Exam 1 study Guide
Exam 1 study Guide CH 271
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Popular in Chemistry
This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annie Estes on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 271 at Whitworth University taught by Dr. Flay in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Whitworth University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Constitutional isomers: same molecular formula, different spatially Bonding groups: tetra, tri, di, mono Ionic bonds: complete separation of charge Covalent bonds: equal sharing of electrons Formal charges on atoms: o Oxygen: likes 2 bonds o N: likes 3 bonds o H: likes 1 bond o C: likes 4 bonds o Halogens: like one bond Hybridized orbitals: “mathematically averaged, all shook up” Intermolecular forces: o Dispersion Weakest o Dipole-dipole Medium HCl o Hydrogen bonding: Strong/ very strong HF, HO, H2O, HN Electrophile: e- poor Nucleophile: e- rich Line bond structures o General rules All heteroatoms must be shown Halogens, O, P, S, N H’s are not shown All C-C bonds are zig zag Double bond has priority Rules/formulas o Alkanes CnH2n+2 o Alkenes CnH2n o Alkynes CnH2n-2 o Rings+DoubleBonds Unsaturation number (#C+1) – ½ Hs – ½ halogens + ½ N o Formal Charge: valence e-s - # unbonded e-s - # bonded pairs of e-s Halogens o Cl- chloro o Br- bromo o I- iodo Resonance structures o “equivalent structures” Arrow pushing Bronsted-Lowry Acid o Proton donor o Base: proton acceptor Buffering system o Requires weak acid and its conjugate base Acid o E- pair acceptor (electrophile) o E- pair donor (nucleophile) Pka = -logKa o -1 -10: medium strong very strong acids o -1-->2-3: moderate acids o _>3: weak acids Atoms in same row in periodic table, electronegativity is the dominant/determining effect Same column in periodic table affects stability of anion Cyclopropane: severe ring strain, high energy, less stable Cyclobutane: less angle strain than ^ but more torsional strain because of 4 sets of eclipsing hydrogens vs 3 sets for ^ Cyclopentane: much less torsional strain, but does have some
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