PBIO 1030 Exam 1 Study Guide
PBIO 1030 Exam 1 Study Guide PBIO 1030
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PBIO 1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Week 1 Notes Monday, August 22, 2016 (Readings: Syllabus; People & Plants, pages 1-7) 1. Explain how your grade will be determined in Plants & People. Clicker quizzes and assignments (10%) Mean score for in-class group assignments (5%) Group blog and comments (10%) Exams (75%) 2. Describe the attendance policy for Plants & People. There will be no make-up quizzes or tests (but the lowest will be dropped). Work together with professor if there are special circumstances (health, etc.), but there needs to be documentation. 3. Describe how the plant, Rauvolfia serpentine has been used by people living in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains and in other parts of India. Explain how it got the name, “snakeroot.” People in the Himalayan Mountains discovered the plant’s roots, if given to someone who was bitten by a snake, would serve as an antidote to a snakebite. Rauvolfia, the name of the genus, references the sixteenth century physician and botanist Leonhare Rauwolf, while serpentina, the name of the species, is a nod to the snakelike appearance of its root. The history of snakeroot is well documented. o Rig Veda: Oldest document describing medicinal use of plants 4500-1600 BC Veda: Knowledge 4. Explain how Rauvolfia serpentina went from being a traditional medicine to becoming a valued medicinal resource in western cultures. Locals began to spread word about the plant to nearby cultures, despite the lack of interest from Holland. Rumors began about the plant treating madness, insanity, epilepsy, insomnia (called the “insanity cure”). Indians used R. serpentina to treat anxiety, insomnia, and madness. In 1931, Indian chemists discovered the plant’s powder both had a hypnotic effect and lowered blood pressure. Again, this was ignored by Western scientists. 1949 Swiss chemist Emil Schlittler read a study about the plant and began to extract from the roots an alkaloid with his colleague, Hans Schwarz. The two discovered that low oral doses of the reserpine (0.1 mg per kg body weight) reduced blood pressure. CIBA soon introduced reserpine under the name Serpasil. Unlike other blood-pressure reducing medications at the time that constricted blood vessels, Reserpine had a direct effect on the hypothalamus. After a 1954 convention in New York, Reserpine became the first major drug to treat hypertension in the Western World. Originally, Reserpine was extracted from the root of the plant. Now, it is synthesized in a lab in order to tweak the chemical compounds to subside side effects and because it is more sustainable. 5. Define these terms: ethnobotany; indigenous peoples. Ethnobotany: the study of the relationships between plants and people o “ethno”, the study of people o “botany”, the study of plants Indigenous peoples: refers to peoples who follow traditional, nonindustrial, lifestyles in areas that they have occupied for generations 6. Describe some difference in plant use and awareness by indigenous cultures compared to industrialized societies, giving examples from the reading. In indigenous cultures, the link between production and consumption are more direct than in Western culture, therefore they understand the origins of products and perhaps how they were made. o Example: Not only can Westerns probably cannot describe how to produce a pencil accurately, but companies that manufacture different components of pencils do not understand how others parts are made or fit together. In indigenous cultures, compartmentalized knowledge like this is rare. They can refer someone to a local expert who has a wholesome knowledge. Indigenous cultures can sometimes represent living analogues of prehistorical stages of Western civilizations. o Archeologists can explore hypotheses about the hunter- gatherer phase of early Europe by studying the lifestyles of modern hunter-gathers. We cannot be sure how close such analogies are, but they can be useful. Indigenous cultures retain much knowledge concerning plants that Western people have largely lost due to the necessity of that maintained knowledge of plants in order to produce: o Medicines o Textiles o Plant cultivation strategies Indigenous people live in some of the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet and due to their centuries of knowledge, can inform current debate about conservation. They care about these ecosystems. Indigenous peoples are vulnerable to rapid economic and cultural change. Understanding traditional ways, including uses of plants, can point to strategies. Wednesday, August 24, 2016 (Reading: People & Plants, PDF pages 6-14) 1. Describe the ecological disparities that exist between plants and animals. Plants are able to transform atmospheric gas into nutrients for life. Plants outweigh all animals by a factor of at least 10. Plants are also vast factories of chemical diversity. Plants produce, animals consume. 2. Explain how plant-animal interactions lead to useful products for humans. All animals, including people, depend on consumption for lives. It’s the food animals eat that determines their position in the ecological community. We rely on plants to nourish us, as well as the animals we consume or use for products. 3. Name 10 different products or ways that humans depend on plants. The intake of carbon dioxide (primary) The production of oxygen (primary) Food/agriculture (secondary) Shelter (primary) Opiates to calm nervous systems (secondary) Sweetening agents to enhance diets (secondary) Thatch for huts (primary) Timbers for boats (primary) Fibers for cordage (primary) Textiles and dyes to color them (secondary) 4. Describe the types of evidence that inform us about historical use of plants and plant products. Stone etchings Clay moldings Oral tales Written tales 5. Describe where and how Richard Schultes, an ethnobotanist, studied the plant use of indigenous cultures. Harvard student writing about the peyote cactus for his senior thesis. His advisor insisted that Schultes have first-hand field experience, so in 1937, he journeyed to Oklahoma to study with the Kiowa Indians and learn about their ceremonial use of the tiny cactus. His doctoral research took him to Mexico in search of the sacred mushroom of the Aztecs as the first botanist to record the rituals and beliefs about the mushroom. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1941, he journeyed to the Amazon to study the tribal peoples’ rituals. Despite the beginning of World War II, the government wanted him to return to the rainforest to explore if the rubber the Allies needed could be supplied from wild trees in the Amazon. Friday, August 26, 2016 (Reading: Ecosystem Services) 1. Define these terms: ecosystem, ecosystem services, biodiversity. Ecosystem: a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the nonliving environment, interacting as a functional unit Ecosystem services: the benefits people obtain from ecosystems Biodiversity:the variability among living organisms (can influence the supply of ecosystem services) 2. Name the four categories of ecosystem services and describe the distinguishing feature of each. Provisioning services: products obtained from ecosystems o Food and fiber o Fuel o Genetic resources o Biochemicals, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals o Ornamental resources o Fresh water Regulating Services: the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes o Air quality maintenance o Climate regulation o Water regular o Erosion control o Water purification and waste treatment o Regulation of human diseases o Biological control o Pollination o Storm protection Cultural Services: nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment o Cultural diversity o Spiritual and religious values o Knowledge systems o Educational values o Inspiration o Aesthetic values o Social relations o Sense of place o Cultural heritage values o Recreation and ecotourism Supporting Services: those that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services o Impacts on people either indirect or occur over a very long time o Differ for each service o Primary production o Production of atmospheric oxygen o Soil formation and retention o Nutrient cycling o Water cycling o Provisioning of habitat 3. For each category of ecosystem services, name at least one example that relies on plants. See above 4. Describe how values of ecosystem services might be assessed and what factors could be considered in determining values. Ecosystem functions: physical, chemical, and biological processes or attributes that contribute to the self-maintenance of an ecosystem (what an ecosystem does) Ecosystem services: beneficial outcomes 5. Describe what types of ecosystem services are public goods and evaluate whether and how these should be protected. Public goods: they may be enjoyed by any number of people without affecting other peoples’ enjoyment. o Example: aesthetic view. No matter how many people enjoy the view, others can also enjoy it. Public views should be protected since they are beneficial to all. 6. Distinguish between use and non-use values and be able to correctly classify examples of each. Use values: the value derived from the actual use of a good or service o Hunting, fishing, hiking, birdwatching Non-use values: values that are not associated with actual use or even the option to use a good or service o Also known as “passive use” o “existence value” is a non-use value that people place on simply knowing that something exists, even if they will never see or use it Week 2 Notes [Readings: Photosynthesis for Monday and Wednesday as one PDF; a separate document is posted for Friday and includes background information on Biofuels, part of an article by Fausti (2015) and a NY Times article by Cardwell 2016]. The objectives listed below outline what you should know and be able to do after completing each assigned reading. Use these objectives to take notes as you read; review them before class. We will have a clicker quiz each day of class. Monday, August 29, 2016 (Reading: Photosynthesis) 7. Define these terms: autotroph, photoautotroph and photosynthesis. Autotroph: organisms that are able to harvest the carbon they need directly from inorganic compounds such as CO2. o Foundation of all life on earth o All other organisms (heterotrophs) are able to utilize only organic forms of carbon: carbon that has been fixed by autotrophs Photoautotroph: photosynthetic autotrophs Photosynthesis: using light energy from the sun to break up CO2 molecules and make glucose, which photoautotrophs are then able to use to build up the organic matter that constitutes their own cellular matter and ultimately food for other organisms Results in the release of oxygen Removal of carbon dioxide from atmosphere Organic compounds store energy for the plant and other organisms to use 8. Name three types of photosynthetic organisms. Plants Algae Cyanobacteria Lichen: fungal filaments and algae 9. Explain the impact of photosynthesis on climate. More than 10% of the total atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate by photosynthetic organisms In turn, the performance of photosynthetic organisms depends on the earth’s atmosphere and climate Plants take a greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) out of the atmosphere 10. Write a formula describing photosynthesis, connecting the chemical inputs and outputs in the process. 6CO + 22H O + L2ght Energy C H O + 6O +66H12 6 2 2 Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light Glucose + Oxygen + Water Plants use light energy to make carbohydrates from CO2 and water CH2O represents a carbohydrate The synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon and water requires a large input of light energy because glucose, a six carbon sugar, is often an intermediate product of photosynthesis 11. Explain how the scientific process has been used by people throughout history to elucidate our understanding of photosynthesis. In 1770s, Joseph Priestley performed experiments showing that plants release a type of air that allows combustion, demonstrated this by burning a candle in a closed vessel until the flame went out. He placed a sprig of mint in the chamber and after several days, the candle burned again (proved oxygen was released by plants) Building on his work, Dutch physician Jan Ingenhousz demonstrated that sunlight was necessary for photosynthesis and that only the green parts of the plants could release oxygen. Jean Senebier discovered CO2 is required for photosynthetic growth. Nicolas-Theodore de Saussure showed that water was required. It wasn’t until 1845 that Julius Robert von Mayer proposed that photosynthetic organisms convert light energy into chemical energy. By the middle of the nineteenths century, the key features of plant photosynthesis were known (that plants could use light energy to make carbohydrates from CO2 and water). Early scientists thought O2 released by plants came from CO2, which was thought to be split by light energy. Oxygen comes from water, not carbon dioxide. Sugar comes from carbon dioxide. o Van Neil discovered this o In plants, H2A = water Wednesday, August 31, 2016 (Reading: Photosynthesis, Kim et al. 2011) 7. Name the compounds and structures that are used in photosynthesis and describe their respective roles. Pigments: substances that absorbs light o Not all wavelengths are used Chlorophyll: contains pigments; the green pigment of plant cells crucial for the energy processes of life o located in the chloroplasts o Chlorophyll a and b, in a ration of 3:2 or 3:1 respectively Water: provide electrons for electron transport train and hydrogen is used for sugars Carbon dioxide: used for sugar Energy source: o Photons of light o Engelmann’s experiment exposed aerobic bacteria to different wavelengths of light and analyzed what happened to the bacteria when 8. Describe the purpose of chlorophyll in photosynthesis and how it may support human health. Chlorophyll absorbs the wavelengths of light required to convert water and carbon dioxide into chemical energy during photosynthesis. Molecules of chlorophyll are arranged around the photosystems embedded in the chloroplasts' thylakoid membranes Known to possess an anti-cancer effect o Reduces carcinogenic activity, thus preventing the occurrence of cancer Similar in structure to hemoglobin When chlorophyll is absorbed in the intestine, it is changed to heme, then transferred into the blood cells o Known to catalyze per oxidation o Imperative role in oxidative stress o Enhance liver function o Detoxification of toxic material 9. Compare and contrast the light dependent and light-independent reactions in photosynthesis, identifying the inputs and outputs for each. Light dependent reactions: o INPUTS: water and CO 2 o OUTPUTS: ATP, NADPH, oxygen o A photon of light strikes pigments in chloroplasts and gets shuttled to Photosystem II o This excited an electron in the pigment, chlorophyll, so it moves out of the pigment but is replaced by an electron from water o The excited electron moves back to a lower energy state as it gets shuttled to a second reaction center (Photosystem I) where a photon of light excited it again o As water is split, oxygen is released but hydrogen begins to build up around the membrane o When the hydrogen ions naturally return to a more balanced state, they pass through a protein compels in the membrane, and this powers the formation of a molecule called ATP o Energy is stored when electrons and a hydrogen ion attach to a compound called NADP, reducing it to NADPH Reduction: gain of an electron (and often hydrogen is added) Light-independent reaction for plants: o INPUTS: ATP, NADPH, CO2 o OUTPUTS: sugar o NADPH and ATP from the light-dependent reactions go to the Calvin cycle o The Calvin cycle uses the energy from those molecules to turn CO2 into SUGAR o An enzyme, RuBisCo, brings together the CO2 with an existing 5 carbon molecule and, after a series or reactions, results in the formation of a sugar RuBisCo can also bind oxygen, which is costly for the plant since no sugar is produced but it still uses energy. This is called photorespiration, a process by which a plant consumes O2 and releases CO2 in photosynthesis. This is especially problematic in hot dry environments when the leaves stop taking in CO2 because they lose water at the same time 10. Describe adaptations of plants that facilitate photosynthesis in different environments. C4 plants (such as corn and sugarcane) use a different enzyme to fix the carbon dioxide initially and then shuttle it to special cells in the plant leaves. This increases the concentration of CO 2n those cells where the RuBisCo can bind to it. This spatially separates the processes of taking in CO 2ith conversion to sugars. Many of the C4 plants are used in agriculture. CAM plants(such as pineapple) also use a different enzyme to fix CO 2nitially but this occurs at night when it is cooler and there is less water loss. This is a temporal (time) separation of the processes of taking in CO w2th conversion to sugars. CAM plants tend to be prickly. Friday, September 2, 2016 (Reading: Biofuels, Fuasti 2015 and Cardwell 2016 posted as a single PDF). 1. Define a biofuel and describe its relationship to photosynthesis. Biofuel: any fuel whose energy was obtained through biological carbon fixation (such as occurs through photosynthesis) Carbon fixation:a process that takes inorganic carbon (compounds such as CO ) an2 converts it into organic compounds (e.g. sugars) 2. Distinguish between non-renewable and renewable resources. Non-renewable resources can take millions of years to renew (fossil fuels) Biofuel comes from biomass, which can be produced if sustainable farming practices are followed Biomass is organic matter Renewable energy is not the same thing as green energy (green energy is renewable but also good for the environment and does not harm ecosystems) 3. State the primary difference between first and second generation biofuels and describe the impacts. First generation biofuels:made from sugars, starches, oil, and animal fats that are converted into fuel using already- known processes or technologies. o include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogases, like methane captured from landfill decomposition. o Any biofuel made from a feedstock that can also be consumed as a human food is considered a first generation biofuel. Second generation biofuels: made from non-food crops or agricultural waste, like switch-grass or wood chips. o The sustainability of these feedstock is defined by its availability, its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, its impact on land use, and by its potential to threaten the food supply. o No second generation biofuel is also a food crop; though certain food products can become second generation fuels when they are no longer useful for consumption. Second generation biofuels are often called “advanced biofuels.” 4. Describe both the advantages and negative impacts of biofuel production and use. Evaluate their feasibility in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advantages: o Renewable o Good for farmers Disadvantages: o Higher volatile food prices o Further intensification of corn farming o Increase in agriculture land prices o Landscape simplification (more corn than other crops) o High crop prices o Pollution from fertilizers, etc. 5. Evaluate the biofuels plant in Hawaii in terms of its sustainability, listing any questions or concerns you have about the process. Transforms waste cooking oils, animal fats, fruit, and seeds into biodiesel fuels (nearly 13,000 gallons a day) Debate about whether it’s reducing greenhouse gases or making it worse Additional information on biofuels can be found at http://www.nrel.gov/workingwithus/re- biofuels.html and http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/us-bioenergy-statistics.aspx Week 3 Notes Wednesday, September 7, 2016 (Reading: Plants in Our World, Chap. 1) 12. Describe the contribution of roots to plant growth and health (p. 11). Absorb water and nutrients from the soil Root systems have been genetically engineered to produce a firefly enzyme, which makes it glow in order for scientists to study them in the dark underground Sometimes modified to store starch o Carrots, beets, turnips, beetroots, sweet potatoes are all roots (store starch) Orchids have aerial roots, grow on other plants (epiphytic) and may absorb moisture from the air 13. List the components of the shoot system and describe the contribution of each to plant growth, health and reproduction (you do not need to know all the technical terms unless I specifically mention them). Stems: framework that bears branches or leaves so that photosynthetic surfaces are maximally exposed to the sun o Support structure (woody or herbaceous) o Conduction of water and nutrients from roots o Conduction of photosynthates (sugar products) around the plant o Examples of stems we eat: Celery Asparagus (stem) o Stems have: Nodes Internodes Leaves: by exposing flat surfaces to the sun, a plant maximizes both the surface area exposed to sunlight and the rate of gaseous exchange necessary for photosynthesis and respiration o Gas exchange through stomata for: Photosynthesis Respiration 14. Describe some of the modifications of leaves and name an example of a useful product from a leaf modification. In poinsettias, leaves that are bright red in color resemble flower petals to attract pollinating insects to the inconspicuous flowers they surround Some leaves bear prickles when animals are a threat Leaves can be succulent and store water Aquatic plants often have specialized leaves Leaves can have modified tendrils to help hold a climbing plant In some species… o Water storage o Herbivory deterrence o Attachments o Secondary compounds (ex. aloe vera) o Attract pollinators or food Examples of modified leaves: o Onions (modified fleshy leaves) 15. Describe some of the modifications of stems. Name an example of useful product from each of these: bulbs, tubers and rhizomes. In some species… o Photosynthesis o Water storage o Herbivory deterrence o Asexual reproduction o Climbing Stolon: above ground roots that run across parent and daughter plant Bulbs: short stem with fleshy leaves, storage organs during dormancy Tubers: underground storage stems o Potatoes Rhizomes: swollen underground stems that grow horizontally o Ginger Symbiotic relationships: Bacteria form nodules and convert nitrogen into something the plant can use Fungi fix phosphorus for plants Close by plants will share the nitrogen and phosphorus Plants fix carbon Friday, September 9, 2016 (Reading: Photosynthesis, Kim et al. 2011) 11. Distinguish between gymnosperms and angiosperms (p. 2). Angiosperms, also called flowering plants, have seeds that are enclosed within an ovary (usually a fruit). o Seed develops from an ovule inside an ovary Gymnosperms have no flowers or fruits, and have unenclosed or “naked” seeds on the surface of scales or leaves. o Cycad: one of the oldest gymnosperm, produces cones 12. Distinguish between perfect and imperfect flowers; draw a picture of a perfect flower, labeling the sepals, petals, pistils and stamens. Perfect: flower with both sexes Imperfect: only one functional sex Parts of flower o Pistil: female organ Ovary: bears fruit Ovules: located in ovary, gives seeds o Stamen: male organ with pollen Filament Anthers o Sepal: protective layer 13. Distinguish between monoecious and dioecious plants. Monoecious: a plant that produces separate male and female flowers on the same plant Dioecious: species that have individual plants that bear only male or female flowers, indicating that there are two kinds of plants 14. Describe the purpose of fruits and seeds for a plant. Fruits: protecting the seeds and dispersing them to areas where they can germinate Seeds: contain an embryo, variable amounts of stored foods, and a protective coat derived from maternal tissue 15. Describe the features of seeds that make them useful to humans. Grasses: important group of monocotyledons for humans, food for the developing embryo is stored as a copious mass of starchy endosperm Good food source of humans: o Highly caloric because they contain comparatively large amounts of fats or starches that provide energy to the germinating embryo o Some, such as beans and peanuts, also contain significant amounts of protein o Seeds are often produced in large quantities o Seeds of many species can be harvested readily Flowers: o aesthetic value o Tea/food o Honey (nectar taken from flowers, bees make honey) o Perfumes/scents o Medicinal values o Personal and hair care
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