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Exam 1 study Guide

by: Annie Estes

Exam 1 study Guide CH 271

Marketplace > Whitworth University > Chemistry > CH 271 > Exam 1 study Guide
Annie Estes
Whitworth University

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About this Document

these notes cover what to study for Exam 1.
Organic Chemistry
Dr. Flay
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annie Estes on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 271 at Whitworth University taught by Dr. Flay in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Whitworth University.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Exam 1 Study Guide  Constitutional isomers: same molecular formula, different spatially  Bonding groups: tetra, tri, di, mono  Ionic bonds: complete separation of charge  Covalent bonds: equal sharing of electrons  Formal charges on atoms: o Oxygen: likes 2 bonds o N: likes 3 bonds o H: likes 1 bond o C: likes 4 bonds o Halogens: like one bond  Hybridized orbitals: “mathematically averaged, all shook up”  Intermolecular forces: o Dispersion  Weakest o Dipole-dipole  Medium  HCl o Hydrogen bonding:  Strong/ very strong  HF, HO, H2O, HN  Electrophile: e- poor  Nucleophile: e- rich  Line bond structures o General rules  All heteroatoms must be shown  Halogens, O, P, S, N  H’s are not shown  All C-C bonds are zig zag  Double bond has priority  Rules/formulas o Alkanes  CnH2n+2 o Alkenes  CnH2n o Alkynes  CnH2n-2 o Rings+DoubleBonds  Unsaturation number  (#C+1) – ½ Hs – ½ halogens + ½ N o Formal Charge: valence e-s - # unbonded e-s - # bonded pairs of e-s  Halogens o Cl- chloro o Br- bromo o I- iodo  Resonance structures o “equivalent structures”  Arrow pushing  Bronsted-Lowry Acid o Proton donor o Base: proton acceptor  Buffering system o Requires weak acid and its conjugate base  Acid o E- pair acceptor (electrophile) o E- pair donor (nucleophile)  Pka = -logKa o -1  -10: medium strong  very strong acids o -1-->2-3: moderate acids o _>3: weak acids  Atoms in same row in periodic table, electronegativity is the dominant/determining effect  Same column in periodic table affects stability of anion  Cyclopropane: severe ring strain, high energy, less stable  Cyclobutane: less angle strain than ^ but more torsional strain because of 4 sets of eclipsing hydrogens vs 3 sets for ^  Cyclopentane: much less torsional strain, but does have some


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