BIO 205 SI- Exam 2 review
BIO 205 SI- Exam 2 review BIO 205LEC
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hawthorne on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 205LEC at Northern Arizona University taught by Alison Adams in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at Northern Arizona University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
BIO 205 SI- Final Review Game Instructor: Dr. Alison Adams Exam 2 MATERIAL 1. How long after an HIV infection, does the individual experience mono-like/ flu-like symptoms? 2 weeks 2. How long can the HIV virus remain latent? 2-15 years 3. What happens to CD4 Thelper cell levels during the course of an untreated HIV infection? They decrease over time 4. What bodily fluids contain a high enough amount of HIV to result in transmission? Semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk and blood. 5. Viruses are in the nanometer size range. They are visible by electron microscopy. 6. Every virus contains a Nucleocapsid: a capsid and a nucleic acid. 7. A naked virus contains a capsid, nucleic acid, and occasionally fibrils. 8. An enveloped virus contains a capsid, an envelope, and spikes. 9. Viruses can have DNA or RNA but not both. 10. The capsid that surrounds the nucleic acid is made up of proteins (called capsomeres)? These proteins are made during translation (in the synthesis step of viral replication). 11. In enveloped viruses, the envelope is made from the host cell membrane. The virus gains the envelope when it leaves the host cell by exocytosis. 12. The purpose of the spikes is? Specific recognition of host cell receptors (ADSORPTION) 13. What are the steps of viral replication? Adsorption, Penetration, Uncoating, Synthesis, and Release VIRAL REPLICATION CHEAT SHEET: 1. Adsorption: Attachment of the virus to the host cell A. Naked Virus: Uses fibrils or capsid proteins B. Enveloped Virus: Uses spike proteins C. Bacteriophage: Uses tail fibers 2. Penetration: How the virus enters the host cell A. Naked Virus: Endocytosis B. Enveloped Virus: I. Endocytosis II. Membrane Fusion C. Bacteriophage: Injection 3. Uncoating: What has to be removed after penetration to expose the viral nucleic acid A. Naked Virus: Endocytic membrane, capsid B. Enveloped Virus: I. If it penetrates using Endocytosis: Endocytic membrane, envelope, capsid II. If it penetrates using Membrane Fusion: Capsid C. Bacteriophage: NO UNCOATING 4. Synthesis: Make more viral nucleic acid and viral proteins. Depends on what type of nucleic acid the virus has. BE SURE TO REVIEW SPECIFIC TYPES OF SYNTHESIS (HINT: DS DNA, + RNA, - RNA) 5. Assembly: Re-assembling the nucleocapsid. 1. Build the capsid. 2. Insert the nucleic acid into the capsid 6. Release: How the newly made viruses release from the host cell A. Naked Virus: Lysis (bursting) B. Enveloped Virus: Exocytosis (budding) C. Bacteriophage: Lysis (bursting) 14. How can a naked virus enter a host cell? Endocytosis 15. After a naked virus enters the host cell, what must be removed during uncoating? The endocytic membrane and the capsid 16. How can an enveloped virus enter a host cell? Membrane fusion or endocytosis 17. What must be removed during uncoating after an enveloped virus enters the host cell by endocytosis? – endocytic membrane, envelope, capsid. What about if it enters via membrane fusion?- capsid 18. (+) sense RNA can be directly translated by host cell ribosomes 19. (–) sense RNA first has to be made into (+) sense RNA before it can be translated. 20. How naked viruses release from the host cell? LYSIS 21. How do enveloped viruses release from the host cell? Exocytosis (budding) 22. Animal viruses can enter a latent period as either? An episome or a provirus Episome: Viral nucleic acid is present as an independent unit in the host cell’s cytoplasm o Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein Barr Virus Provirus: Viral nucleic acid is integrated into host DNA. Can lead to cancer. o Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B 23. Latent periods in bacteriophage are called? Lysogeny Present in the bacterial cell chromosome as a Prophage (Clostridium botulinumbotulism/ Vibrio cholera Cholera) 24. When cell cycle regulators are always switched on, when checkpoint genes are rendered nonfunctional by a virus, or when the virus is oncogenic, what major disease can result? Cancer 25. What anti-HIV drug inhibits reverse transcriptase? Nevirapine 26. What does AZT do? It interferes with DNA synthesis and transcription by replacing T’s with Z’s. Why does it have minimal effects on human cells?- we have DNA polymerase 27. How does protease inhibitor work? It inhibits protease from making nonfunctional proteins into functional ones. 28. What are the three drugs that are used in combination to treat HIV? Nevirapine, AZT, and Protease Inhibitor 29. How does Tamiflu work against the flu virus? It inhibits the penetration of the virus 30. PrPc is the normal form of the prion protein. (alpha helix) 31. PrPsc converts PrPc to more PrPsc.(beta sheet) 32. vCJD happens when one eats meat contaminated with PrPsc. 33. fCJD is the inherited form of Creutz-feldt Jakob Disease. Prion Disease: - Cows: Mad Cow Disease - Sheep: Scrapie - Elk: Wasting Disease - Humans: CJD or Kuru (cannibalism) 34. List some of the positive impacts of fungi. Decomposition, beneficial to soil (mycorrhizae), production of foods, production of antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin). 35. What are some negative impacts of fungi? Poisonous, pathogenic, food spoilage (bread mold- mucor), asthma, allergies, ring worm, athletes foot, etc, bioterrorism. Fungi: - Mycorrhizae: help plants get water by attaching to their root system - Aspergillus flavus: aflatoxin- corn and peanuts - Phytophthera infestans: Irish Potato Famine - Saccharomyces cerevisiae: bakers/brewer’s yeast - Mucor: bread mold - Penicillium and Cephalosporium: produces penicillin and cephalosporin - Microsporum: ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, barber’s itch - Coccidiodes: Valley Fever - Amanita phalloides: Death cap mushroom - Candida: Yeast infections 36. During a plasmodium infection, what life stage infects the human liver cells? Sporozoites 37. What life stage of plasmodium feeds on hemoglobin? Trophozoites 38. What life stage of plasmodium infects the red blood cells? Merozoites 39. Some merozoites develop into gametocytes which have to be taken up by a mosquito in order to develop into a gamete. 40. In Malaria???? Anemia red blood cells being destroyed Liver damage lysis of the liver cells by the merozoites Kidney damage/ coma RBC’s become sticky which blocks capillaries in the kidneys and the brain Fever/chills lysis of the RBC’s every 2-3 days 41. What are the steps of sexual spore formation in fungi? Cytoplasmic fusion, nuclear fusion, meiosis, spore formation 42. In sexual reproduction of fungi, after the nuclei fuse what is formed? A dikaryon 43. What are the two ways in which fungi can reproduce asexually? Hyphae formation and budding 44. The complete removal of all viable microbes including endospores from non-living, inanimate objects refer to? Sterilization 45. What is disinfection? The same as sterilization but does not kill endospores 46. What is antisepsis? The removal of microbes from body surfaces by the use of chemicals. 47. What physical methods can kill endospores? Incineration, autoclave (steam under pressure), ionizing radiation, filtration 48. What physical methods cannot kill endospores? Non-ionizing radiation, boiling water, pasteurization, cold, dessication 49. What are some chemical methods that can kill endospores? Halogens, hydrogen peroxide, and alcohol at a certain temperature 50. What chemical methods are not able to kill endospores? Alcohol at room temperature, detergents (soap), acid or alkali 51. What drugs target the cell wall of bacteria? Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Carbenicillin, Vancomycin 52. What drugs target nucleic acid synthesis (think folic acid)? Anti-folate drugs like Sulfonamide 53. What drugs target bacterial protein synthesis? Streptomycin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclin 54. How do anti-plasmodium drugs work? They prevent the polymerization of heme leaving the plasmodium with toxic heme. 55. What are the names of the natural and semi-synthetic drugs that are used in Plasmodium infections? NaturalQuinine/ Semi-syntheticChloraquine 56. What are the two systems of antimicrobial defense? Innate and Acquired Immunity 57. What is Innate Immunity? Non-specific/ born with it 58. List some of the physical methods involved in Innate Immunity? Skin, mucous membranes, blinking/tears, swallowing, nasal hairs, cilia, flow of mucus, flow of urine, sneezing, coughing, microflora 59. List some of the chemical methods involved in Innate Immunity? Stomach acid (HCl), lysozyme, sweat, vaginal fluids, semen 60. What are the four components of the inflammatory response and how they work in fighting infection? Swellingfluids from blood plasma escape from blood vessels. This fluid carries proteins and WBC’s that fight microbes Redness increased blood flow to the site and dilation of blood vessels (brings nutrients Heat due to increased blood flow and fever Pain due to stimulation of the nerve endings in the area. Leads to awareness and loss of function 61. How is fever generated? Hypothalamus in the brain gets reset in response to pyrogens 62. What two types of WBC’s are involved in phagocytosis? Neutrophils and Macrophages 63. Which WBC is the first responder and only lives 1-2 days? Neutrophils 64. Which WBC destroys large particles and lives for months-years? Macrophages 65. Macrophages circulate in the blood as? Monocytes 66. What are the steps of phagocytosis? Chemotaxis detection of the microbe and then movement towards it Adherence of the phagocyte to the microbe Ingestion of the microbe by pseudopods formation of a phagosome Phagosome fuses with a lysosome phagolysosome Indigestible parts of the microbe are ejected from phagocyte by exocytosis 67. What is interferon? A small protein that is made by the immune system used for fighting viruses and other microbes. 68. How does interferon work? It changes gene expression When a virus attaches to a host cell, the receptor sends a message to the nucleus which switches on the interferon gene. This results in transcription and translation of the interferon proteins which get secreted and send messages to other cells to produce anti-viral proteins. 69. What is complement? A set of over 26 proteins in blood plasma that circulate as inactive proteins. 70. What two types of events can trigger a complement response? Microbe with antibodies bound to it Surface components on microbes 71. What does complement activation result in? What does this do to the target cell? Formation of a Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) that destroys the microbe by punching holes in it. 72. What is another name for Acquired Immunity?- Specific Immunity or Adaptive Immunity This type is acquired in response to the presence of a microbe (antigen) 73. What are the two types of acquired immunity and what are some of their specifics? Humoral Immunity due to antibodies present in body fluids. (B cells) Cell-mediated Immunity due to special cells that kill microbes when they bind to them. (T cells) 74. What are immunoglobulins and what are the 5 types?- antibodies IgG monomer/most abundant/ only one that can cross the placenta IgA consists of two monomers/found in body secretions and mucous membranes IgM 5 monomers attached a J chain/ first to be made when a microbe is present (acute infections) IgE Monomers/ important in allergic responses- bind to basophils which produce histamine IgD Monomer/ not sure what it does 75. What is an antigen? Anything foreign to the body that leads to an immune response in which lymphocytes (B or T cells) produce antibodies or cell-mediated responses. 76. How big must an antigen be? At least 1000 Daltons (the bigger the better though) 77. What is an epitope? a part of the antigen that a particular antibody will recognize 78. How do antibodies work? Agglutination- immobilization of bacteria due to antibodies Opsonization- coat the microbe with antibodies so it is more easily recognized by phagocyte Interaction with complement- (complement activation) Neutralization- antibodies bind to a site on a microbe or a toxin
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