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Psychology of Personality; Week 5

by: Notetaker Magazzu

Psychology of Personality; Week 5 PSY 01230 1

Marketplace > Rowan University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 01230 1 > Psychology of Personality Week 5
Notetaker Magazzu

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These notes cover what's going to be on the first exam
Psychology of Personality
Study Guide
Psychology, personality, Freud, Jung
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Notetaker Magazzu on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 01230 1 at Rowan University taught by Dinzeo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at Rowan University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
The “Neoanalytic” Perspective Ego Psychology -influenced by Freud, but believed the ego was central core of personality -not all ego activity runs on transmuted id energy -Freud was extremely protective of his theory (id, ego, superego) -People who developed their own ideas or theories would be alienated from Freud’s society -Felt the ego had its own source of energy, rather than stemming from the id -Felt that the ego (rational/self-aware part) was equally as important -ego is crucial in helping a person adapt to the demands on the environment -failures to adapt (rigidity) lead to problems -Effectance motivation (primary in children) -children are drawn to their environment -they want to engage in what they see -doing something (like knocking over a bowl of cereal) just to see the consequences (including other people’s reactions). They want to see that they made an impact. -Having the sense of effecting the environment eventually isn’t enough -when it turns to Competence Motivation: sense of mastery over environment (example: climbing a tree to the very top) -Changes to competence motivation as the person matures -making decisions not informed by the other structures of personality Autonomy of the Ego -Ego exists at birth -It is how we integrate our experiences -Sense of “self” -The ego is believed to function on its own, for its own purposes -Primary ego autonomy -How we see ourselves before we are even verbally capable or fully self- aware Other Important Concepts Ego Control -the extent that one modifies or inhibits impulse expression -under vs. over-control - under-control: more spontaneously acting on their impulses (speaking and doing things before they think) - over-control: someone who is very conservative, attentive how they talk, doesn’t ant to offend anyone…more restrained -we don’t act on everything we desire Ego Resiliency -high resiliency= good ability to adapt to environment -strong ego is an adaptive ego -more flexible with how they see the world… trying new things Alfred Adler (1870-1937) -His theory is related to his own experiences and life story -He was once well regarding by Freud until they had a falling out -He wanted to develop his own society -He was the second child of six in his family -Could not walk until 4 years old (rickets) -Skinny, weak, sickly -Felt inferior to older brother -His older brother was essentially athletic and handsome… aka the “golden” child -Became aware of how the same sense of inferiority affects his life -Worked to overcome sense of inferiority -The idea that we constantly compare ourselves (our strengths and weaknesses) to others -Because of this, everyone is also exposed to inferiority -Sometimes we fall short… -Shame, embarrassment -“Organ Inferiority” (your genetics may be leaning towards you being short or unathletic, etc… May include: -intellectual inferiority -feeling unattractive -feeling weak -These feelings of inferiority motivate us The ego is energized by a basic sense of inferiority -Compensation- People will seek to overcome their deficiencies -people may have a specific domain they are insecure about (ex: height) and they can’t necessarily change and make themselves taller… but they’re motivated to compensate in other areas to make up for their inferiority (being short) -Motivated to strive for superiority -achieve a sense of excellence Motivation is a matter of moving towards the future -Humans are drawn towards goals, purposes, and ideals -Concerned with people’s future image of their possible self… their fantasies -This approach to psychology is called teleology -Teleology: about future orientation of ourselves and how that influences our behaviors Style of Life (Lifestyle) -One’s style of thinking, acting and perceiving (personality) -A set of convictions about life -Your way of responding to feelings of inferiority -Values, morals and ethics Failure to compensate leads to mistaken lifestyles -Inferiority Complex -feels inferior to others -withdraw from or depend on others -withdrawal rather than balancing out dynamic -depends on others and puts themselves second -lacking self-esteem -Superiority Complex -Dominate and aggress against others -aware of their areas of inferiority and they overcompensate -can lead to dominating others (aggressive or negative feelings towards others) -example: If you were short as a kid and were picked on because of it, you may go on to compensate and work out, get fit/healthy. But overcompensation would be abusing your muscular strength and beating on people Birth Order -Adler came to believe that birth order was a major determination of adult personality -He believes that these dynamics play out as an adult -Affects how your parents treat you, the responsibilities that you get, your relationships, etc… Early Memories -Connect the past to the present -Selective story of your life -Metaphor for how you view life -The memory isn’t as important as the purpose for remembering it -early memories determine future memory of yourself and self-image -also recognizing that some memories may be distorted -the accuracy of a memory is not as important as the purpose for remembering it Carl Jung (1875-1961) -Jung became close to Freud, then ousted due to his views (disagreed with Freud) -Felt Freud put too much emphasis on id and sex and neglected spiritual realm -“Collective unconscious” -Influence how we see the world in term of ourselves, relationships, etc… -quasi-spiritual -not directly aware of them, but our ancestors morals are upon us and influence us -accused of human psychosis… being out of touch with reality for periods of time Jung’s Organization of the Psyche (different organization than Freud) Consciousness- “Ego” Personal Unconscious- “Memories” Collective Unconscious – “Psychic Inheritance” Archetypes: (contents of the collective unconscious) -notion of love at first sight -Jung believes this is something influences by collective unconscious -Why is it that we are initially attracted to someone? -help us perceive what things should be likes based off of our ancestral experiences Examples of Archetypes -The Great Mother Additional Archetypes: Shadow: the unknown parts of ourselves that have been denies; dark parts of self -May include primal fears (the unknown) -the unknown process within that needs to be overcome (ex: fear of the dark) Anima: feminine qualities in men’s psyche - Jung thought psychological health is balancing feminine/masculine -animus in females Others: -The “wise elder” -Hero -The Child -The trickster/joker Jung: Basic Personality Orientations Introversions: focused inward; the person is cautious, shy, timid, reflective Extroversions: focused outward; the person is outgoing, sociable, assertive, energetic -These concepts are still used in trait theories of personality Strengths and criticisms of the ego psychologists -Broadened the scope of psychoanalysis -Influence of culture and adult experiences on personality -more “optimistic”… tells you to be more optimistic and less focused on those id prophecies -new way of seeing Freudian mode and broadening that to include other things such as spirituality -However, early theorists did not stray from Freud too much -Many concepts “un-testable”


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