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by: Abi Sommers

StudyGuide CTCS 191

Abi Sommers

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About this Document

Compilation of vocab definitiosn and general explanations to the 16 short answer questions posed on the study guide handout
Intro to T.V and Video
Ellen Seiter
Study Guide
tv, video, study, midterm
50 ?




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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abi Sommers on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CTCS 191 at University of Southern California taught by Ellen Seiter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 219 views.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Page 1 ; Vocab The Unruly Woman : e l a m e F ▯ comics historically have taken on the persona of an “unruly woman” Examples of this are: ▯ - Lucille Ball : I love Lucy - Gracie Allen: Burns and Allen - The Carol Burnett Show 1976-1978 - Phyllis Diller - 1963 - Rosanne▯ - Tina Fey- SNL, Mean Girls, 30 Rock, Bossypants, Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt - Kristen Wiig - SNL, Bridesmaids ^ Often written by men Hyperdiegesis : Diegesis is a style of fiction storytelling that presents an interior view of a world in which: - details about the world itself and the experiences of its characters are revealed explicitly through narrative Hyperdiegesis is a term that equates a story – novel, television show, movie – to an iceberg; where the narrative presented represents the 10% visible above water, but is so well constructed that the audience can imagine the 90% that is still hidden. ▯ “the creation of a vast and detailed narrative space, only a fraction of which is ever directly seen or encountered within the text, but which nonetheless appears to operate according to principles of internal logic and extension.” Fantasy vs. Science Fiction genre : What is science fiction?▯ - space opera - realistic but technologically based - machines and inventions Fantasy ?▯ - Requires setup of whole world, most of work of show is setting up world - Unreal things can happen - Beings that don't exist ^ similar fan bases and expectations - Value of science fiction fans ▯ - Fantasy and science fiction dominate comic-con - Loyal fans and avid followers of news - Boost opening weekend box office numbers - Spread the word (and condemnation) avidly through social media - Repeat viewers, buyers of video games, boxed sets and merchandise, theme park attendees - Science fiction fans turned out to be first adopters of technology - Ancillary fan texts : - Fan practice of creating their own narrativea and dialogue based around a show - Fans produce a volimunous amount of original material - They create or pose their own alterior understanding, or alternate storyline based around what they watch and share with one another - Live event television : ▯ TV about TV - Television has power to manufacture televised cultural events - event/awards shows have proliferated in last two decades - Cultural prizes have long history but modern televised event emphasize :the nation: watching together across time zones - Emmys are a way of legitimizing television itself - Also a performance by the industry for the industry Value of Live - Appointment viewing, red carpet, live transmission - Tweeting, fb messaging and news feeds: substitute for “live appointment viewing “ or enhancement - Value in events seen live, to conquer time shifting , skipping commercials, how would you characterise ads shown during the Emmys? - Part horserace part runway show, fashion brands everywhere, swag, festivals of consumption - Mix of stand up, sketch and variety show- performed live - Watching for mistakes, drunkenness, dirty looks, poor sportsmanship - Drama of interrupted speeches Emmy Questions: - What status differences are apparent? - In what ways are the Emmys different from the Academy awards? Auteur tv : Television auteur (french for author) - Auteur Movement to identify hollywood directors as more than assembly line workers - more difficult in to define tv where director not more important person, can be misleading when talent is producer/writer/director Situation comedy is easiest to recognize and define. - Recognized by desired effect on audience. - remarkably stable since radio in 1930s and 40s Domestic situation comedy: “a family” biological or otherwise Workplace situation comedy: “family” of misfits , can follow worker's home or after hours, or remain in work space *Comedy feature Improvisational work by actors Demands by all networks/channels for changes in show Public interest standard : Federal oversight of all broadcasting has had two general goals: to foster the commercial development of the industry and to ensure that broadcasting serves the educational and informational needs of the American people. In many respects, the two goals have been quite complementary, as seen in the development of network news operations and in the variety of cultural, educational, and public affairs programming aired over the years. In other respects, however, Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) have sometimes concluded that the broadcast marketplace by itself is not adequately serving public needs. Accordingly, numerous efforts have been undertaken over the past 70 years to encourage or require programming or airtime to enhance the electoral process, governance, political discourse, local community affairs, and education. Some initiatives have sought to help underserved audience-constituencies such as children, minorities, and individuals with disabilities. In essence, the public interest standard in broadcasting has attempted to invigorate the political life and democratic culture of this Nation. Commercial broadcasting has often performed this task superbly. But when it has fallen short, Congress and the FCC have developed new policy tools aimed at achieving those goals. Specific policies try to foster diversity of programming, ensure candidate access to the airwaves, provide diverse views on public issues, encourage news and public affairs programming, promote localism, develop quality programming for children, and sustain a separate realm of high-quality, noncommercial television programming. ( Upright citizens brigade : ▯ The Upright Citizens Brigade is an improvisational and sketch comedy group that emerged from Chicago's ImprovOlympic in 1990. The original incarnation of the group consisted of Matt Besser, Amy Poehler, Ian Roberts, and Matt Walsh, Adam McKay, Rick Roman, Horatio Sanz and Drew Franklin, whose picture is the UCB logo. Ron moore: ▯ - Battlestar Galactica was a cult favorite, originally on network TV - Re-envisioned by Ron Moore 2004-2009 - Early example of a cable station drawing audience and prestige through original programming Ron howard: - Child Actor - Famous filmmaker - In 2002, Howard conceived the Fox comedy series, Arrested Development, on which he would also serve as producer and narrator, and play a semi-fictionalized version of himself. Joffrey Baratheon ▯ - Game of Thrones - “Over-indulged and cowardly, the young king has a cruel streak, particularly when it comes to those who are vulnerable. HBO “ Syfy channel : ▯ Branding of SyFY Channel Science Fiction TV Syfy - why change names? - Wanted to rise above aliens and outer space niche - Encourage more light viewers versus diehards . WWE used to attract young fans and groom them to be sci fi fans - Have a brand for gaming online - Syfy/ big launch emphasizing rhyme with wi-fi Sci Fi - Begun in late 80s by a couple devoted fans reached 30 major markets - Bought by usa Networks - Usa bought universal vivendi 2001 - Then universal nbc 2004 - Global roll out to 50 global markets sesp. Latin america, russia, asia SYFY- a brand named after a genre - Other examples of channels named after genre? - Comedy - Cartoon network - Game Show network - Food network - Problems from a branding point of view? - Can't show outside the genre - Limiting audience Rating vs. share ▯ Ratings A TV show's rating refers to the number of households who tuned in to watch the content --as a percentage of the entire population of TV-equipped homes. If, for example, 20 million TVs dialed in to view Sunday Night Football this week, and there are 100 million households overall, then that sports broadcast earned a rating of 20%. In other words, the show reached roughly one-fifth of all U.S. homes. Here's the calculation expressed as a formula: Rating = (number of viewers/total universe of potential viewers) Shares Similarly, a broadcast's share tells us how many people watched the show, but with an important difference from a rating: Share is expressed as a percentage of the audience that was actually watching TV at the time. Sticking with our weekend football example, if there were 60 million households watching television on that particular Sunday night, then the show's 20 million viewers qualified it for a share of 33%. That means the show reached one-third of all TV watchers during its broadcast – even if that audience represented just 20% of all homes in the U.S. Expressed as a formula, here's how to calculate audience share: Share = (number of viewers/total number of TV watchers) Genre hybridity -A cross-genre (or hybrid genre) is a genre in fiction that blends themes and elements from two or more different genres. As opposed to the (literary and political) conservatism of most genre fiction, cross-genre writing offers opportunities for opening up debates and stimulating discussion. Ming kaling’s hulu deal: ▯ A week after Fox canceled the Mindy Kaling comedy, Hulu confirmed that it has ordered a fourth season from producer Universal Television. Season Four will consist of 26 new episodes with a premiere date to be announced. Hulu has the option to order additional seasons after the premiere. Genre vs. format: - Genre comes with themes and conventions,characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter. , - Format is the way the show is arranged Serial vs episodic television : Serials typically follow main story arcs that span entire television seasons or even the full run of the series, which distinguishes them from traditional episodic television that relies on more stand-alone episodes. Police procedural : ● The police procedural, or police crime drama, is a subgenre of detective fiction that attempts to convincingly depict the activities of a police force as they investigate crimes. Villain vs anti hero : (Note: Villains must be evil). Therefore, a villain-protagonist is an evil protagonist. Considering these definitions, we see that both anti-heroes and villain-protagonists lack conventional heroic attributes. ... Roughly, the most extreme antihero (or "Heroin Name Only") is a Villain Protagonist. Showrunner: ▯ Who is the author of t.v? - Director less significant in t.v, primary goal is getting things done on time - Show runner has creative control Show runner for t.v is equivalent to director for film * Incredible pace of production Copyright vs trademark : The Difference Between Copyright and Trademark. While both offer intellectual property protection, they protect different types of assets. Copyright is geared toward literary and artistic works, such as books and videos. A trademark protects items that help define a company brand, such as its logo. Tiny furniture: Lena Dunham (creator of Girls) - College in creative writing - Sundance lab: Tiny Furniture , post college crisis, entered by jessie Nelson - 3.5 Million book deal - HBO teamed Lena Dunham with judd apatow and late nora ephron on Girls - big success this summer, new season ordered and sped up ▯ Short answer: 1. What are three of the elements of the Prime Time Serial (PTS) Michael Newman addresses? - PTS is a hybrid of episodic dramas & serials such as soaps and mini series - The 3 levels of storytelling for analysis ares - Micro level of the scene “beats” - - Middle level of the episode - Macro level of more than one episode - Multi-episode arc 2. Discuss how Being Mary Jane may disrupt the common stereotypes associated with representations of black women in television. Stereotypes of black women: - Rooted in slavery - Hyersexuality ( negative if not available to white men) or completely non-sexual - Before 2010, no black characters on tv - There for the white character, to support and make them better Being Mary Jane - Mary Jane is independent and NOT there for a white character - Her sexuality is depicted realistically and not extreme in either direction - She is surrounded by black supporting characters 3.Why is ESPN so expensive in its cable “bundle” and why is it worth so much costs to the Cable system operators? - The ESPN disparity can be explained in part by the hugely expensive professional sports contracts the network holds to broadcast games. But cable providers are afraid to play too much hardball with the sports networks, because they consider them too valuable. - The average of 111.9 million viewers made Super Bowl 50 the third-most- watched television program in United States history, behind the 114.4 million for the Super Bowl last year and 112.2 million for the 2014 game. 4.What does the TV pilot need to accomplish? - Pilot episodes serve as key texts - look of show established in pilot - 10x scrutiny & feedback into pilot 5.Discuss the visual style of The Shield through its multiple-camera production that Lucy Fife Donaldson details? -embracing documentary aesthetic - style suggests the filming is itself reacting to events as they unfold, showing the “reality” of police work - camera placement complicated relationships and builds tension - two cameras rather than one emphasizes action ( no action missed) - rapid cuts and handheld camera emphasize the chase 6. How does a series like Law and Order sells itself as a package to other nations? 7. How did UnReal disrupt the brand identity of the Lifetime network, moving the brand into the quality TV world? - “UnReal” - Two women and their relationship between each other working on reality show & their relationship between contestants - Lifetime network- significance? Low budget, middle aged women targeted - Producers create UnReal to become more like Netflix, creating binge-able content - Looks like a “Dark, premium cable type show” - Surprise hit, summer 2015 - Brand identity of Lifetime not compatible with content, emphasis on anti-hero 8. Discuss the evolution of the Sci Fi to the Scy Fy channel in terms of brand identity Syfy - why change names? - Wanted to rise above aliens and outer space niche - Encourage more light viewers versus diehards . WWE used to attract young fans and groom them to be sci fi fans - Have a brand for gaming online - Syfy/ big launch emphasizing rhyme with wi-fi Sci Fi - Begun in late 80s by a couple devoted fans reached 30 major markets - Bought by usa Networks - Usa bought universal vivendi 2001 - Then universal nbc 2004 - Global roll out to 50 global markets sesp. Latin america, russia, asia SYFY- a brand named after a genre - Other examples of channels named after genre? - Comedy - Cartoon network - Game Show network - Food network - Problems from a branding point of view? - Can't show outside the genre - Limiting audience 9. How and why did the workplace drama replace the traditional family sitcom? - Domestic situation comedy: “a family” biological or otherwise - Workplace situation comedy: “family” of misfits , can follow worker's home or after hours, or remain in work space - Culture is changing; where family values were once the cornerstone of success in America, we are experiencing a shift towards greater importance being placed in the workplace. This change has even affected our media. As society has grown to value career aspirations over family values, the family sitcom has evolved into the similar workplace sitcom. When we once turned on the television to watch families like ours work out their problems, we now seek out depictions of workplaces we can relate to. http:// 10. What is the relationship between advertising and ratings in network TV? What replaced this relationship with cable and streaming sites, from HBO to Netflix? - In network tv commercials/advertising support/fund the network The Nielsen company - Advantage of early adoption - Flawed data yet widely accepted Clientele - Sells propriety - Information - broadcast networks, local tv stations, ad agencies, market research firms, - cable networks , MSOs (multi cable system operators), satellite Tv Percentages - share is based on all the Tvs turned on at that time/or daypart - share of audience : the percent of households using tv who are tuned to a specific program, station or network Rating - based on all households with a tv/ all possible viewers - rating : estimated percentage of universe of tv households tuned to a program in average minute - 1% equals 1 point - Viewers Live + SD = same day viewing of show on a DVR plus live broadcast - Online streaming of many broadcast shows is still not counted by Nielsen for purposes of ratings, although the company has begun to track 1,000 shows on Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Hulu (excluding mobile streams). - . Streaming services like Hulu may not factor into Nielsen results, but networks still receive money for selling shows to them. As ratings drop and internet media grows ever more popular among young people whom advertisers seek to reach, change seems imminent 11. Television is known as a “producer’s medium” where directors are mostly interchangeable. However, the Pilot Director remains a significant figure. Explain why this is. - The look and tone of the pilot are established in the pilot episode - It introduces the show to the public and is under 10x more scrutiny - Otherwise, directors change throughout episodes but producer remains consistent 12. Describe the unusual relationship between text and adaptation in Game of Thrones. - tv has elaborated outside of books and away from textual story but contractually have to end the same - now books have to catch up to the t.v series but not obligated to tell same storyline 13. Discuss the core thematic elements of the Science Fiction genre since Frankenstein and apply them to our Battlestar Galactica screenings in class. Trademark - Sci fi was a word in regular uses - Difficult to register as a trademark - Trademarks are key to licensed merchandise and stable brand identity - Filing with federal agency must prove business record; much check for no conflicts - More than a business name, trademarks unlike copyright that happens when it is created Frankenstein , the first cyborg story - Origins of genre in novel by mary shelley. Summer telling german ghost stories with lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley - Romantic themes in the desire for immortality, the sublime experience of nature, the inevitability and horror of death - Dr. frankenstein was the first hacker. Frankenstein’s monster the first byborg What goes wrong when humans play god? - Technologies created by science can have unintended conferences; cautionary tales that pursue religious, philosophical Today’s screening ; - Battlestar Galactica was a cult favorite, originally on network TV - Re-envisioned by Ron Moore 2004-2009 - Early example of a cable station drawing audience and prestige through original programming - In some ways, deeply artistic, existentialist works. 14. Susanna Lee argues that the dispassionate nature of the police on Law and Order provide “reassuring and caring presences” despite the violent nature of the crimes, despite a sense that justice is often not served, and repeat crimes will occur. Do you agree with her argument? Does it apply to The Shield? 15. If Nielsen ratings are so flawed in terms of accuracy and sampling, why do the networks and cable channels still use them? Then give an example of a situation in which a TV program could have a low ratings but a high share, and explain how that works. - - Ratings/share and total viewers [edit] - The most commonly cited Nielsen results are reported in two measurements: ratings points and share, usually reported as: "ratings points/share". As of 2013, there were an estimated 115.6 million television households in the United States, up 1.2% from the previous year because of the inclusion of televisions that receive content over the Internet. A single national ratings point represents 1% of the total number, or 1,156,000 households for the 2013–14 [3] season. Nielsen re-estimates the number of television-equipped households each August for the upcoming television season. - Share is the percentage of television sets in use that are tuned to the program. For example, Nielsen may report a show as receiving a 9.2/15 during its broadcast; this would mean that out of all television-equipped households, 9.2% were tuned in to that program, and out of all television-equipped households with a television currently in use, 15% were tuned in to that program. [4] - Because ratings are based on samples, it is possible for shows to get a 0.0 rating, despite [5] having an audience; the CNBC talk show McEnroe was one notable example. Another example is The CW show, CW Now, which received two 0.0 ratings in the same season. In 2014, Nielsen reported that American viewership of live-television (totaling on average four hours and 32 minutes per day) had dropped 12 minutes per day compared to the year before. Nielsen reported several reasons for the shift away from live-television: increased viewership of time-shifted television (mainly through DVRs) and viewership of internet video [6] (clips from video sharing websites and streams of full-length television shows). - 16. Explain Denise Bielby’s concept of Continuous Disadvantage. Have Lena Dunham and Mindy Kaling succeeded in overcoming it? How are their circumstances different from other female screenwriters? -This article uses longitudinal career history data for the period 1982 through 1990 to explore the mechanisms that produce a gender gap in earnings among writers in the television industry. Two models of labor market dynamics are compared. The first is a model of cumulative disadvantage whereby differential access to opportunity is increasingly consequential over the course of writers' careers. The second is a model of continuous disadvantage whereby the contributions of women writers are uniformly devalued across career stages. The results strongly support the model of continuous disadvantage and show that a narrowing of the wage gap is limited to very recent cohorts of writers. The article describes how unstructured labor market arrangements in the entertainment industry sustain the process of continuous disadvantage and discusses implications for labor market issues more generally.


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