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EXAM 1 review

by: Heli Patel

EXAM 1 review PSYCH 2301

Heli Patel

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notes cover chap 1 to 4 definition included + diagrams and examples
Intro to Methods in Psychology
Lynda Villanueva
Study Guide
exam, study
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heli Patel on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 2301 at University of Houston taught by Lynda Villanueva in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 1 Scientific Understanding of Behavior ­ gathering , evaluating, interpreting data = research ­ 4 uses for research ­ •To evaluate the mass media ­ •At work ­ •In public police ­ •To evaluate programs Research keeps consumer informed  ­ Intuition  ­ •Illusory correlations­ when 2 rare events occur together, the  tendency to overestimate their frequency and assume they are related ­ Problem with it this : •our biases affect our perceptions leading us  to make false conclusions ­ We use intuition to explain things without question. ­ Authority  People tend to believe by another argument when they are perceived to be  prestigious, trustworthy, respectable ­ Scientific Approach in scientific evidence  ­ Do not accept intuition not even their own ­ Are skeptical of all even those in authority  ­ Empiricism ­ all knowledge is based on observation or DATA  Goals of Science  ­ Description ­ Describing ways in which things relate to one another ­ Prediction ­ Once you have found that 2 events occur together regularly, you  can make predictions ­ Determine causes of behavior  ­ Just because one event is a predictor of another event, does not  mean that event causes it ­ Need 3 things to determine causality: ­ Temporal precedence ­ Covariation of cause and effect ­ Elimination of alternative explanations ­ Explanation ­ why does the behavior occur? ­ Components of a Research Article  ­ Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion,  References, Appendix Chapter 2  Research leads to Curiosity = attempts to answer  Hypothesis ­  = prediction  all research is an attempt to test a hypothesis ­ Can be very general or usually formal and specific  ­ Typically based upon past research and theory  ­ Leads to study designs that will support or refute the hypothesis  ­ We can either support or fail to support a hypothesis  Respondent = informant = participant ­­­­ not subject  Different Source of ideas for research  ­ Common Sense  ­ Do opposite attract or do birds of a feather flock together or is the  grass greener on the other side   ­ Leads to research in attraction and romantic relationship ­ Observation from our world  ­ Effect of music lyrics  ­ Serendipity ­ an aptitude for making desirable discoveries by  accident. ­ Testing theories of behavior  ­ Functions of a theory  ­ Organize and explain a variety of facts or  descriptions ­ Generate new knowledge ­ Past Research  ­ Find inconsistencies  ­ Practical Problem  ­ Findings that could lead to legal and financial issues usually get  research started Quick.   The function of a theory Theories Organize and Explain   Generate New Knowledge  ­ Theories are based on data, so its been tested and thoroughly research  ­ Theories are modified when new data makes it necessary Chapter 3 Ethical Research ­ 3 ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report ­ The Belmont Report ­ The rulebook for ethical guidelines in  behavioral research 1.Beneficence  Golden Rule ­ max benefits and min risks to  participants  Risks  ­ Physical harm ­ Prescribing drugs, sleep  deprivation ­ Stress •Being told you will receive shock/ other  uncomfortable outcome •Receiving unfavorable feedback •Being asked about traumatic/unpleasant events ­ Loss of privacy or confidentiality  ­ Securing data in locked, secure place  ­ A void collection of private information that  can be linked to data  ­ O bserving people in a private setting 2.Informed Consent  (respect for persons in book) ­ Provide participants with all the necessary information that would influence their  decision to participate ­ Risks ­ Benefits ­ Rights to refuse ­ Informed Consent Form ­ Some that cannot provide informed consent  Lack of autonomy ­ Minors, psychiatric patients, low­cognitive ability ­ Lack the ability to provide informed consent ­ Need special permission Coercion ­ Organization that makes filling out survey a job  requirement ­ A professor that REQUIRES extra credit from  research ­ Withholding Information There is a balance that must be made ­ If you provide too much information, participants  may guess how you want them to act ­ If you don’t provide enough, participants consider it  unfair Okay to withhold when: ­ Information does not affect decision to participate ­ Information will be provided in a debriefing ­ Deception ­ When researcher purposely misrepresents information ­ Debriefing Opportunity to address ­ Deception ­ Withholding of information ­ Harmful effects ­ Provide additional information for those interested ­ Alternatives to Deception ­ Role playing  ­ How would you behave in a  situation? (not a great alternative) ­ Honest Experiments  ­ Participants know exactly what is  going on ­ Programs that try to change  behavior ­ Studies of naturally occurring events ­ Simulations  3.Justice Function of an Institutional Review Board Issues of fairness  ­ Institutional Review Board ( IRBs) ­ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  (HHS) says every institution that receives federal $ money must have an  IRB ­ IRB is a local agency of at least 5 people that  reviews research ­ Most psychology departments have an internal  review committee ­ All research conducted by faculty,  staff, and students must submit an application to the IRB before  conducting research ­ Risks and benefits ­ Procedures for minimizing risk ­ Exact wording of informed consent ­ How participants will be debriefed ­ Procedures for maintaining  confidentiality HHS regulations for Risk •Exempt research •No risk •Anonymous questionnaires, surveys, educational tests, naturalistic observation  in public places •Archival data for people who cannot be identified •IRB must determine whether research is exempt •Minimal risk research •Risk no greater than risks encountered in daily life or routine  physiological/psychological tests •Collecting routine physiological data •Moderate exercise •Research on individual or group behavior or characteristics of individuals, such  as perception, cognition, test development •Greater than minimal risk research •Subject to a thorough review by IRB •Likely to require complete informed consent Chapter 4 : Studying Behavior  Variable  ­ Any event situation, behavior, or characteristic that Varies  ­ Has at least 2 values or levels ­ gender has two levels or values  ­ Types    ­ independent/product ­ Research is usually conceptualized as different  cause and effect relationship ­ The variable that causes the effect in the other is termed the independent variable ­ Variable that is manipulated in an  experiment ­ The variable that is the cause of the  dependent/criterion variables ­ Also called predictor variable ­ Dependent / criterion ­ Variable that is the effect ­ The variable that the research is interested in  explaining  ­ Also called criterion ­ Mediator ­ Variables that mediate the effects of the  independent/predictor variable on the dependent/criterion variable ­ Variable in between ­ Moderator Operational Definition ­ A variable is an abstract concept that needs to be translated into something we  can measure ­ The measurable form of a variable is the operational definition ­ # duration of shocks delivered to someone  ­ # of times a child punches a bobo doll ­ # of times a child fights with other on a playground  ­ Levels of Abstraction ­ Years of Abstraction ­ Concrete  ­ Easy to operationalize ­ Job Performance  ­ General ­ More abstract ­ Task performance, contextual performance,  counterproductive work behavior ­ Importance of operational definitions ­ Forces scientists to discuss abstract terms in concrete ways  ­ May suggest that the variable is too vague ­ Helps us communicate our ideas to other scientists  Variable Relation ­ •Research is interested in examining the relationships between variables ­ Positive Linear Relationship ­ relationship increases  ­ Negative Linear Relationship­ relationship decreases  ­ Curvilinear Relationship ­ increases/decreases in the value of the  other variable  ­ No relationship ­ Deviation occurs  ­ Strength is the other important factor ­ Correlation coefficient provide both direction and strength of relationship  Two Approaches to studying relationship between variable  Non experimental ­ also known as correlational design ­ Use predictor/criterion terminology ­ Behavior is observed as it naturally occurs ­ Researcher does not manipulate variables Advantages   Disadvantage  ­ Improved fidelity ­ Cannot infer causality ­ Can study variable  ­ Bi­directionality(lack  temporal sequence)               Spurious (untrue) relationship Experimental  ­ One variable is manipulated (independent variable) and the other (dependent  variable) is measured ­ Attempts to eliminate all potential third variables ­ Use independent/dependent terminology ­ Design  Random assignment ­ Participants are assigned randomly  to different levels of the IV Ensures groups are equivalent on potential “third variables” Experimenter Control ­ Extraneous variables are held  constant to avoid spurious relations ­ The only difference between groups  is the level of the independent variable ­ Since there is  ­ experimenter control (no outside  influences of dependent variable) ­ random assignment (groups are  equivalent), ­ it is plausible to conclude that the  independent variable caused the dependent variable  ­ Advantage  ­ Can be more sure of  causality  ­ Disadvantage  ­ Artificial environment  ­ Field experiments can be conducted to reduce this issue  ­ Field Experiment  ­ Have random assignment to levels without  experimenter control ­ Loss of Experimenter Control ­ Not as confident in  results because confounding variable (third variable) could  have influenced the dependent variable ­ Correlational and Experimental design neither is superior ­ They are complementary  ­ If same conclusion are reached with different  methods our confidence in the conclusion increased  Validity  ­ Construct Validity  ­ How adequate are the operational definitions of our constructs? ­ Are we measuring what we say we are measuring? ­ ­ Internal Validity  ­ •How confident are we in concluding that a causal relationship  exists from our data? ­ High internal validity occurs when we have more evidence of a  causal relationship ­ Does cause precede effect? ­ Is there covariation (cause present then effect;  cause not present, then no effect)? ­ Elimination of alternatives? ­ External Validity  ­ How confident are we that our results can be generalized to other  populations and settings? ­ Can results be replicated…… ­ Other operational definitions? ­ With different participants? ­ In different settings?


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