for 30-40 years. Pendelton Act: Made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal and established the Civil Service Commission to make appts. to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than “pull” Homestead Strike: Occurred at factory owned by Andrew Carnegie, mostly skilled steel workers angry over pay cuts. Violent strike 10 dead, 60+ wounded. Chapter 24 Vertical Integration: Andrew Carnegie. Cut out the middle man from raw materials by purchasing everything he needed for the process. Horizontal Integration: Allying with others competitors to monopolize a given market. Standard Oil Company: Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Forbade combinations in restraint of trade without any distinction b/w “good” trusts and “bad” trusts. Chapter 25 New Immigrants: From southern and eastern Europe Settlement Houses: Centers of women’s activism and of social reform —Hull House Liberal Protestants: Tukegee Institute: George Washington Carver joined facility to teach and research. Agri. chemist. Pragmatism: Truth of an idea was to be tested above all by its practical consequences Yellow Journalism: Spiking the news to make is more juicy. New York Journal reporting on destruction of the USS Maine call to war with Spain. No real evidence that Spanish blew up ship. NAWSA: Organized the ﬁrst women’s rights convention in 1848 WCTU: Militant women against alcohol. Carrie Nation took a hatchet into saloons and smashed bottles and bars. Prohibition movement. City Beautiful Movement: Order and harmony to the new American city copying European styles and planning building ideas for parks, boulevards, and public buildings. Worlds Columbian Exposition: First major project in Chicago imposing landscape of pavilions and fountains honored for the 400th anniversary of Columbus ﬁrst voyage. (Burnham) Chapter 26 Reservation Systems: Established boundaries for territory of tribe and attempted to separate Little bighorn: Custer and army defeated Wounded Knee: Battle for the ghost dance Lakota Sioux Dawes Severity Act: Mining Industry: Mechanization of Agriculture: Populists: Pullman Strike: 4th Party System: Gold Standard Act: Chapter 27 Rough Riders: Chapter 28
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