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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kate Campbell

Exam 2 Study Guide APK 2100C

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Kate Campbell
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Covers key concepts from chapters 6, 9, 10, and 11 in detail and provides further study tips.
Applied Human Anatomy with Laboratory
Joslyn Ahlgren
Study Guide
bones, Joints, Muscles, Skeletal, tissue
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Campbell on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APK 2100C at University of Florida taught by Joslyn Ahlgren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see Applied Human Anatomy with Laboratory in Anatomy at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
October 3, 2016 ANATOMY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE 1. CHAPTER 6 Bones and skeletal tissues (pages 123 -140 in textbook) A. Skeletal System Introduction: i. Bones provide: 1. support and shape for body 2. attachment sites for muscles 3. storage depot for essential minerals ii. Cartilage 1. Connective tissue 2. Low cellularity 3. Lots of extracellular matrix a. Fibers b. Gel-like 4. Mostly composed of chondrocyte cells in lacunae 5. Part of numerous joints 6. Helps support and movement while cushioning bone surfaces that are rubbing each other iii. Joints 1. Individual ly are considered organs 2. Multiple tissues at work iv. Cartilage and Bone 1. Linked developmentally a. Majority of bones formed in cartilage tissue, then replaces by bone tissue during prenatal and childhood development B. Skeletal System contains clues to personal stor y i. Bones and skeletal tissues reflect: 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Ethnicity 4. Height 5. Health 6. Nutrition status C. Cartilage Types i. Hyaline Cartilage 1. Collagen fibrils are too small to see in a picture 2. Embryonic bones start out as this stuff à converted into bone 3. Structural rigidity , yet still somewhat flexible 4. Holds lots of water à Resists compression 5. Protection 6. Resilience 7. Found at: a. nose to keep open b. part of trachea to hold open the airway c. ends of long bones (which are smooth) d. growth plates within bones e. costal cartilages f. respirato ry structures 8. Side note: hyaline cartilage has FIBRILS not fibers; other cartilage has fibers ii. Elastic Cartilage 1. Visible elastic fibers are an easy way to distinguish this cartilage from an image 2. Stretch 3. RECOIL 4. Only in 2 locations: a. Epiglottis b. Outer ear (pi nna of ear) iii. Fibrocartilage 1. Rows of chondro cytes 2. Parallel rows of densely packed c ollagen fibers 3. Strength 4. Resists compression 5. SHOCK ABSORPTION 6. Enhances the fit of 2 bones coming together 7. Found: a. Pubic symphysis b. Menisci in knee joint c. Intervertebral discs D. Perichondrium 2 i. “Peri” = around “chondrium” = cartilage ii. dense irregular connective tissue girdle surrounding bones or cartilage iii. helps add protection and strength to oppose any squishing or deformation of the tissue iv. epithelium is “hovering” entire thing v. chondroblasts potentially help secrete matrix to help form cartilage vi. aids in guiding the 2 types of cartilage growth: 1. appositional growth a. growth from the outside b. chondrocytes of the perichondrium secrete matrix between the perichondrium and the connective tissue 2. interstitial growth a. growth from within b. normal in adolescent c. NOT in adults d. Accounts for limited cartilage healing in adults e. Chondrocytes deep in the tissue divide and produce new cells 3. Side note: bones also grow in these two ways! E. Function of Bones i. Us without bones = bloooob ii. Support iii. Protection iv. Movement v. MINERAL STORAGE (calcium phosphorus and magnesium) vi. Hemopoiesis (bone cell formation, specifically in red bone marrow) vii. Energy storage (yellow bone marrow composed of loose adipose CT proper which is mainly fat) viii. Metabolism F. Classification of bones i. Study tip: list and classify all of the bones! 1. Long bones a. Longer than width b. Contains shaft and 2 clear ends c. Make up most limb bones d. Classified due to elongation not physical size 2. Short Bones a. Cube-shaped b. Wrist and ankle 3 c. Sesamoid bones (sesame seed shaped) are specialized short bones that are created within a tendon ie. kneecap i. Multiple different sizes and amount depending on the person ii. Some help alter the direction of the tendon’s pull iii. Others minimize friction and change pressure in tendons to lessen ripping or abrasion 3. Flat Bones a. Thin, curved, flat b. Most cranial bones, ribs, sternum, and scapula 4. Irregular Bones a. Varying shapes that simply do not fit into any of the other categories G. Compact and Spongy Bone i. Compact: Normal eye perceives dense outer layer known as compact bone as smooth and solid ii. Spongy bone: Internal (trabecular bone is alt. name), appearing as honeycomb of tiny “needle-like” pieces known as trabeculae 1. Open spaces between the trabeculae house red or yellow bon e marrow H. Gross Anatomy of Typical Long Bone diaphysis= shaft i. epiphyses= ends; spongy bone! 4 ii. medullary cavity surrounded by spongy bone, filled by i. yellow bone marrow, associated with spongy tissue ii. epiphyseal line (in adults) looks like bone tissue, but remn ant of hyaline cartilage where a growth plate used to be; iii. found at junction, location called metaphysis iv. periosteum have collagen fibers ancho ring to bone 1. only not found where articular cartilage (in this case hyaline ) 2. dense irregular CT proper because skel etal muscle attach to bone through tendons, which are formed by dense regular tissue whose collagen fibers fuse with those of periosteum, creating strong anchoring - muscles pulling on bones is all different directions on bone, thus we need it to have dense irregular CT v. nutrient artery, travels along diaphysis, travelling in nutrient foramen (look like needle puncture) sending branches off through all osteons vi. Be able to identify an enlarged view of the long bone epiphysis and diaphysis! I. Gross Anatomy of Sho rt, Flat, and Irregular Bones i. Sandwich or Twinkie effect ii. No medullary cavity iii. Cavity is filled with spongy tissue J. Bone Membranes i. Periosteum 1. Thick 2. Covers external bone surface 3. Not present where sites are covered by articular cartilage 4. 2 layers: a. superficial layer = dense irregular CT b. deep layer = osteogenic i. bone making layer ii. osteogenic indicates it contains osteoblast and osteoclasts (create and destroy bone) 5. Sharpey’s fibers attach the periosteum to bone tissue!!! ii. Endosteum 1. “endo” = within 2. Thin 3. Osteogenic (s o osteoblasts and osteoclasts) 4. Covers/lines internal bone surfaces 5 5. Locations: a. Central canal of osteons b. Covering all spongy bone trabeculae i. Medullary cavity ii. Epiphyses of long bone iii. Inside short, irregular, and flat bones K. Bone Markings i. Surface of bones reflect the stresses applies to certain locations ii. Projections iii. Joints surfaces iv. Depressions and openings v. Often found where friction occurs or where stress occurs vi. Bigger the muscles, larger bone markings vii. Look at table 6.1 in textbook for details about markings L. Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone i. Give yourself a point of reference for what you’re looking at ii. Compact Bone 1. Looks solid 6 2. Has pathways for nerves and blood vessels 3. Osteons (Haversian system): 4. a. Run parallel to long axis b. Serve as weight bearing pillars c. Group of concentric tube d. Each individual tube is a lamella= layer of bone matrix with collagen fibers and mineral crystals who run in the same direction; adjacent lamellae’s fibers always run perpendicular e. Designed to deal with torsion and stress f. Prevent crack s in bone from spreading deeper g. Each osteon has central canal (Haversian canal) i. Lined with endosteum - an osteogenic layer ii. Has own blood vessels to supply osteon cells nutrients iii. Own nerve fibers iv. Lamellae are added to inner surface of osteons, decreasing the central canal’s diameter 5. Perforating canals (Volkmann’s) a. connect nerves and bloods vessels supplies from periosteum to central canal and marrow cavity 6. Osteocytes a. found in lacunae b. spider like bodies c. their legs are incased in tubes called canaliculi whi ch connect the lacunae to each other and the closest capillaries d. legs touch each other and form gap junctions to supply nutrients to entire osteon 7. Interstitial lamellae a. incomplete lamellae b. remains of old osteons c. lay between osteons 8. Circumferential lamell ae a. Found in internal and external surfaces b. Each covers entire circumference of diaphysis c. Same functions as osteons but on a magnified scale d. Resist torsion of the whole long bone iii. Spongy Bone 1. Less complex 7 2. Every trabecula (little beam) has multiple layers of osteocytes and lamellae but not large enough to have own osteons or vessels 3. Nutrients received through connections by the canaliculi, giving access to capillaries in the surrounding endosteum M. Bone Development and Growth i. Bone Formation occurs in four sit uations: 1. Formation of bone in an embryo 2. Growth of bones until adulthood 3. Remodeling of bone throughout life 4. Repair of fractures ii. Osteogenesis 1. starts in the embryo and carries on until the skeleton stops growing in adulthood, then slows down 2. Membranous bone s develop from mesenchymal membrane by intramembranous ossification 3. Endochondral bones (cartilage replacement bones) are made from hyaline cartilage through endochondral ossification iii. Intramembranous (within a membrane) Ossification 1. Not ever modelled into cartilage; goes straight from mesenchyme to bone 2. Skull bones (excluding some at the base) and the clavicles are the only ones form by this process iv. Endochondral (inside cartilage) Ossification 1. The rest of bones are formed in this fashion 2. Initially molded i n hyaline cartilage 3. Gradually bone tissue replaces 4. Completed once skeleton has finished growing 5. Bones increase in both length and width 6. Epiphyseal plates cause the bones to grow longer for about 20 years give or take N. How do bones get LONGER? 1. Cartilage gro wth on epiphysis side of epiphyseal plate a. The chondrocytes within hyaline grow, proliferating 2. Replacement of cartilage by bone on diaphysis side ii. At adulthood, 1. the epiphyseal plates close 2. Bone replaces cartilage à epiphyseal line O. How do bones get WIDER? i. Osteoblasts in periosteum put more bone tissue onto circumferential lamellae 8 ii. Osteoclasts take away bone from inner diaphyseal wall at similar speed P. Bone Remodeling i. Lots of bone matrix and osteocytes are always being removed and replaced ii. The architecture of bo nes is consistently changing on a small scale iii. Bone remodeling- in adults, bone deposited and taken away mainly at the endosteal surface 1. Spongy bone completely replaces within 3 -4 years 2. In compact bone, takes place at endosteum lining in central canals of osteon and takes closer to 10 years to be replaced 3. Coordinated by neighboring osteoblasts and osteoclasts 4. Total mass remains same in healthy individuals once the skeleton has ceases growing 5. Not uniform; some bones or parts are more heavily remodeled than o thers iv. Bone resorption 1. Osteoclasts break down bone tissue 2. Membrane creates tight seal on bone then releases hydrochloric acid (minerals in matrix not a fan, dissolve) 3. The dissolved calcium and phosphate from matrix go into tissue fluid and blood 4. Lysosomal e nzymes also secreted and they digest organic substance of matrix 5. Phagocytosis used to collect collagen and deceased osteocytes v. Bone deposition 1. Osteoblast put organic osteoid on bone 2. Calcium salts are crystalized in osteoid 3. Osteoblast become osteocytes once encompassed by bone matrix vi. Osteoblasts 1. come from mesenchyme 2. in adults, from mesenchyme resembling stem cells in periosteum, endosteum, and connective tissues of close bone marrow vii. Osteoclasts 1. Form in bone marrow 2. Come from hematopoietic stem cells (immatu re blood cells) 3. Stem cells often fuse together when forming each osteoclast à multinuclear viii. Continuous Remodeled Reasons: 1. Keeps specific concentrations of calcium and phosphate in body fluids 2. Response to mechanical stress endured a. More stress à thicker bones 9 b. Less stress à weaker bones ix. Study tip: be able to define, visualize, distinguish, an d describe the following: 1)Diaphysis 2) E iphysis 3) Metaphysis 4) Epiphyseal Plate 5) Epiphyseal Line 6) Osteon 7) Osteocyte 8) Osteoblast 9) Osteoclast 10) Periosteum 11) Endosteum 12) Yellow marrow 13) Red marrow 14) Perforating fiber 15) Perforating canals 16) C entral canals 17) Medullary cavity 18) Lamellae 19) Interstitial lamellae 20) Circumferential lamellae 21) Lacunae 22) Lamellae 23) Canaliculi 2. CHAPTER 9 A. Joints i. Joints or articulations are the point where rigid parts if skeleton meet ii. Weakest part of skeleton iii. Resist torsion and crushing iv. Aid movement and support v. Classified structurally (based on anatomical features) and functionally (based on type and degree of movement permitted) vi. *not all joints are bone to bone 1. bone, cartilage, alveoli, and teeth can form joints B. Structural Classification i. based on material and joint cavity presences: ii. Three types: 1. Fibrous 2. Cartilaginous 3. Synovial C. Fibrous joints i. Bones connected by fibrous tissue, mostly dense regular CT ii. No joint cavity present iii. 3 types: 1. Sutures a. “seams” b. found between skull bones c. edges of bone here are wavy d. allow for growth e. fuse together in middle of adolescence becoming synostoses or “bony junctions 10 iv. Syndesmoses 1. Bones connected solely by ligaments 2. Fibrous tissue in bands longer than in sutures 3. Movement allows is dependent on length of the fibers v. Gomphoses 1. “peg-in-socket” joint 2. a tooth with its socket 3. connecting ligament is short periodontal ligament D. Cartilaginous Joints i. Cartilaginous 1. No joint cavity 2. Cartilage ii. Synchondroses 1. Hyaline cartilage 2. “junction of cartilage” 3. immovable iii. Symphyses 1. Fibrocartilage 2. Hyaline also present in articular cartilages on bony surfaces which reduces friction 3. Resist tension and compression and shock absorption 4. Slightly movable E. Synovial joints i. Move most freely ii. All diarthroses iii. Joint cavity F. General structures of synovial joints i. Osteogenic layer in contact with periosteum ii. synovial membrane is highly vascularized - cells help secrete synovium and plasma secretes fluid iii. ligament (different types help support various synovial joints) iv. cartilage is avascular at joints - get nutrients from synovial fluid v. dense irregular connective tissue is at wall of joint and outer layer of periosteum (fibrous layer) vi. Articular (synovial) capsule 11 1. Encloses joint cavity 2. Outer fibrous layer is dense irregular CT continuous with periosteum layer of joining bo nes 3. Strengthens to keep bones from being yanked apart 4. Inner synovial membrane is made of loose CT and lines the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and makes synovial fluid vii. Synovium (synovial fluid) 1. Found in our bursa and tendon sheaths 2. Locate d in joint cavity and articular cartilages 3. Weeping lubrication: a. Pressure from joints squeezes out fluid and goes into articular cartilages and provides nutrients to cells and lubricates free surfaces so bones can move freely viii. Articular cartilage 1. Absorption so ends of bones don’t get crushed 2. Hyaline cartilage providing smoothness and compressibility ix. Articular Disc 1. Fibrocartilage disc (not always present in these synovia joints) 2. Gives shock absorption 3. Resists compression 4. Helps enhance fit of two bones coming together a. Minimizes damage 5. Permits two different movements at joint 6. Example: in knee or jawbone x. Reinforcing Ligaments (strengthen joint) 1. (Mostly) C apsular is thickened band in joint capsule a. ex: Glenohumeral ligaments 2. Extracapsular found just outside capsule a. Ex: medial and lateral collateral ligaments 3. Intracapsular are found inside the joint capsule and covered in synovial membrane separating them from joint cavity a. Ex: Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments xi. Nerves and Vessels 1. Rich with sensory nervous fibe rs in articular capsule a. Some sense pain b. Most monitor extent to how capsule is stretched 2. Rich blood supply a. Close by vessels send branches to ligaments and synovial membrane 12 3. Functional Redundancy = the overlapping of nerves and vessels a. Slows us to move aroun d without joint damage xii. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths 1. Contain synovial fluid 2. Sealed bags of lubricant 3. reduce friction 4. Bursa- flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane a. found where muscles, skin, ligaments, tendons, or bones overlie and create friction with each other 5. Tendon sheath - elongated fibrous sac lines with synovial membrane that wraps around tendons that are at risk of friction a. Exactly the same as bursa, only difference is shape and location b. Found any place with long skinny tendons i. Ex: in boney bicipital groove G. Types of Synovial Joints (look at Figure 9.8 on page 218) i. Categorized based on the shape of the articulating bones: 1. Planar 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Condylar 5. Saddle 6. Ball-and-socket H. Movements of Synovial Joints i. Movement of bones occur at synovial joints when muscle contract ii. Shapes of bones at the joints heavily influence the movements prohibited iii. Classification of movements: 1. Gliding movements - allow gliding (duh) 2. Angular movements - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction 3. Rotation movements - medial and lateral rotation a. Gliding i. Flat surfaces of neighboring bones glide across each other 1. Between carpals and tarsals and flat articular processes of vertebrae b. Flexion - decreases angle between bones, bringing them closer i. Neck or trunk, making a fist c. Extension i. Increases angle 13 ii. Straightening action iii. Opposite of flexion iv. Hyperextension - when joint is bent back past normal motion range 1. Common with loose ligaments d. Abduction i. Movement of limb farther from midline ii. Movement along frontal plane iii. For fingers or toe s this means spreading them far apart from each other e. Adduction i. Opposite of abduction ii. Move libs closer to midline iii. Movement along frontal plane f. Circumduction i. Movement of limb or finger in cone shape ii. Combination of abduction, extension, and adduction g. Rotatio n i. Movement of bone around longitudinal axis in turning motion ii. Transverse plane movement iii. Only form of movement allowed for beginning two cervical vertebrae iv. Whole trunk also rotates v. Limbs: 1. Medial rotation turns towards median plane 2. Lateral rotation turns opp osite h. Special Movements i. Elevation - superiorly lift body part ii. Depression - opposite iii. Protraction - non-angular movement toward anterior iv. Retraction - non-angular movement toward posterior v. Supination - radius rotates laterally ending with palms facing the anterio r vi. Pronation - radius rotates medially ending with palms facing the posterior 1. Ulna and radius form an X vii. Opposition - movement of thumb across the plan prohibiting the touching of your other fingertips 14 viii. Inversion - foot’s intertarsal joint moves sole medially ix. Eversion - foot’s intertarsal joint moves sole laterally x. Dorsiflexion - movement of superior portion of foot towards shin 1. Correlates to extension of hand xi. Plantar flexion - movement of superior portion of foot downward or elevation of heel I. Some specific synovial joints i. Sternoclavicular Joint 1. Four ligaments making it extremely stable a. More likely to break clavicle than this joint 2. Fibrocartilage disc (intercartilage disc) 3. Anterior and posterior capsular ligaments support 4. Interclavicular ligament reaches out fr om jugular notch and to both ends of capsules 5. Location: where upper limb attaches to axial skeleton 6. Diarthrotic ii. Glenohumeral Joint 15 1. Rotator cup muscle provides more stability than actual ligamented structures 2. Necessary for: a. Flexion b. Range of motion 3. This is why it is common for should to fall out of socket iii. Femorocoxal joint 1. Intracapsular ligament (ligamentous terries) 2. Either capsular or extracapsular iv. Capsular Ligaments of the Hip 16 1. 2. 3. most tight when standing (hip joint stable at extended) 4. *side note: extre mely flexible people have to enhance the length of collagen fibers a. typically done at an early age when more moldable b. problem: less stable, so when sport or training is stopped, joint injuries at flexible locations are common J. KNEE JOINT 17 i. Most complex joint of body ii. Modified hinge joint 1. Main action= flexion and extension 2. Some medial and lateral rotation iii. Extremely stable and strong iv. *patella only articulated with femur v. shared joint space with femoropatellar joint (gliding joint) vi. ACL and PCL cross- know the origin and end vii. MCL and LCL viii. Fibrocartilage discs are c shaped 1. Menisci often damaged and do not prepare well ix. SIDE NOTE: 1. TENDONS GO FROM MUSCLE TO BONE 2. LIGAMENTS GO FROM BONE TO BONE 18 x. KNOW: 1. Medial and lateral colligament 2. ACL and PCL 3. Patellar ligament 4. Quadriceps tendon 5. Medial and lateral retinaculum 6. 19 3. CHAPTER 10 A. Muscle Specific Terminology i. Myocyte= (all types of) muscle cell = muscle fiber ii. “Myo” and “mys” mean muscle iii. “sarc” means flesh 1. sarcolemma= plasma membrane of muscle fiber/cell 2. sarcoplasm= cytoplasm of mu scle fiber/cell 3. sarcoplasmic reticulum= endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber/cell iv. ** muscle fiber and cell can be used interchangeably; mean the same thing B. Muscle Types i. Skeletal muscle ii. Cardiac muscle iii. Smooth muscle C. General Muscle Functions (not specific to skeletal muscle) i. Contractibility 1. Ability to SHORTEN and generate force 2. Muscle only pull (no pushing) ii. Excitability 1. Ability to respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals iii. Extensibility 1. Ability to stretch without sustaining any damage iv. Elasticity 1. Ability to return to original shape and length after distension D. Function of Skeletal Muscle i. Movement ii. Posture iii. Joint Stabilization iv. Open/close body passageways 1. Sphincter types of skeletal muscles 2. Around mouth, eyes, and butt v. Thermogenesis 1. Contraction of skeletal muscle produces heat a. Both involuntary and voluntary 2. Contraction of smooth muscle aid heat loss prevention a. Goosebumps b. Dartos muscle (men only…) E. Connective Tissue Components of Skeletal Muscle 20 i. Provide lots of elasticity to muscles ii. Sheaths of CT hold muscle cells tight; aligned in parallel rows so individual cells can unite and generate force as a unit iii. Epimysium: 1. CT sheath 2. bundles numerous fascicles together iv. Fascicle: group of muscle cells/fibers bundled together 1. Wrapped by perimysium 2. CT sheath v. Endomysium: 1. between individual muscle fibers 2. CT sheath vi. Epimysium>fascicle>endomysium vii. Cytoplasm: 1. Nuclei 2. Plasma membrane 3. Organelles viii. ix. tendons: 1. connective tissue attachment of skeletal muscle to bone’s periosteum a. periosteum is dense regular CT proper with lots of collag en used to connect tendon to bone b. sharpey fibers connect to periosteum 2. usually appears white in photos 21 3. continuous with all 3 of the connective tissue sheaths of muscle beyond length of fibers 4. Ct sheaths are longer than muscle cells covering so tissue at en d of cell is bundled down, compacted together to make tendons (think tootsie roll wrapper) a. Made of dense regular connective tissue proper 5. Aponeurosis= broad flat tendon a. Example is the latissimus dorsi muscle F. Muscular Attachment i. Origin vs. Insertion 1. Origin is more proximal (generally) a. When contracted, move closer to origin of muscle 2. Insertion is more distal (generally) a. Insertion ALWAYS moves closer to origin 3. Movement is necessary to indicate origin and insertion a. Without specification regarding movement or ac tion, go based on anatomical position ii. Direct vs, Indirect Attachment 1. Indirect has obvious white tendon that attaches muscle to bone 2. Direct has no distinct white tendon attaching G. Sprain vs, Strains 1. Sprain is damage to ligament a. Attaches bone to bone 2. Strain is damage to muscle a. Tendons are part of muscle à damage to tendon is strain 3. Common to see both injuries occur together a. Bruising is common H. Nervous Innervation 1. Each skeletal muscle cell has an axon that provides nervous innervation, branching extensively wi thin the connective tissue sheaths a. How we get contraction 2. Each axon synapses with numerous muscle cells 3. One neuron innervates lots of muscle cells, but muscle cells only receive innervation from one neuro à if that nerve gets damaged, the muscle cannot be re-innervated I. Blood Supply i. Capillaries appear like wavy/kinky lines when muscle is at rest 1. Allows for movement or extensibility of muscle tissue without damage 22 ii. Typically innervated by only one artery, which branches extensively within the connective tissue sheaths (just like the axon of the nerve) J. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle i. A bands= dark staining ii. I bands= light iii. Striation is due to the myofibri ls (specialized contractile organelles) 1. Each myofibril is composed of a series of sarcomeres a. Sarcomere is basic contractile unit of muscle b. In series end to end c. Composed of myofilaments d. Z discs (lines or bands) are anchor for actin myofilaments e. H zone is “bare zone” meaning no myosin overlap; myosin heads are not here; encompasses M line f. M line (down the mid dle) is anchor for myosin; where myosin fuse together g. A band = length of myosin i. LENGTH OF A BAND (MYOSIN) NEVER CHANGES h. I band = space without myosin i. Will change with contraction due to overlap of myosin i. **be able to draw actin and myosin arrangement in a sarcomere (on slide 18 of the lecture slides for chapter 10) iv. Myofibrils Composition: 1. Contractile proteins a. Actin myofilaments i. Has specialized spot that allows for hookup ii. Thin iii. Double helix structure b. Myosin myofilaments i. Thick ii. Myosin heads attach to actin and then pull thin filaments inward for contraction 2. Regulatory Proteins a. Troponin i. Function: bind calcium ii. Pulls tropomyosin away from actin b. Tropomyosin i. These are the regulators or gatekeepers of actin 23 ii. Troponin allows tropomyosin to be pulled away to expose myos in minding sites on actin filament à contraction 3. Structural Proteins a. Titin i. found within the sarcomere ii. very large iii. high elasticity à recoil iv. Functions: 1) contributes to functionality and elasticity of muscle cell 2) aids in maintaining structure by anchorin g myosin b. Dystrophin i. Found at ends of the myofibril 4. T-tubules and the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum a. Function of SR is to hold calcium b. smooth endoplasmic reticulum forms membrane enclosed web (the white "tube" in pics) around sarcolemma called terminal cister n c. light blue structures are t -tubules (invaginations of plasma membrane) d. triad very strategically placed at A I junction i. needs to have an instantaneous release of calcium at all regions of cells and contract simultaneously K. The Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) i. Where axon terminal and muscle interact 1. This is a specific type of synapse ii. 3 parts: 1. Junctional folds of sarcolemma 2. Axon terminals (terminal boutons) a. separated from sarcolemma by: synaptic cleft 3. Synaptic Cleft iii. Extracellular fluid is between spaces iv. Neurotransmitters do NOT enter cell 1. Contacts part of protein outside cell and binds with is v. Steps: 1. Nerve impulse causes release of neurotransmitter onto synaptic cleft 2. Neurotransmitter causes changes within the sarcolemma, exciting the muscle fiber a. Stimulat ion is brought down through T tubules in order to begin fiber contraction 24 3. Enzymes in syna ptic cleft break down the neurotransmitter and controls how great a movement is produced L. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types i. Slow Oxidative (Type 1) 1. High myoglobin content 2. Slow contraction speed 3. Aerobic 4. Not easily fatigued 5. Red 6. Small fiber diameter 7. Functions: a. Keeping posture and endurance activities ii. Fast Ox-Glycolytic (Type II a) 1. Medium myoglobin content 2. Fast contraction speed 3. Aerobic and anaerobic 4. Intermediate fatigue resistance 5. Pink 6. Intermediate fiber diameter 7. Functions: a. Walking or sprinting iii. Fast-Glycolytic (Type II b/II x) 1. Low myoglobin content 2. Fast contraction speed 3. Anaerobic 4. Quickly fatigued 5. White 6. Large fiber diameter 7. Functions: a. Rapid, intense movements for very short periods of time iv. **know all variations of the names of the Muscle Fiber Types but do not need to know all info about each v. **myoglobin is basically hemoglobin inside the muscle cells à binds oxygen vi. Fiber Type Distribution 1. Muscle have mixture of fibers but genetics and traini ng can play a role 4. CHAPTER 11 25 A. Fascicle Arrangements **Should be able to look at or read about a muscle and label what type of i. Circular 1. Concentric rings 2. Always found around external body openings (sphincters) which function to close holes ii. Convergent 1. Broad flat origin 2. Thick, shorter, fatter, insertion iii. Pennate 1. Short fascicle that obliquely attached to a tendon that goes the length of the muscle 2. “penna” means feather 3. Subcategories: a. Unipennate - fibers only on one side of tendon b. Bipennate - fibers are on both sides of tendon c. Multipennate - multipl tendons and many oblique arrangements of fibers around 4. All of these muscles are very powerful iv. Parallel 1. Fasicales run (you guessed it) parallel to the long axis of the muscle 2. Subcategories: a. Fusiform - skinny ends b. Strap-like- not skinny ends i. Ie. the Sartorius muscle (longest muscle in body) B. Lever Systems **Direction of load and effort do NOT determin e which lever, just Placement i. First class levers 1. Load-fulcrum -effort a. Fulcrum in middle b. Very rare in body ii. Second class levers 1. Fulcrum -load-effort a. Very rare in body iii. Third class levers 1. Load-effort -fulcrum a. Most common 26 C. Muscle Actions and Interactions i. A MUSCLE THE CROSSES A JOINT ACTS AT THAT JOINT ii. Only pull iii. Tendons are part of muscles iv. Agonist (prime mover) = contracts to cause an action 1. Synergists assists by: a. Adding extra force b. Reducing or cancelling out unwanted movements i. Fixators fix a bone in particular place or the origin of another muscle v. Antagonist= stretches and yields based on movement of agonist vi. Isometric contraction = no movement à force on both sides of joint vii. Action based on position of muscle as it crosses joint: 1. Anterior -flexion 2. Posterior -extension 3. Lateral -abduction 4. Medial-adduction D. Limb Muscle Compartments i. Upper limb 1. Anterior brachia l a. Coracobrachialis, brachialis, and b iceps brachii b. Crosses in front of jo int so flexion at both shoulder and elbow 2. Posterior brachial a. Triceps brachii (antagonist for biceps brachii) i. Different origins 1. Medial-post shat 2. Lateral-post shaft 3. Long-infraglenoid tubercle ii. Insertion - olecranon process of ulna iii. Action at should and elbow is extension because is crosses behind joints b. Anconeus i. Origin; lateral epicondyle of Humerus ii. Insertion ; olecranon process of ulna iii. Could be a stabilizer or synergist iv. Action at elbow is extension ii. ***Be able to identify where cross section is taken and the nerve innervating these muscles (look at slide 20 of lectures slides for chapter 11) 27 1. Anterior antebrachial a. Flexors!! (look ALL of these compartments up in the books so you can visualize and get a better understanding of what they entai l) b. Do not have to memorize muscle just be able to place in correct compartment c. Fcu, pl, fcr, br, pt (superficial) d. Fds, ecrl (intermediate) e. Fdp, fpl (deep) 2. Posterior antebrachial a. Extensors!! b. Br,ecrl, ecrb, a, ed, edm, edu, fcu, tb (superficial) c. Sup, abpl, epb, epl, el, (deep) iii. Lower limb 1. Anterior thigh a. Just review slide (24) and know origins and insertion b. Hip- flexion c. Knee-extension 2. Posterior thigh a. Slide 25 know origins of hamstrings and insertions b. Hip- extension c. Knee-flexion 3. Medial thigh a. Slide 26 b. Adductors! c. Hip-adducts d. Knee-no action at knee because it doesn’t cross 4. Anterior /posterior/later al leg a. Same directions/pattern go through slides it will help I promise! 5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STUDYING A. Take practice tests at the end of each chapter in the textbook B. Understand answers to homework, do not just find the right answer; be able to explain it (when applicable) C. Make a chart of all the major vocab terms from these chapters and make sure you know the difference between them (a lot of them look/ sound/are similar, so be careful) 28 D. Pictures pictures pictures! Look through lecture slides and understand what pictures are showing, and then find more of google with various different perspectives of the same thing! E. Repetition and real-life application of material will help it stick better F. If you have any questions, feel free to email me!! 29


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