*WORKING COPY* JOUR 391 Exam 2 Study Guide
*WORKING COPY* JOUR 391 Exam 2 Study Guide Jour 391
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by cethornt on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Jour 391 at University of Mississippi taught by Street, Robin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Research – Chapter 5 Reasons it is used in PR To achieve credibility with management. To identify and define publics Measure public awareness/attitude/action History and background Formulate strategy & test messages To prevent crisis (Estimated 90% crises caused by internal operational problems) To monitor the competition To generate publicity To sway public opinion To measure success: evaluation Methods of research in PR 1. Secondary research Existing information What students do for a RS paper 2. Primary research New/original information A national survey or focus group a. Qualitative i. Exploratory, rich data, often not generalizable ii. Focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation b. Quantitative i. Descriptive/explanatory, often generalizable ii. Mail surveys, telephone polls Surveys Primary Quantitative To do a survey you MUST have: Sample or public Questionnaire Method of administering it Evaluation method 5 ways to reach respondents/Pros and cons of each method 1. Mailed questionnaires 2. Telephone surveys (common for research firms) Advantages: Give immediate feedback, more personal, response rate can 60% Disadvantages: Proving you are legitimate, access to phone numbers (1/3 – 1/2 in urban areas are unlisted), shift to cell phones, no listings, area codes no longer mean you live there. 3. Personal interview 4. Omnibus or piggyback survey 5. Web and e-mail surveys How to write questionnaires Clear, simple words Structured questions Open with statement of purpose Guarantee they will be anonymous Limit to 25 questions Use categories for personal info (ex: age) Close-ended Multiple choice (give all answers equal weight and not to prejudice answer) Vs. Open-ended questions Check All That Apply Types of survey questions: 1. Scale questions Give range of possible answers/choices (ex: 1 – 10/strongly agree to strongly disagree) Few things in life are yes/no (use yes/no only to screen) 2. Branching “Skip Logic” › Ex: Are you from Mississippi? If yes, go to next question. If no, skip to number three. What is a sample? Random (probability) Everyone in public has equal chance to be selected Only type that is reliable and generalizable Usually pulled from a list Size? Average national poll is 1,500 (In PR, usually 250-500) Non-random (non-probability) Convenience Purposive Volunteer Snowball Sample Size Matters! Margin of Error: 1000-1500 respondents = 3% 250-500 respondents = 5-6% 100 respondents = 10% Focus Groups Primary research Can use before/after surveys to explore in-depth How to hold them? Gather 8-12 people from target public Better to do more than once Recruit in advance and pay Screen for competitors, etc. May use camera or one-way mirror Today, may be online via chat Usually best in evening for working people Have discussion guide & moderator Moderator from OUTSIDE company Comfortable room & refreshments Keep to no longer than 2 hours Content Analysis Primary research- qualitative Count & categorize info Typically used for mass media coverage/social media posts Can also do for competition Copy Testing Give people your brochure, etc. to read. Do they understand it? Is it interesting? Do they find it helpful? Web Analytics Provide information about number of site visitors and page views 2 types: Off-site & On-site Ethnographic Methods Simple observation Text examples: Watching to see how many people read a bulletin board Sitting in a coffee shop all day to see what kind of customers came in Social Media Monitoring Typical objectives: Increasing revenues Tracking and managing issues Developing content that tracks trends in thinking and fashion (called memes) Increasing awareness of the organization’s mission Improving public opinion of a particular cause or organization Ex: Buzzstream Social Media Participatory Research Tweeting and following influential tweeters Pinning and viewing pins on Pinterest Watching and posting YouTube or Vimeo videos Reading blogs Planning – Chapter 6 Why is it important in PR? Where do you want to go? How can you best get there? Plan: Actions Communication Evaluation methods The 8 steps of a PR plan: 1. Situation/Research Do research on: Organization Topic Public Other cases 2. Target public/audience Define publics to be reached (called target publics) 3. Objectives State objectives. 4. Strategy How do you plan to approach the situation? Guidelines for types of events and communications Key Messages Slogan or theme 5. Tactics Events: What will you do? Communications: What and how will you say it? Both need to focus on target public. What events would they attend? Which media do they use? 6. Calendar/timetable Is there a best time? How soon before should you start planning? Timeline & Task list 7. Budget OOP What materials needed? What buy/lease? Production of media kits, videos, posters, etc. Good idea to add in 10% to cover unexpected expenses. 8. Evaluation How do you know if it worked? Three main reasons for a PR program/campaign A problem to be remedied One-time project to increase awareness of an issue, product, health concern To reinforce its reputation and public support What are objectives? SMART Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely Types of objectives Levels: Awareness (Informational): Education and information Attitude (Motivational) Change opinion Action (Motivational) Act: Buy product. Donate to charity. Stop acting: Stop texting while driving. How to write objectives Should contain 4 elements: Desired outcome By what amount? Desirable but not required to set it In what target public? In what time frame? Key messages Keep them short and simple. What points do you want TP to learn and recall? Communication – Chapter 7 Controlled Communication Company websites, email, publications Direct mail Ads Posters/billboards Vs. Uncontrolled Communication: Any form of mass media TV, Radio, Newspapers, Magazines Social media Why do we communicate? To inform (Increase awareness, info, understanding) To persuade (Change/influence attitude) To motivate (Move to action) To achieve mutual understanding Active and passive audiences Passive (Most of PR) › Must catch their attention, be creative! Active › More informative/more in-depth Five methods PR pros use to communicate and pros and cons of each 1. Mass media (uncontrolled) a. Key use: Build awareness; establish credibility b. Examples: newspapers, TV, radio 2. Interactive media (uncontrolled) a. Key use: exchange info, engage users b. Examples: email, blogs, social networks 3. Controlled media a. Key use: promotion, provide detailed info b. Examples: brochures, newsletter, exhibits and displays, websites 4. Events a. Key use: motivate participants b. Examples: awards ceremony, rally, speeches 5. One-on-one a. Key use: Negotiate, resolve problems b. Examples: personal visits or calls The SESDD model of communication Schramm’s Communication Model Source-origin of communication Encode-translates idea into message Signal Decode-breaks down the message Destination -targeted message recipient Causes of noise or static during communication Word choices Jargon Discriminatory language Static symbols (Symbols carry emotional meaning) Role of Repetition Six reasons it is important 1. Increases chances you will see/hear/read 2. Reminds you 3. Helps you learn 4. Helps you remember 5. Overcomes resistance 6. Offsets noise Some ways to use Repetition: Slogans/Acronyms Bumper stickers Buttons/Banners Ads News releases/PSA’s Brochures Websites Email messages/Text messaging How to increase audience understanding and comprehension BEST FORM OF COMMUNICATION IS: Two- way Symmetrical › Balanced/can ask questions of each other › Social media good example (but lacks verbal cues & facial expressions) › Most effective is face-to-face or small group Adoption process and what happens at each step Awareness Mass media, social media, ads Information/Interest Websites, articles, seminars, speakers, brochures Evaluation, Trial, Adoption These are more personal experience and friends/family opinion. May contact credible sources Reinforcement must occur for Adoption to maintain 5 levels of adopting 1. Innovators* 2. Early adopters* (*Opinion leaders) 3. Early majority 4. Late majority 5. Laggards For communication to be deemed effective, audiences MUST: 1. Get the message 2. Pay attention to it 3. Understand it 4. Believe it 5. Remember it 6. Act on it Gratifications Theory People choose which media to consume based on what they want from it Why do people use Mass Media? To see what is happening locally, state, country, global that has impact on them For entertainment/diversion To reinforce their opinions To help make decisions on product or service to buy Word of Mouth (WOM) › Utilizes one-to-one › We prefer personal recommendations › Try to reach opinion leaders/influential people to spread the word Measurement/Evaluation – Chapter 8 What is it? Last stage of RACE & RPIE (Measuring results- increasingly important!!!!) Methods used to evaluate PR Plan ahead: › How will you evaluate? What will you evaluate/measure? › Your OB › Awareness/Attitude/Action › Remember you need to get benchmark/baseline amounts at beginning › You can also measure sheer production (Simply count what you produced) Why is it important in PR? To show the value of money, time and effort of PR work to boss or client To show your efforts worked To help you see what worked/did not work MBO results What are… Clippings? Mass media: compile clippings/mentions Media impressions? The potential audience reached by message in mass media (publicity) Placement x circulation/viewership/listenership AVE? Advertising equivalency › Space/time x advertising rate › Controversial, but still used Pilot tests? Companies test the message and key copy points in selected cities to learn how › Media accept the message › The public reacts Split messages? Common in direct mail campaigns › 2-3 different appeals may be prepared by an org. and sent to different audiences › Objective: to learn which is most effective How do you measure changes in awareness, attitude and action? Awareness Measures Did awareness of product or topic or company increase in target public? › Surveys › Focus groups › Day-after recall Web analytics › How many people visited your website? Called hits. › Materials downloaded Information requests › Did people call, email for more info? Audience attendance › How many people attended event? Cost effectiveness Attitude Measures Did attitude on topic change? › Survey before for a baseline › After to see if change › Focus groups Action Measure Did target public take an action as result of PR effort? › Did they START doing something? › Did they STOP doing something?
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