PBIO 1030 Exam 2 Study Guide
PBIO 1030 Exam 2 Study Guide PBIO 1030
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PBIO 1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
PBIO 1030 Fall 2016 Week 4 Notes [Readings posted to Blackboard as 2 separate documents: Pollination & Dispersal; Local Forest Resources). The objectives listed below outline what you should know and be able to do after completing each assigned reading. Use these objectives to take notes as you read; review them before class to prepare for clicker quizzes. Monday, September 12 – EXAM 1 covers material from Weeks 1-3. Wednesday, September 14, 2015 (Reading: Pollination & Dispersal) 1. Define palynology and describe how people benefit from this study. Palynology: study of pollen Essential to petroleum industry Significant to: o Petroleum geology o Archeology (what agriculture originated in certain areas and what plants were consumed by ancient people) o Criminology (scene of the crime or the whereabouts of a suspect at the time of the crime can be determined by analyzing the pollen clinging to the victim’s body or to the shoes/clothing of suspects) o Anthropology (pollen has symbolic meaning to some Native American tribes) o Aerobiology o Study of allergies 2. Distinguish pollination from fertilization and indicate whether these processes are part of sexual or asexual reproduction. Pollination: the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma o Self-pollination: pollen transfer within the same individual plant o Cross-pollination: transfer of pollen from one plant to another Fertilization: occurs once the pollen grain reaches the stigma, it produces a pollen tube, which grows down through the style to the ovary. o egg and sperm come together Sexual reproduction o Two sperm form with eggs; one creates endosperm, the other creates egg 3. List plant strategies that attract pollinators and the types of animals involved in pollination. Showy flowers attract pollinating animals (color, scent) o Bees Yellow Blue Purple o Wasps o Flies o Ants o Butterflies o Moths o Birds o Bats Small, inconspicuous flowers are often wind-pollinated 4. Name four ways that fruits and seeds are dispersed and give a specific example for each. Dispersal by wind o Samara of maple has a curved wing that causes the fruit to spin as it is released from the tree (may be carried up to 10 kilometers away from their source) Dispersal by animals o Shore birds may carry seeds great distances in mud that adheres to their feet o Other birds and mammals eat fruits whose seeds pass unharmed through their digestive tracts Dispersal by water o Many sedges have seeds surrounded by inflated sacs that enable the seeds to float Other dispersal mechanisms and agents o Fruits and some legumes sometimes mechanically eject seeds o The splitting action of drying witch hazel capsules may fling the seeds over 12 meters away 5. Explain how human dispersal of plant material can have negative consequences. Most efficient transporters May carry noxious weeds and plant diseases across continents intentionally or unintentionally Lecture Gametes: sex cells o 2 sperm in pollen o Ovules (1 egg each) o ½ number of normal chromosomes o 1 sperm forms endosperm, which nourishes the embryo and sometimes people Rice Oats Brazil nuts o Double fertilization Animal pollinators o Always looking for reward o Mimicry: some animals can disguise as mates to get pollinators such as wasps o Alarm cues: causes animals to fight it, plants get pollinated o Other strategies: Flies like the rotting meat smell of Carion flower Fruity smell and white color of Saguro Cactus attract bats Scarlet Bee Balm color attracts this hummingbird; its beak is also long enough to reach nectar Turk’s cap lily shaped to be accessible by butterflies Salvia (in class) has landing pad for bees with a lever Fig plant (in class) hides its flowers inside a swollen stem o Females lay eggs in some the ovules and in the process, pollinate stigmas then die o Grubs emerge and mate, then males die in fig o Females leave with pollen to find a fig for egg laying Dutchmen’s Pipe (in class) o flowers attract flies o flower closes and fly gets trapped o Once the anthers become mature and pollen is released, the fly is released World’s largest pollinator: black and white ruffed lemur from Madagascar for the traveler’s palm Friday, September 16, 2016 (Reading: Local Forest Resources) 1. Using the readings, identify ecosystem services provided by each of these local plant species. We will share these in class and you will be tested on what is covered on Friday. American Sycamore: o They are also used for landscaping, along streets, and in yards as a shade tree o Sycamores become hollow as they get older and animals can live inside them o Wood used for furniture, flooring, butchers’ blocks, particle board, boxes, crates, baskets o Stop soil erosion o Shade o Resistant to pollution (good landscaping in cities) PawPaw Tree o Fruit (loaded with vitamin C, antioxidants, and healthy fats, and the only fruit containing all the essential amino acids) o Potential substitute crop for the tobacco that so long sustained the state of Kentucky o Native Americans used the fiber from pawpaw bark to weave nets Spicebush o Dried drupes have a strong pepper-like taste mellowing to fruit that would be interesting in a variety of baked items such as gingerbread o Fragrance o Twigs used medicinally STDs Cough Hives Emetic Yellow Buckeye o Wood is used for furniture, crates, caskets, boxes, and artificial limbs (before new materials) Lightweight furniture since low density White Ash o Wood used to make baseball bats, tool handles, furniture, and used as firewood o Popular shade tree for urban areas Goldenseal o Herb used to treat an abundance of ailments including stomach and circulation complaints, wounds, rashes PBIO 1030 Fall 2016 Week 5 Notes [Readings posted to Blackboard on Herbivory & Plant Toxins (Monday), Plant Secretions (Wednesday), and Poisonous Plants (Friday). BLOG note: We will be meeting on Monday to discuss the Blog Assignment. Bring your ideas about what national park you would like to use for your blog. Your group will make a final decision in class. Monday, September 19, 2016 (Herbivory & Plant Toxins) 6. Describe how plants respond to or protect themselves from herbivory, listing examples and distinguishing between mechanical and chemical defenses (see also: http://www.inhf.org/ec20- herbivores-v-plants.cfm) Mechanical defenses: take the form of physical structures or movements o Thorns, spines, and hairs blackberries/raspberries o Waxes and saps beetles slip and fall on waxy leaves o Defensive and offensive movements Venus flytrap makes rapid movements Folding quickly to decrease the surface area available to potential pests Chemical defenses: production of chemical defenses, sometimes called secondary compounds that make the plant toxic, reduce palatability or reduce its digestibility so as to lessen its value to the herbivore o Cyanogenic glycosides: when consumed by herbivores, these molecules break down into cyanide, killing or seriously harming the animal o Neurotoxic chemicals: in hemlock o Monarchs and milkweeds: makes butterflies toxic to predators o Nicotine: stimulates release of both acetylcholine and epinephrine Kills cells in animals Stimulates neurotransmission at cholinergic receptors Nicotine is not rapidly deactivated by enzymes Prevents incoming impulses Eventually blocks sensory receptors (skin and tongue) Acute cases: tremors, convulsions, death 7. Describe how plant secondary chemical compounds (secondary metabolites) are used by human cultures and how they sometimes benefit other herbivores. Medicines o A lot of medicines come from compounds isolated from plants o Cardiac glycosides (digitalis comes from Dead Men’s Bells) Digitalis is the most common cause of death in hospitals (used in medicine, but very potent) Spices o Mustard, for example, get their flavor from secondary plant compounds that may make the plant toxic to an insect but are not toxic to humans Mint o Repels insects, but we use peppermint, etc. 8. Predict how some of these plant strategies benefit humans. See above 9. Explain why plants produce tannins and how tannins have been important to people. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/ethnobotany/tannins.shtml Tannins: complex chemical substances derived from tannic acid o Large molecules that bind readily with proteins, cellulose, starches, and minerals o Resulting substances are insoluble and resistant to decomposition o Deters herbivores o Helps stop decomposition from bacteria and fungi o Found in bark, wood, leaves, buds, stems, fruits, seeds, roots, and plant galls o Tannins stored in the bark of trees protect the tree from being infected by bacteria or fungi Examples: o Cranberries o Grape seeds o Grape skins o Oak Human uses: o Different colors, textures, and durability of leathers using different formulations of plant tannins (tanning liqueurs) o Medicine and human health Tannings are astringents that tighten pores and pull out liquids o Tea, coffee, red wine, beer Wednesday, September 21, 2016 (Plant Secretions) 1. Name the broad group of plants which produce latexes. Explain the meaning behind the English term, rubber, and describe how this plant product has been used throughout history. Latex: any mixture of organic compounds produced in laticifers o Ficus: Soap, but can be an irritant Medicinal use (warts, purgative, vermifuge, sore throats) but it’s risky Occupational hazard for pickers Cheese making Tenderizing meat (enzymes break down proteins) Laticifers: single cell or string of cells that form tubes, canals, or networks in various plant organs o not know to gymnosperms but occur sporadically throughout the angiosperms (flowering plant) Rubber: a name given Sir Joseph Priestley to hevea latex in 1770 when he discovered that it could be used for rubbing out writing out writing errors from a page 2. Describe the innovations that made Hevea rubber more useful. “blood of the tree” “Olmec” means “rubber people” in an Aztec language: people who used rubber balls Ancient Mayans played ball as well Aztecs played a vigorous game using rubber balls and symbolic figurines Aztecs used it for offerings Indigenous people coated feet with sap In 1823, Charles Macintosh discovered that hevea rubber is soluble in hexane o Led to new uses because coagulated latex could be shipped, redissolved, and then applied to specific substances under controlled industrial conditions In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization, the cross- linking of rubber’s isoprene molecules caused by the addition of sulfur with lead oxide o Makes latex impervious to weather and improves its elasticity In 1876, seeds from a highly productive population of hevea known to produce large of latex were taken from Kew Garden in London and from there to Asia were free of the fungus, and by the turn of the century, rubber production in the Old World began to rival that in South America o Amazon forest By World War II, 90 percent of the world’s natural rubber was collected from Asian plantations World War II, fighting operations effectively cut off the supply of rubber to the United States Synthetic substitutes were then used After 1970, the demand for natural rubber rebounded as the production of tires increases o More than 2/3 of all rubber go to the manufacture of tires 3. Explain how native South Americans contributed to rubber collection and discuss the effects that industrialization and war had on this industry. Brazilian Amazonians to make a rubber ball: o Dip paddle in Havea latex; put it over the smoke from a fire of palm nuts Sometimes latex from a vine is tapped and added 4. Describe an alternate plant source of rubber. Guayule is a shrub native to the Chihuahuan Desert of southwestern Texas o Was not used as source of latex by native peoples 5. Explain why the latex, chicle, was first brought to the US and for what commercial product it is most useful. First brought to America by Mexican President Santa Anna in the 1800s, when he was convinced to ship 2 tons to America for rubber purposes o Santa Anna said his people used it for gum o Thomas Adams used chicle and sweetened it to make chewing gum Chicle is best used for chewing gum. 6. Explain why plants produce resins and name some uses for humans. Some deter herbivores for plants Anti-microbial properties Preserves insects, etc. through fossilized resin Human uses: o Incense for religious services o Caulking for ships o Embalming (fill with resin to keep the body hard) o Adhesive paints Friday, September 23, 2016 (Poisonous Plants) 1. Describe the uses that poisonous plants have for people and for the plants that produce them. Makes them undesirable to herbivores Uses for people: o Medicinal purposes o Surgery o Kill people/animals o Insecticide 2. Describe the effects of strychnine and curare and explain how each of them they are used. Strychnine: an alkaloid obtained commercially from the seeds of the Asian-Indian tree Strychnos nux-vomica (Loganiaceae) o Stimulant of the central nervous system, especially the spinal cord o Induces muscle spasms and convulsions o Magnifies sensations o Can trigger seizures o Used for a variety of ailments traditionally Constipation Impotence Barbiturate poisoning o Medical use today continued to neurologic research o Used illegally to enhance athletic performance o Used for poison for rodents o Nux vomica: very diluted, used as medicine for people who have headaches/vomits from overworking, partying too hard, etc. o History: Prepared for respiratory, digestive, and circulatory supportives Highly poisonous, has been mistake for cocaine 1904 Olympics in St. Louis, first Olympics in US, World Fair: Tom Hicks given strychnine for athletic performance, given three doses and taken to hospital after winning Curare: the arrow poison employed by South American tribes in hunting game o “Flying death” o Mixture of toxic plants o When injected, causes muscle paralysis and rapid death o Strength gauged on effect: One-tree curare (stronger) Three-tree curare o Blocks nerve impulses at the junction of nerve and muscle o Produces immediate muscle relaxation by blocking nerve impulses o Has value in the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy, polio, etc. o Physostigmine (from Calabar bean) is an antidote to curare o At one time used for treatment for rabies and tetanus o Used for surgery muscle relaxation used with anesthetic artificial respiration required o Charles Waterton’s experiments with donkeys Donkey 1: Curare killed donkey Donkey 2: Curare injected with tourniquet, lived until tourniquet was taken off and then she died Donkey 3: Died, revived artificially ventilation, relaxation of muscles involved in respiration Confirmed asphyxia confirmed as cause of death 3. Name the most poisonous wild plant in North America and describe the features that would allow you to identify (and avoid) it. Poison hemlock and water hemlock o Large, perennial herbs with big, white, compound umbels and pinnately compound leaves o All parts of hemlock are poisonous o Causes paralysis o Water hemlock contain both male and female parts on this flower: monoecious Umbel: an inflorescence which consists of a number of short flower stalks (called pedicels) which spread from a common point, somewhat like umbrella ribs. 4. Name the source of ricin and describe its effects if seeds are swallowed. Explain why there is concern over its potential use in bioterrorism. Found in castor beans, most concentrated in the seeds Inhibits protein synthesis in the intestinal wall and causes the clumping of red blood cells Most deadly natural poison known Symptoms do not develop until several hours or even days after the seeds are eaten Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and burning of the mouth and throat are the first symptoms to appear Kidney failure Can kill people very easily, therefore concern for bioterrorism o 23 arrests since 2010 for ricin use; 65 arrests due to ricin threats o 4 members of N. Georgia militia plotted to bomb federal buildings and city of Atlanta with ricin o 2013 investigation of letters with ricin sent to government officials 5. Describe the effects of two houseplants that are most commonly the subject of calls to poison control centers. Children ingesting aroids (Araceae). Two most frequently cited: o Philodendron Vines or erect plants, heart shaped or dissected leaves o Dumbcane Speckled leaves on a moderately stout, erect stem o Both contain crystal needles of calcium oxalate. If swallowed, these crystals cause painful burning and swelling of the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat PBIO 1030 Fall 2016 Week 6 Learning Objectives Monday, September 26, 2016 (Agriculture & Domestication) 10. Explain the importance of the Fertile Crescent in agriculture. Name the earliest domesticated crop from that region. Includes parts of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel Nile, Tigris, Euphrates Rivers floodplains Contains the remains of plants and animals dating back 9,000 to 14,000 Evidence indicates that barley may have been the first crop domesticated in the Near East, approximately 10,000 years 11. Explain what forms of evidence are used to determine: (a) whether farming practices were in place during ancient times, (b) what types of foods were being eaten and cultivated, and (c) the types of methods used in growing or harvesting plants for food. Jarmo in northeastern Iraq in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains: a) Charred grains of wheat and barley found in a domesticated type already changed from wild type (for this genetic change to have taken place, initial cultivation had to take place b) Bones of wild animals, snail shells, acorns and pistachio nuts c) Artifacts uncovered at the site include flint sickles and grinding stones for harvesting and milling cereal grains as well as clay figurines, woven baskets, and rugs 12. Name early cultivated foods from the Americas. Squash Corn Chili peppers Amaranth Avocado Gourds Beans White and sweet potatoes 13. Describe how domesticated plants differ from wild plants and what type of selection is responsible for these differences. Domesticated: genetically distinct from wild progenitors Through the process natural selection, wild plants have evolved mechanisms that ensure their survival in the environment, but once a plant has been domesticated, traits are artificially selected to suit human needs and do not necessarily have a survival value Example: o Wild grasses have shattering fruiting heads which will break apart at a slight touch or breeze and scatter their seeds over a wide area o A recessive gene is responsible for a tough spike with a nonshattering head. It would be natural for early forager to gather those seeds attached to the tougher spikes. When agriculture began, the seeds most easily gathered would be planted and so pass on the nonshattering trait 14. Define cereals and name the plant family from which they are derived. Describe one feature that sets corn apart from other cereals. Cereal: is any grass (grain) cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. Corn is… o much larger than other cereals o has a separate staminate and carpellate inflorescenes o each floret consisting of three stamens surrounded by bracts o Grains (kernels) can be of various colors, are naked, but the entire ear is tightly covered with specialized bracts known as husks o Silks on husk is actually the style and stigma of an individual carpellate flower Wednesday, September 28, 2016 (Sustainable agriculture) 7. Describe how Farmer Brandt uses cover crops, including some of the types of plants used, the benefits they offer and how he plants seeds after the cover crops are finished. Cover crops: fall plantings that blanket the ground in winter and are allowed to rot in place come spring o Hairy vetch o Rye o Radishes o Legumes Putting nitrogen back into soil because of the bacteria in the nodules of the plants Cover crops have helped Brandt slash his use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides Rolling contraption he drags behind his tractor to kill cover crops ahead of the spring and the shiny, fire-engineered device he uses to drill corn and soy seeds through the dead cover crops directly into the soil 8. Describe the effect of tilling on soil. Explain whether genetically engineered crops reduce tilling. Brandt never tills his soil Tilling: ripping the soil up with steel blades create a nice, clean, weed-free bed for seeds, but it also disturbs soil microbiota and leaves dirt vulnerable to erosion Genetically engineered plants for herbicide resistance, which has allowed farmers to use chemicals instead of the plow to control weeds 9. Compare Brandt’s soil quality with the neighbor’s. Neighbor’s soil is moist, muddy crust and right underneath is dry 10. Explain how modern farming practices such as monocultures and chemicals impact our water and soil and why more sustainable methods are not being adopted by many farmers. Increases loads of pesticides and titanic annual additions of synthetic and mined fertilizers, much of which ends up fouling drinking water and feeding algae-smothered aquatic dead zones from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico Friday, September 30, 2016 6. Define transgenic and explain how bacteria are used to create transgenic plants. Transgenic: organisms that contain a “foreign” gene in each of their cells DNA RNA Protein = trait transferring because they all have the same genetic code (ATCG), genes must be expressed Genetic Engineering: o Restriction enzymes found in bacteria are useful to cut out genes of interest o We take DNA from bacteria (using restriction enzymes) o Take the cell with the gene and put it into the plant cell for the plant to reproduce, so the genetic information is in all of its cells 7. Explain the purpose of herbicide resistance in crop plants and how it has been used in commercial crops. Describe the controversy behind the use of genetically engineered alfalfa. Simplifies the application of one broad-spectrum herbicide throughout the growing season because the resistant crop plants are not threatened by the chemicals Bacterial gene that confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate has been introduced into various crop plants Concern has been expressed about the approval of genetically engineered alfalfa Poses a special environmental risk spread of herbicide resistance to non-GM alfalfa (because it is pollinated by honeybees) o This would present major problems for the organic dairy industry by possible contaminating the forage for organic dairy cows 8. Explain the complications with adopting glyphosate-resistant (genetically engineered) wheat. Some countries objected so strongly that they would not purchase any wheat from any country that grows biotech wheat because of the chance that grain mixing might occur The US is the world’s largest wheat exporter Food manufacturers protests for fear that they would have to create separate production facilities for goods Some scientists were also concerned about the effects on future crops 9. Describe the purpose of Bt crops. Predict what effects the production of Bt might have on plant growth, based on your previous knowledge of secondary metabolites. Bacillus thurigiensis (BT): common soil bacterium that is well known for its ability to produce proteins with insecticidal properties There are over 400 Bt preparations registered in the US for control of various insect pests Benefits: o Toxins are continuously produced and persist for some time o Fewer chemical insecticides are needed o Greater range of insect pests is controlled o Not harmful to mammals, birds, amphibians, or reptiles 10. Explain the controversies surrounding Bt corn use regarding environmental and health issues. Environmental: o Monarch butterfly larvae feed on milkweed leaves, found in cornfields o Larvae who ate on Bt milkweed developed more slowly and had a much higher mortality rate. Health: o Report finding StarLink corn approved for animal consumption, but not human consumption o Bt toxin in StarLink corn more resistant to digestion and heat than other Bt toxins o VERY LITTLE to NO evidence of effects on human health 11. Distinguish between herbicide and pesticide resistance. Herbicide: used to kill weeds and undesirable plants Pesticide: used to kill pests Week 7 Notes Monday, Oct. 3, 2016 - Reading Day: No Class Wednesday, Oct. 5, 2016 (Green Roofs) 15. Define green roof and name at least four benefits they provide to the individual home or business owner (read both items in the document to get a full picture). Green Roof: emerging technology that can help communities mitigate urban heat islands; vegetative layer grown on a rooftop o Provides shade o Removes heat from the air through evapotranspiration o Reduce temperatures of the roof surface and the surrounding air o Aesthetic appeal o Protect roofing membrane from exposure to ultra violet radiation and hail damage o Can reduce greenhouse gas emissions o Improed insulation values o Could reduce urban heat island, which would lower energy consumption in the urban area o Can be used as part of the storm water management strategy in the urban area o Delay runoff into the sewage system, thus help to reduce the frequency of combined sewage overflow o Can improve air quality o Increase property values 16. Predict what effect the adoption of green roofs on a large scale would have on communities and the environment. Describe the potential in terms of both current land cover of roof systems in major cities and environmental effects. See above 17. Explain the effects of vegetation on a roof and how temperature reduction is achieved. Describe the process of evapotranspiration. Shading o Reduces surface temperatures below the plants o Cooler surfaces reduce the heat transmitted into buildings or re-emitted into the atmosphere Evapotranspiration o Plants absorb water through their roots and emit it through their leaves (transpiration) o Evaporation, the conversion of water from a liquid to a gas, also occurs from the surfaces of vegetation and the surrounding growing medium o Together, the processes are referred to as evapotranspiration o Cools the air by using heat from the air to evaporate water 18. Describe an extensive green roof and name the main plant type used on this type. Plant selections typically include sedums—succulent, hardy plants—and other vegetation generally suitable for an alpine environment Concept is to design a rugged green roof that needs little maintenance or human intervention once it is established Plants adapted to extreme climates often make good choices and may not require permanent irrigation systems Because of their light weight, extensive systems will require the least amount of added structural support Friday, Oct. 6, 2017 EXAM 2
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