BIO 205 SI-Exam 1 Review Game
BIO 205 SI-Exam 1 Review Game BIO 205LEC
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hawthorne on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 205LEC at Northern Arizona University taught by Alison Adams in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at Northern Arizona University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
BIO 205 SI- Final Review Game Instructor: Dr. Alison Adams EXAM 1 MATERIAL 1. There are 1000 micrometers in 1? nanometer 1000 millimeters= 1 meter (visualize with the naked eye) 1000 micrometers (microns)= 1 millimeter (visualize with light microscopy) 1000 nanometers= 1 micrometer ( visualize with electron microscopy) 2. What form of microscopy is used to visualize a) viruses and b) bacteria? a) Viruses: Electron microscopy b) Bacteria: Light microscopy 3. What are some roles of microbes? Antibiotics, probiotics, food, bioremediation, vaccines, mining, GMO’s, microflora, decomposition, nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis, disease 4. What are the top 5 most common causes of death due to microbes? 1. Respiratory Diseases, 2. AIDS, 3. Diarrheal diseases, 4. TB, 5. Malaria 5. What is the name of the BACTERIA that causes Meningitis? Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenzae 6. What is the name of the FUNGI that causes Meningitis? Cryptococcus neoformans Found mostly in AIDS patients 7. What are some of the symptoms of Meningitis? Fever, headache, stiff neck, sore throat, vomiting, convulsions, rash, photophobia, cardiac arrest, hemorrhage. Sore Throat: Epithelial cells of the nasopharynx engulfs the Neisseria meningitides Fever: Surface component of the bacterial cell called LPS leads to an immune reaction that damages the blood vessels (also causes rash, hemorrhage, clotting and cardiac failure) Headache, Stiff/Painful Neck, Convulsions: Bacteria penetrates the meninges 8. What times of year do we see an increase in Meningitis cases? Why? Late winter and early spring since people are in close proximity due to the cold weather. 9. Gram (-) cells have? An inner membrane, a cell wall and an outer membrane that contains LPS. 10. The theory of endosymbiosis is supported by what facts? Mitochondria and Bacteria are about the same size, Mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to bacterial ribosomes (similar protein synthesis), antibiotics also affect mitochondria, both divide by binary fission, outer membrane in Gram (-), ssuRNA, chloroplasts in plants 11. List out the steps of cellular respiration (aerobic respiration). Glycolysis: glucose (a 6 carbon molecule) is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate 2 ATP are produced NADH is produced ALWAYS OCCURS IN THE CYTOPLASM Pyruvate Processing: Pyruvate (a 3 carbon molecule) is broken down into Acetyl CoA and CO2. NADH is produced Occurs in the cytoplasm of PROKARYOTE Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of EUKARYOTE Krebs Cycle: Acetyl CoA (a 2 carbon molecule) is broken down into 2 CO2. ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced Occurs in the cytoplasm of PROKARYOTE Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of EUKARYOTE Electron Transport Chain/ATP Synthase: Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are donated to the ETC. The electrons flow down the ETC and lose energy. That energy is used to PUMP protons into the periplasmic/intermembrane space. Those protons then accumulate in the space and then flow from the space back into the cytosol/mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase. This generates ATP. The electrons are then accepted by the TERMINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR Oxygen which helps in forming water. 12. During cellular respiration in a prokaryotic cell, glucose is converted to pyruvate in the? Cytoplasm (Glycoylsis occurs in the cytoplasm regardless of the cell type) 13. In eukaryotic cells, protons (H+) are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the? Intermembrane space They flow through ATP synthase which is located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. 14. In prokaryotic cells, protons (H+) are pumped from the cytoplasm to the? Periplasmic space They flow through ATP synthase which is located on the inner membrane 15. When FAD+ is converted to FADH2, it is being? Reduced 16. When NAHD is converted to NAD+, it is being? Oxidized 17. During fermentation, pyruvate is converted to? Lactic Acid NADHNAD+ (NADH gets oxidized during fermentation) 18. When oxygen receives an electron at the end of the ETC, it is being? Reduced 19. At the end of the ETC, what molecule acts as the terminal electron acceptor? Oxygen 20. How many ATP are made per one molecule of glucose if oxygen is present? 38 (Water and CO2 are also made) 21. What are regulatory sequences? Promoter and Operator: Do not code for functional proteins 22. What is I gene? Constitutively expressed (always on). Codes for the repressor protein. 23. What are structural genes? Genes that are inducibly expressed (switched on when needed). Code for functional proteins (LAC Z, Y, A/ TRP A, B, C, D, E) 24. When is the Lactose Operon switched on? When lactose is present. Lactose binds to the repressor. RNAP binds to the promoter. 25. When is the Lactose Operon switched off? When lactose is absent. Repressor binds to operator. 26. In the lactose operon, when RNA polymerase is bound to the promoter, the LAC Z, Y, and A genes are transcribed and translated to make the enzymes needed to break down lactose. 27. In the lactose operon, the LAC Z gene codes for β- galactosidase? Breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose 28. In the lactose operon, the LAC Y gene codes for Permease? Brings lactose into the cell 29. In the lactose operon, the LAC A gene codes for Transacetylase? We don’t know what this does 30. When is the Tryptophan Operon switched on? When TRP is absent 31. When is the Tryptophan Operon switched off? When TRP is present 32. What do the structural genes of the TRP operon code for? Enzymes that help synthesize TRP. Vertical Gene Transfer Horizontal Gene Transfer Exchange of genetic information between cells Exchange of genetic information between cells in the down a generation same generation: 1. Transduction: Exchange of bacterial DNA from one bacterial cell to another using a viral intermediate 2. Transformation: uptake of naked DNA from the extracellular environment 3. Conjugation: Exchange of genetic information between two live cells using a conjugation bridge/ sex pilus/ protein aggregates A. Complete F Plasmid Transfer B. HFR Transfer C. F prime plasmid transfer 33. HFR occurs when an F plasmid inserts into the chromosome and forms a hybrid chromosome. ’ 34. F occurs when a recipient cell ends up with part of a F plasmid sequence and part of a chromosomal sequence due to improper excision of the plasmid DNA from an HFR chromosome. 35. Which form of DNA transfer requires cell to cell contact? Conjugation Transformation is just the uptake of naked DNA Transduction involves a virus (bacteriophage) 36. Compare and contrast DNA transfer by transformation and conjugation. (Worksheet #4) Transformation Conjugation Cell- cell contact is necessNOy YES Naked DNA from dead cells isYES NO transferred Circular plasmids CAN be YES YES transferred Linear DNA CAN be transferred YES YES Chromosomal genes CAN be YES YES transferred Plasmid DNA is REQUIRED for DNA transfer NO YES Single stranded DNA CAN enteYEShe YES cell
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