History 1311 Study Guide for Midterm Exam
History 1311 Study Guide for Midterm Exam 1311-002
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Francisco Soto on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1311-002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Rufki Salihi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see history in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Midterm Exam Study Exam Imperial Rivalries A vast territorial empire on paper, Spanish North America actually consisted of a few small isolated urban clusters. Despite establishing religious missions and presidios, the Spanish population in Spain´s North America Empire was small and sparse. The Spanish in California. Spain ordered the colonization of California in response to perceived Russian threat Junipero Serra founded the first mission in San Diego in 1769´ California was a mission frontier. Heavy death of natives due to disease and forced labor. The French empire France was Britain’s biggest rival in Europe and North America The French empire expanded French viewed North America as a place of cruel exile for criminals and social outcasts. The middle ground Indians were constantly being pushed The Indians of the Ohio River Valley saw the rivalry of Britain and France as a threat and an opportunity. Virginia gave an immense land grant in 1749 to the Ohio Company. The 7 years’ war In the first half of the 18 century, Spain and France set the stage for England becoming the dominant power in Europe. The war began in 1754. British tried to dislodge the French from western Pennsylvania. The war went against the British until 1757, when William Pitt became British Secretary of State and turned the tide of battle. In 1760, the French surrendered Montreal, their last North American outpost, to the British. The peace of Paris in 1763 resulted in the expulsion of France from North America. Pitt declared that peace would be as hard to make as war, and the war indeed put future financial strains on all participants. Pontiac’s rebellion With French removed, the balance of power diplomacy that had the Iroquois to maintain a significant degree of autonomy was eliminated. In 1763 Indians launched a revolt against British rule Neolin championed a pan-Indian identity. The proclamation line To avoid Indian conflicts, London issued the proclamation of 1763, which banned white settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. It enraged settlers and land speculators to take advantage of the expulsion of the French. Pennsylvania and the Indian The war deepened the hostility of western Pennsylvania farmers toward Indians which caused indiscriminate assaults on Indian communities. Before the 7 years’ war London had loosely tried to regulate some of the colonies economy. Molasses act 1733 After the seven years’ war London insisted that the colonist play a subordinate role and help pay for the protection the British provided. Members of the British parliament had virtual representation. The colonists argued London could not tax them because they were underrepresented in the parliament. British writs of assistance to combat smuggling alarmed many colonists. Taxing the colonies The sugar act of 1764 and the revenue act threatened the profits of colonial merchants and aggravated and economic recession. The stamp act crisis The stamp act of 1765 was a direct tax on all sorts of printed materials. First time taxes used to raise revenue in British North American history. The act was wide reaching and offended virtually every free colonist. Opposition to the stamp act was the first great drama of the revolutionary era and the first major split between the colonist and Great Britain. Taxation and representation American leaders viewed the British Empire as an association of equals in which free settlers overseas enjoyed the same rights as Britons at home. Patrick Henry led opposition by proposing 4 resolutions approved by Virginias House of Burgesses The stamp act congress met in 1765. The road to Revolution Politics in the streets The south was organized to resist the Stamp Act and to enforce a boycott of British goods. Stunned Parliament repealed the Stamp act, but issue the Declaratory Act. The new act Parliament could pass future colonial taxes. The Townshend Crisis The 1767 Townshend Act imported taxes on imported goods. Believed colonists agreed with taxes used to regulate trade. By 1768, colonies were again boycotting British goods. Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. John Dickinson’s pamphlet argued for reconciliation with the mother country. Colonists deserve all traditional rights of Englishmen. The March 1770 conflict between Bostonians and British troops left five Bostonians, included a mixed-race sailor named Crispus Attucks dead. Seven soldiers were found not guilty, and two were convicted of manslaughter. Paul Revere’s inaccurate engraving stirred up anger throughout the colonies. The Tea Act The east India Company was in financial crisis, and the British government decided to market the company´s Chinese tea in North America. The Tea Act was intended to aid the East India Company and to help defray the costs of colonial government. December 16 1773 colonial threw more than 300 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. The intolerance Acts London´s response to the Bostonian´s actions was swift and harsh with the so-called intorable Acts. The continental congress Boston issued suffix resolves, which urged Americans not to obey new laws, to withhold taxes, and to prepare for war. The continental Association The congress adopted the continental association, which almost complete halt to trade with Great Britain and the West Indies. Committees of safety enforce the boycotts. The committees of safety enlarged the political nation. Americans increasingly based their claims not only on historical rights of Englishmen but also about abstract language of natural rights and universal freedom. John Locke’s theory of natural rights. Thomas Jefferson’s a ¨summary of view of rights of British America¨. The outbreak of war In April 1775 war broke out at Lexington and Concord. The battle of Bunker Hill was a British victory, but the colonists forced General Howe from Boston by March 1776. The Second Continental Congress raised an army and appointed George Washington its commander. Independence That the goal of this war was independence was not clear by the end of 1775. Opinions varied in the colonies as to the question of independence. Common sense Thomas Paine published Common Sense in January 1776 Criticizing monarchy and aristocracy, Paine called for a frequent elections and a written constitution. Paine termed a small island ruling a continent absurd. Paine tied the economic hopes of the new nation to the idea of commercial freedom. Paine argued that America would become a haven for liberty. Paine dramatically expanded the public sphere where political discussion took place. He pioneered a new style of political writing. The declaration and American freedom The declaration of independence completed the shift from the rights of Englishmen to the rights of mankind as the American independence. The pursuit of happiness was unique and became the central element of American freedom. The global declaration of independence Although for most Americans winning international recognition for the independence trumped concern for global human rights, Thomas Jefferson hoped the Declaration would inspire others to claim liberty and self-government. Securing independence The balance of power. Britain had the advantage of a large, professional army and navy. Patriots had the advantages of fighting on their own soil and a passionate desire for freedom. Blacks in the Revolution George Washington accepted black recruits after Lord Dunmore’s proclamation offered freedom to slaves who fought for the British. 5000 African Americans enlisted in state militias and the continental army and navy. Some slaves gained freedom by serving in place of an owner. The first year of the war The war initially went badly for Washington; many of his troops went home. He managed a successful surprise attack on Trenton and Princeton. The battle of Saratoga. The battle of Saratoga in October 1777 gave the patriots victory and boost to morale. The victory convinced the French to aid the Americans in 1778. The war in the south The focus of the war shifted to the south in 1778. Continental Congress was essentially bankrupt. British achieved some victories, but commanders were unable to consolidate their hold on the south. Victory at last American and French troops surrounded General Cornwallis at Yorktown, where he surrendered in October 1781. The treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783 The American delegates was made up of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay. In addition to independence In America granted land in the frontier to the Mississippi river. The revolution within The revolution unleashed public debates and political and social struggles in America. The principle of hereditary aristocracy was rejected. The declaration of independence´s assertion that all men are created equal announced a radical principle whose full implications could not be anticipated. Expanding the political nation The leaders of the revolution had not intended this disruption of social order. The democratization of freedom was dramatic for free men. In the eighteenth century democracy had multiple meanings. Artisans, small farmers, laborers, and all militia all emerged as self-conscious elements in politics. Government Each state wrote a new constitution and all agreed that their governments must be republics. States disagreed. One house legislatures were adopted only by Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Vermont. John Adams balanced governments included 2 house legislatures. The right to vote The property qualifications for suffrage was hotly debated. The last democratization occurred in the southern states, where highly deferential political traditions enabled the landed gentry to retain their control of political affairs. Vermont was the only state not to have financial consideration for suffrage. Democratizing Government By the 1780s with the exceptions of Virginia, Maryland, and New York, a large majority of the adult white male population could meet voting requirements. Until 17807, property-owning women in New Jersey could vote. Freedom and an individual´s right to vote had become interchangeable. Religion Catholic Americans Joining forces with France and inviting Quebec to join in the struggle against Britain had weakened anti-Catholicism. The end of British rule led to questioning the privilege of the Anglican Church in many colonies Many believed that religion was necessary as a foundation of public morality, but were skeptical of religious doctrine. Enlightenment influenced this skepticism. States disestablished established churches depriving them of specific public funding and legal privileges. Jefferson and Religious liberty Thomas Jefferson´s Bill for establishing religious freedom separated church and state in Virginia. James Madison insisted that one reason for the complete separation of church and state was to reinforce the principle that the new nation offered asylum to the persecuted and oppressed of every nation and religion. As religious liberty expanded some church authority was undermined. Labor By 1800 indentured servitude had all disappeared from the U.S. The distinction between freedom and slavery sharpened Economy Some Americans responded to wartime inflation by accusing merchants of hoarding goods and by seizing stocks of food to be sold at the traditional just price. From 1776-1779 more than 30 incidents occurred where crowds confronted merchants. The debate over free trade. Congress urged states to adopt measures to fix wages and prices. Adam Smith´s argued that the invisible hand of the free market directed economic life more effectively and fairly than governmental intervention. Loyalists Colonial Loyalists An estimated 20 to 25 percent of Americans were Loyalists-those who retained their alligence to the crown. Wealthy that worked close with Britain. Ethnic minorities fearful to loose land and rights. Many southern backcountry farmers and New York tenants who opposed. The Loyalists Plight The war for independence was in some respects a civil war among Americans. War brought a deprivation of basic rights to many Americans. Many states required residents to take oaths of allegiance to the new nation. Indians The Indian’s revolution American independence meant the loss of freedom for Indians. Indians were divided in allegiance during the war of independence. Both the British and Americans were guilty of savagery toward the Indians during the war. Liberty for whites meant loss of liberty for Indians. The treaty of Paris marked the culmination of a century in which the balance of power in eastern North America shifted away from the Indians and towards white Americans. Freedom had minor played a major part in Indians vocab before the revolution but now freedom meant defending their lands and property.
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