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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shantel Marekera on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 100 at Arizona State University taught by Hale and Holecheck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see BIO 100 The Living World in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
1. Insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream.Since all the cells in a person’s body contain the same DNA,why do only our pancreatic cells produce insulin? -Because as people’s bodies develop from the childhood stage, their cells become specialized to specific functions. When they specialise, they lose the ability to do any other functions other than their own. In this case, only the pancreas can produce insulin; and every other cell is restricted to performing their specific function only. - This ability of the body to specialize works as a protective mechanism because if there were no specialized cells then an organism would not be able to develop in a complex way. Each cell needs to be specialized in order to carry out a specific function allowing for complex multicellular organs to have various structures suitable for evolution This is done through a process called GENE REGULATION 1a. If we insert the human gene for insulin into bacteria, the bacteria will produce human insulin. How is this possible? -This is because all of our genetic makeup is found in our DNA, ie they contain instructions to do specific things,for example one gene may contain the instructions to make insulin. Additionally, bacteria contain the same DNA as human beings (adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine. Thus, when a human gene is inserted into bacteria, the bacteria cells have to read the genetic code and use the instructions in order to produce the insulin through a process of transcription and translation. 2.After sequencing a molecule of DNA, you discover that 20% of the bases are cytosine (C). What percentage of the bases would you expect to be guanine (G)? What percentage of the bases would you expect to be thymine (T)? For every C there is a G, every A there is a T therefore, guanine would be 20% Thymine 30% and adenine would be 30% 3. 3. Since DNA is contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells but protein synthesis occurs at ribosomes outside of the nucleus,how is the information in DNA conveyed to the ribosomes? The information is conveyed through a process of transcription.; which is defined as the synthesis of RNA on a DNA template 4. How many nucleotides are necessary to code for a protein that is 100 amino acids long? -3 nucleotides code for a single amino acid, therefore, if you have a protein that is 100 amino acids long, you would need 300 nucleotides. 5. The DNA coding strand for a gene is AGT ATG GCC CGT ACA andreads from leftto right. What messenger RNA would be sent to the cytoplasm? What about the amino acid (AA) sequence? AGT ATG GCC CGT ACA ORIGINAL -RNA Sequence TCA TAC CGG GCA TGT DNA Template MATCH USING ATCG mRNA condon UCA UAC CGG GCA UGU REPLACE T WITH U AGU AUG GCC CGU ACA MATCH USING ATCG How many different types of gametes could a person with the genotype AABbCc produce? SINCE ITS 8 alleles, JUST DIVIDE BY TWO TO GET NUMBER OF GAMETES YOU WOULD HAVE= 4 gametes 4kinds of gametes, ie ABC, ABc, Abc, AbC, b. PROBABILITY OF GETTING 3 BOYS IN A ROW = ½*½*½ = 1/8 7. DNA paternity testing has becomethe most widely accepted method for establishing who the father of achild is when there are doubts. In one case the mother refused to supply a sampleof her DNA, but the man claiming to be the father had hisDNA and that of the baby’s taken and analyzed. Isit possible to establish who the father is in this method even if the mother’s DNAis not available to compare? Yes, it is possible. Although a sample from the mother can help increase the final percentage of the test results, you can still get conclusive results without her DNA. Without her participation, the probability of paternity from our laboratory can be 99.99% and higher. With her participation, the probability increases to 99.999% and higher.You only need one from the father 8. For some time, Russian prisons have beenrunning on drastically reduced budgets.As a result, when inmates contracted tuberculosis (TB; caused by an infection of the lungs by a particular bacteria species), treatment with antibiotics was often halted before all TB bacteria had been killed by the antibiotics inan infected prisoner. It is now observed that strains of antibiotic resistant TB have appeared in the Russian prison population. Such strains have now reached the United States when freed prisoners have emigrated. Based on what we've learnedso far this semester, what might provide a scientifically valid explanation of theappearance of antibiotic-resistant TB? -The danger to the individual is that the infection will recur, and will be more difficult to treat when it does. The danger to the rest of us is that the general population of the infecting bacterium will become more resistant to the antibiotic concerned. If you fail to complete a course of antibiotics, some of the bacteria causing the infection may survive - and these will be the ones with the greatest resistance to the antibiotic. This is an unnatural version of natural selection, and will result in the bacterial population in the afflicted patient having a higher than normal resistance to that antibiotic. As the surviving bacteria reproduce, the resulting infection would not be treatable with the same antibiotic. If the infection is passed on to someone else, their infection will also be resistant to the antibiotic. \ 9. A gene for red-green color blindness (daltonism) is carried on the “X” chromosome. It is only expressed phenotypically as homozygous recessive in women but men that inherit the affected chromosome will suffer from the disorder. a. What are the possible genotypes for a man and woman with color blindness and for a man and woman with “normal” color vision? - A healthy copy of the gene is represented by X , and a damaged copy is represented by X. b Therefore: The genotype of a male with colorblindness is XY. b B The genotype of a male with normal vision is X Y. The genotype of a female with colorblindness is XX. b b b The genotype of a female who has normal vision but is carrier XX The genotype of a female who has normal vision Is XX. b. A color-blind woman married a man with “normal” color vision, and they have children. B b B b b b Genotypes produced are X X., X X, XY and XY. A) What percent of their male children will be affected by color blindness? 100% ( Male children are the ones with XY gametes) B) What percent of their female children will be affected by color blindness? 0% They are all just carriers A “normal” man is going to marry a “normal” woman who already has had a color-blind son by another man. What are the probabilities of this new marriage producing a color-blind child - these parents have a 25% chance of having a child who is colorblind; that child would have to be male (genotype XY). The female children would be B B B b either X X . or X X and none would be colorblind. One-half of male children would have the XBY genotype and would have normal vision. 11. Genetic inheritance is being studied in a certain species of plant in which orange flower color (O) is dominant to white (o) and round leaf shape (S) is dominant to oval (s). A true- breeding orange-flowered, round-leaved male plant (Plant A) is mated with a true-breeding white-flowered, oval-leaved female plant (Plant B) to produce a dihybrid offspring plant (Plant C). Assuming normal Mendelian genetics and independent inheritance of these two traits, which gametes might be produced by Plant C? True breeding means homozygous -Plant is likely to exhibit OoSs heterozygous dominant Gametes would be OS, Os, oS and os 12. What are the mechanisms of evolution? How do they differ? -Mutation: The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA -Migration (gene flow): The transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another. Migration into or out of a population may be responsible for a marked change in allele frequencies -Genetic drift- variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce and -Natural selection: the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution, ie any characteristic of an individual that allows it to survive to produce more offspring will eventually appear in every individual of the species, simply because those members will have more offspring. 13. Natural selection, Darwin argued, was an inevitable outcome of three principles that operated in nature. Explain each of these principles. -the inheritance of traits -competition between individuals, -the variation of traits. 14. The Phoenix Zoo kept the only remaining population of Arabian Oryx for ten years in captivity. Finally, when the captive population was high enough and the habitat was better protected in Arabia, some of these Oryx were shipped back to Arabia and released into the wild. In the wild most of the newly released Oryx died of starvation, overheating or were killed by predators. Why is this result not unexpected? Lack of natural selection and lack of experience.in the Arab, ie they were used to the Phoenix environment 15. Variation is important for evolution, because it provides the fitness differences upon which natural selection operates. Sexual reproduction is an important source of variation in plants and animals, but what about asexually reproducing organisms like bacteria? Where does their variation come from? Bacteria divide, and undergoes mutation which in turn provides variation in offspring 16. On a yachting trip in the South Pacific you discover a previously unknown island. You notice that there is a population of especially fluffy and particularly cute long-eared rabbits living there. These rabbits seem to have no predators at all on the island, and their mating habits seem to be perfectly random. When they are first surveyed, they have an average ear length of about 18 cm. When they are sampled again in five years, what will likely be true of their ear length? What about the offspring number? -The ear length would be the same because there is nothing that is selecting for a different length and the population size stays the same because there are no predators threatening their survival. 17. Consider a population of spiders. Because the particular birds that are the main predators of these spiders have trouble locating lighter spiders, the darker spiders are eaten more often than the lighter ones. However, the darker spiders have an advantage over the lighter ones in finding and catching insect prey. What is likely to happen over many generations to the coloration of the spiders? -The coloration depends after several generation to see which one impacts on fitness 18. Compare and contrast various forms of learning including habituation, imprinting, associative learning and cognitive learning and recognize examples of each. Habituation- is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant. For example A turtle draws its head back into its shell when its shell is touched. After being touched repeatedly, the turtle realizes it’s not in danger and no longer hides. Imprinting, in psychobiology, a form of learning in which a very young animal fixes its attention on the first object with which it has visual, For example, A young chick after hatching can follow his/her mother and adapt to the environment where his/her mother goes, and also the movement of his/her mother. -Associative learning A learning process by which a certain stimulus comes to be associated with another stimulus or behavior, as through classical or operant conditioning. For example, Pavlov versus Skinner (punishment) Classical conditioning - The process by which an individual learns to associate an unconditional stimulus with a conditional stimulus but receives no benefit from doing so. Pavlov's experiments, in which he conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell (UCS) because they associated the sound with receiving food, is an example of classical conditioning. Compare with operant conditioning. Conditional response - A response to a stimulus that is dependent upon the association of that stimulus with another stimulus. In Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs, salivation at the sound of a bell is the conditional response. Compare with unconditional response. Conditional stimulus - A stimulus that is unrelated to but becomes associated with another stimulus and thus evokes a response. In Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs, the sound of a bell was the conditional stimulus because it will not cause salivation unless it is associated with receiving food. Compare with unconditional stimulus. Cultural inheritance - Process through which individuals learn behaviors by watching and imitating others. Dishabituation - The recovery of an innate response that has been altered upon introduction of an extremely novel stimulus such as electric shock. Compare with sensitized, habituated. Filial imprinting - The imprinting of offspring on their parents Habituated - The reduction or elimination of the response to a stimulus upon frequent exposure. See also dishabituation. Imitation - The copying of an individual's behavior by another. Imprinted - A young animal that recognizes and is attracted to another animal is said to be imprinted upon that animal. The process of imprinting takes place early in life. Latent learning - The process by which an individual familiarizes itself with a stimulus without the association of a positive or negative stimulus. Cognitive learning is the refining of knowledge by adding new information to prior knowledge, for example through observational learning Innate behavior Is genetically inherited eg Cuckoo lay their eggs in other birds’ nest 19. Why are certain birds more likely than mammals to form monogamous pairs? -Male birds can more easily provide resources for offspring than male mammals (since males don't lactate). Hence, more reason to stay and provision the young for birds than mammals. The “male-assistance hypothesis,” where males that remain with a female to help guard and rear their young will have more and healthier offspring. 20. Among sexually reproducing species, females tend to have more choice in selecting a mate than males. Why? - So as to help offset any lack of direct parental investment from the male, and therefore increase reproductive success. Robert Trivers' theory of parental investment predicts that the sex making the largest investment in lactation, nurturing, and protecting offspring will be more discriminating in mating; and that the sex that invests less in offspring will compete for access to the higher-investing sex. Hence a reproduction mistake for females is more costly IMPORTANT STUFF TO REMEMBER DNA is made of phosphates and sugar Transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). It takes place in the nucleus. Translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins (amino acids) It takes place in the cytoplasm Phenotype refers to the outward expression of a gene eg dark skinned Genotype is the genetic makeup eg Bb Recessive traits tend to remain constant unless there is something causing their frequency to change True breeds are homozygous, ie they have a pair of matching alleles such as BB or bb. Evolution can be categorized into divergent evolution and convergent evolution Micro evolution is a theory that connects the gradual change of population overtime (small scale), whereas, macroevolution refers to the processes that give rise to new species and higher taxonomic groups with wide divergent characters (large scale) When a gene being examined is present in the X chromosome but not Y chromosome, it is X linked Cogbooks questions The now discredited idea about how traits are acquired through and disuse could be passed on to their offspring thus leading to evolutionary change in the population is called inheritance of acquired characteristics. The wing of a bird and the arm of a human are examples of homologous structures The difference between microevolution and macroevolution is that microevolution involves the evolution of a population and macroevolution refers to the emergence of new species over long periods of time. Mutation and gene flow are the ones that introduce new genetic variation Unless evolutionary forces are acting on a population, the allele frequency of the gene pool will stay the same The wings of a penguin are examples of vestigial structures The fact that DNA sequences are more similar in closely related organism is evidence of descent with modification. The ability of rats to learn how to push a lever is operant conditioning Positive and negative reinforcement are associated with operant conditioning Habituation happens when an individual stops responding to old stimulus Inherited traits and learning by experience together have the greatest influence on behavior When people from various cultures display different rules of connection, this is an example of cultural display rule The movement of one’s face to display a given emotion is considered universal among many cultures. Asexual reproduction would be most appropriate in a constant and predictable habitat Fragmentation is a form of reproduction that can result from damage to the original animal Hermaphroditism is useful to an animal with little mobility that reproduces sexually. BEST WISHES!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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