Biology Test 2 Study Guide
Biology Test 2 Study Guide BIO 1134
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lilli Ames on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1134 at Mississippi State University taught by Robert Outlaw in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see BIO I-SI in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Sunday, October 2, 2016 Biology I Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 6: Energy and Enzymes - Laws of Thermodynamics • 1st : Law of Conservation of Energy - Energy cannot be created or destroyed - Energy can be transformed from one type to another • 2nd: - Transfer or transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy - Entropy: the degree of disorder in a system • Most commonly lost as heat • Sun can be seen as source for all energy - Energy in Chemical Reactions: • Exergonic: spontaneous reaction; the change in G is (-) • Endergonic: requires addition of free energy; the change in G is (+) - Overcoming activation energy: • Large amounts of heat • Using enzymes to lower activation energy - Inhibitors: molecules that prevent the substrate from binding to the enzyme • Competitive: molecule that binds to the active site; inhibits the substrate to bind; more substrate needed • Noncompetitive: inhibitor binds to allosteric site- not active site; inhibits ability of substrate to bind; conformation change - Catabolic Reactions: • breakdown of reactants used for recycling • Sunday, October 2, 2016 • obtain energy for endergonic reactions • energy stored in energy intermediates (ATP, NADH) - Anabolic Reactions: • biosynthetic reactions • Endergonic- must be coupled to exergonic reactions - Redox reactions: Oxidation: removal of electrons • • Reduction: addition of electrons - Regulation of metabolic pathways: • Gene regulation • Cellular regulation • Biochemical regulation - Allosteric site recognizes the ﬁnal product once enough has been made and cuts off the process completely Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation - Cellular respiration is one of the main metabolic processes • Primary aim is to make ATP and NADH - Glucose Metabolism • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O • Four metabolic pathways: - Glycolysis: • breakdown of glucose into pyruvate • can occur with or without oxygen (anaerobic) • occurs in the cytosol Sunday, October 2, 2016 • 10 steps in 3 phases: - Energy Investment: steps 1-3 • 2 ATP hydrolyzed to create fructose -1, 6 diphosphate - Cleavage: steps 4-5 • 6 carbon molecule broken into two 3 carbon molecules of gylceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) - Energy Liberation: Steps 6-10 • two G3P molecules broken down into two pyruvate molecules producing 2 NADH and 4 ATP (ﬁnal products of glycolysis) - NET YIELD IN ATP AND NADH OF 2 - Breakdown of pyruvate to an acetyl group: • Pyruvate transported to mitochondrial matrix and broken down by pyruvate dehydrogenase • CO2 removed from each pyruvate • remaining acetyl group attached to CoA to make acetyl CoA • 1 NADH IS MADE FROM EACH PYRUVATE - Citric acid cycle • Acetyl CoA is attached to Oxaloacetate to form citric acid • TOTAL YEILD IS 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, AND 2 FADH2 (the cycle must run 2 times due to it being a molecule of Glucose) - Oxidative phosphorylation • High energy electrons removed rom NADH and FADH to make ATP • Phosphorylation occurs by ATP Synthase • Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - Occurs in the inter mitochondrial membrane - Generates a H+ electrochemical gradient in order to send H+ ions back to the other side to generate ATP through ATP Synthase (produces from 30-34 ATP molecules per glucose molecule) Sunday, October 2, 2016 - Anaerobic Metabolism • Uses substance other than O2 as ﬁnal electron acceptor • Ex. Ecoli - Fermentation • Make ATP via glycolysis only • Need to regenerate NAD+ to keep glycolysis going Yeast make ethanol • • Produces far less ATP Chapter 8: Photosynthesis - 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight energy - IS NOT A SPONTANEOUS REACTION - 2 stages of photosynthesis 1. Light Reactions (Light Dependent Reactions) - Uses light energy from the sun to produce ATP, NADPH, and O2 - Takes place in the thylakoid membranes - PSII (Photo System II)- Excited electrons travel to PSI (Photo System I) • Water is oxidized (split) and generates O2 and H+ • Releases electron into transport chain • Energy used to make H+ electrochemical gradient to generate ATP through ATP Synthase - PSI (Photo System I)- Primary role to make NADPH • Addition of H+ to NADP contributes to H+ electrochemical gradient SUMMARY OF LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS: 1. O2 produced in thylakoid lumen by oxidation of H2O by PSII Sunday, October 2, 2016 2. Electron transported to ETC 3. NADPH produced in the stroma from high-energy electrons that start in PSII and boosted in PSI 4. NADP+ +2 electrons + H+ —> NADPH 5. ATP produced in stroma by H+ electrochemical gradient 2. Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Reactions) - Used to make carbohydrates - For every 6 CO2 incorporated, 18 ATP and 12 NADPH are used - G3P is formed as starting materials for the formation of sugars - 3 Phases of the Calvin Cycle: 1. Carbon Fixation • CO2 incorporated into RuBP (a ﬁve carbon sugar) to form a 6 Carbon intermediate - able to be attached by the enzyme Rubisco • 6 Carbon intermediates split into two 3PG (NOT G3P!!!!) 2. Reduction and Carbohydrate Production • ATP is used to convert 3PG into one, 3-BPG • NADPH electrons reduce it to G3P • 12 G3P produced in phase 2 - 2 for carbohydrates - 10 for regeneration of RuBP (5 G3P to regenerate 3 RuBP) 3. Regeneration of RuBP • 10 G3P converted into 6 RuBP using 6 ATP Cycle is able to continue • Sunday, October 2, 2016 - LIGHT, TEMPERATURE, AND WATER AVAILABILITY WILLAFFECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Look over C4 plants and CAM plants Chapter 9: Cell Communication - Types of cell-to-cell communication • Direct Intercellular Signaling • Contact-Dependent Signaling • Autocrine Signaling • Paracrine Signaling • Endocrine Signaling - 3 Stages of Cell Signaling • Receptor Activation - Signaling molecule binds to receptor - Causes conformation change of receptor - Activates function • Signal Transduction - Stimulates sequence of changes in intracellular proteins in signal transduction pathway - Produces intracellular signaling molecule • Cellular Response - Several different responses on target • Altering activity of one or more enzymes • Altering of structural protein function • Change gene expression- transcription factor Sunday, October 2, 2016 Chapter 11: DNA Replication and Chromosome Structure - Know basic DNA and RNA review information (structure, pairings, etc.) - RNA is single stranded - DNA is double stranded - Nucleotide Strands: • Directionally 5 prime to 3 prime • 3 prime- OH • 5 prime- Phosphate - DNA: A-T, C-G - RNA: A-U, C-G • 2 Hydrogen bonds between A-T • 3 Hydrogen bonds between C-G - 2 DNA strands are ANTIPARALLEL - Semi-Conservative Replication • 2 parental strands separate and act as template strands • Product: 2 new double helices with same base sequence as original - IMPORTANT ENZYMES: - Telomeres: Series of short nucleotide sequences repeated at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes to compensate for DNA not being lost or cut into - Primase: RNA primase; lays the primer to begin the copying of DNA nucleotides - DNA Polymerase: builds the new strands of DNA - Helicase: unzips the DNA - Topoisomerase: keeps the DNA from supercoiling and getting tangled up - SSBPs (Single Stranded Binding Proteins): keep the two original strands from snapping back together during the copying process Sunday, October 2, 2016 You can only build off of a 3 prime end and must go in one direction towards the 5 prime end Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner
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