KINE 301 - Study Guide for Exam 2
KINE 301 - Study Guide for Exam 2 KINE 301
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jay Ko on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KINE 301 at Rice University taught by Dr. Brian Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Kinesiology at Rice University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 6 – Communication • How do cells communicate, in general? o Gap Junctions § Different from one another • Size of the hole determines the different gap junctions § Connexins make up these gap junctions § Paracrine § Autocrine • Go back and effect a cell and come back to effect itself • Communication in the body o Local communication § Gap junctions direct cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells § Contact-dependent signals require interaction between membrane molecules on the two cells § Autocrine signals o Long distance § Endocrine system § Nervous system o Gap Junctions § 20 Isoforms of connexins that mix and match to form gap junctions and allow selectivity to vary among tissues. Gap junctions are found in a wide variety of tissues and the list is growing o Contact dependent signals § Important in immune system and growth and development. § CAMs can also serve in this type of cell-to-cell signaling. o Autocrine signals § Great example is histamine, which is released from damaged cells. § Wheal is caused by histamine’s effect on local capillaries allowing greater permeability to white blood cells § Autocrine act on the same cell that secrete them. Paracrine are secreted by one cell to another adjacent cell. o Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands or cells into the blood. Only target cells with receptors for the hormone respond to the signal § Cytokines differ rom hormoes • Act on broader spectrum of cells • Not produced by specialized glands • Made on demand § This system takes longer • Distance it has to travel o Nervous system § Pretty fast § Neurotransmitters are chemicals secreted by neurons that diffuse across a small gap to the target cell. § Neurohormones are chemicals released by neurons into the blood for action at distant targets § If neurocrine acts more slowly as an autocrine or paracrine, then it is referred to as a neuromodulator • Signal Pathways o Most signal pathways consist of 5 steps. o Intracellular Signal Receptors § Lipophillic signal molecules diffuse through the cell membrane • Can bind to either a cytosolic or nuclear receptors o Triggers a slower response related to changes in gene activity. o Cell membrane receptors § Extracellular signal binds to a cell membrane receptor § Four types • Receptor channel o Ligand binding opens or closes the channel • Receptor-enzyme o Ligand binding to a receptor-enzyme activates an intracellular enzyme • G protein coupled receptor o Ligand binding to a G protein coupled receptor opens an ion channel or alters enzyme activity • Integrin receptor o Ligand binding to integrin receptors and altering cytoskeleton o Transducer = device converts signal from one form to another • Signal transduction o First messenger binds to a transducer – changes the signal o Secondary messenger system goes to targets and sends out a response o Pathways for a cascade § Signal amplification allows a small amount of signal to have a large effect Lecture 6 • GPCR-adenylyl cyclase signal transduction and amplification • Gases as Signal Molecules o NO – created by nitric oxide synthase, short lived and cuasses vasodilation in blood bessels and can act on the brain as a neurotransmistter or neuromodulator o CO – short loived on smooth muscle and neural tissue o Hydrogen suldie – acts in the CV system to relax blood vessles, harlic is a major dietic supplement, helps the heart • The Arachidonic Acid Cascade o Leukotrienes can be related to asthma. o Produced in certina white blood cells and can cause anaphylaxis o None steroidal anti inflammatory drugs block the action of CODX and prevent inflammation o Prostaglandins and theoroboxanes are related to sleep, inflammation, pain, and fever • Some Diseases or Conditions Linked to Abnormal Signaling Mechanisms o Bordetella pertussis toxin § It is estimated that the disease currently affects about 40 million people a year and 300,000 deaths. o Cholera Toxin § Cholera continues to be a serious health problem in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with as many as 200,000-500,000 cases per year and mortality rates reacting as high as 20-50s. • Cannon’s Postulates • Tonic Control • What heart rates are shown on the two ECG readings? • Reflex steps o Stimulus o Sensor o Iput Signal o Integrating Center o Output signal • Cells can have 50,000 – 100,000 receptors/cells Ch. 7 – 9.21.16 • Organotherapy – practice of inecting patients with extract sof many different endocrine organs. • Classic hormones o Removal o Replacement o Implant extra organ o Purify extract • Types of hormones o Peptide hormones o Steroid hormones o Amine hormones – derivative from amino acids • Peptide Hormone Synthesis o Preprohomrone § Chop off signal sequence § Prohormone § Forms secretory vesicles that have the prohormone § Enzymes chop the prohormone into one or more active peptides • Active hormone and peptide fragments o Preprohormones § 6 copies of the 3 amino acid TRH o Prohormones § Contains several peptide sequences with biological activity § Process to active hormones plus peptide fragments • C-peptide serves as an indication of insulin creation • Membrane receptors and signal transduction for peptide hormones o Paptide hormones need to bind to a receptor that intiates a signal transduction pathway • Steroid hormones o Cholesterol is the parent compound of steroid hormones o Carried in the blood by specific carrier or by albumin specific o Receptors § Cell surface § Cell membrane § Nuclear receptor • Amine hormones o Most amine hormones are derived from the amino acid tyrosine § Parent amino acid for catecholamines and thyroid hormones • Simple Endocrine pathways o Parathyroid Hormone § Increases the amount of Ca2+ as a negative feedback to shut off the parathyroid hormone • Pituitary Gland o Master gland o Releases a large number of hormones – trophic hormones § Goes to affect another gland or cell • Do something or release another something o Three portal system § Hypothalamic/hypophyseal § Kidney § Digestive system o Released from anterior pituitary glands § Prolactin • Mammary glands § GH • Musculoskeletal system § TSH • Thyroid gland § ACTH • Adrenal cortex § LH and FSH • Ovary + testes • Oxytocin and Vasopressin o Two posterior pituitary neurohormones made in the hypothalamus o Oxytocin § Mammary glands and uterus • Milk production and uterine contractions • Also found in discrete neurons in the brain • Related to: o Social behavior o Maternal behavior o Vasopressin § Kidneys • CRH -> ACTH -> Adrenal Cortex -> Cortisol • Growth hormone does not have to go through liver to have effects • Somatostatin o GH inhibiting hormone • The Growth Hormone Pathway o Hypothalamic growth hormone – releasing hormone HGRG stimulates growth hormone secretion. Growth hormone acts directly on many body tissues but also influences liver production of insulin like growth factors IGFs or somatomedins, another group of hormones that regulate growth o Anti insulin o Anemic effect – swelling in joints • Negative feedback in complex endocrine pathways o Stimulus stimulates hypothalamus sends off a trophic hormone 1 which acts on the anterior pituitary which acts on endocrine gland, hormone then target tissue then response. o Hypothatlamus § Releases CRH or ACTH § Acts on the anterior pituitary releasing ACTH § Adrenal cortex § Cortisol § Target tissue § Response • Synergism o Working together to cause effects • Permissiveness o Thyroid hormone allows others to work • Antagonism o Can complete for the same receptor o Can use separate receptors o Can influence the availability of other hormone’s receptors o Ex. Glucagon and GH are considered antagonistic to insulin because they both raise blood sugar • Endocrine Pathologies o Excess hormones o Deficiency in hormone o Abnormal responsiveness of hormone • Exogenous hormone has the same negative feedback effect as endogenous hormone • Primary and secondary hypersecretion of cortisol o Primary hypersecretion due to problem with adrenal cortex § Last organ is the issue o Secondary hypersecretion due to pituitary problem o Secondary hypersecretion due to hypothalamic problem § Anything upstream is the issue • Pineal gland o Melatonin is the darkness hormone secreted at night as we sleep. It is the chemical messenger that transmits information about light-dark cycles to the brain center that governs the body’s biological clock. o Related to seasonal affective depressive disorder SAAD. o Has powerful antioxidant abilities • What are pheromones o Used for organism to organism communication o Specialized ectohormone- defined as signal moleclules secreted into the external environment. o Examples: § anemones – warn each other of danger § Ants releasing trail for food § Sex pheromones throughout the animal kingdom • What is Grave’s Disease? o T3 and T4 – control O2, consumption and body temperature, metabolism, etc. o Controlled by TSH which is controlled by TRH o TSH is typically low o T4 is high o Autoimmune disorder where body creates antibodies that mimic TSH § Ben Chrenshaw § Track athlete Ch. 8 • The Organization of the Nervous System • Neuron Anatomy o Sensory § Picking up information need to react appropriately o Interneurons of CNS § Picking up information and sending it to something else § Expansive network of dendrites o Efferent Neurons o Parts of a Neuron § Cell body and really close to the Axon • Axon hillock and axon initial segment • Convergence of bunch of info from cell body and dendrites • Here is where you decide whether to send something on or not § Axon branches off and touches different things • One touches the postsynaptic neuron • One touches the presynaptic axon terminal § Synapse is the region where an axon terminal communicates with its postsynaptic target cell • Fast Axonal Transport o 400mm/day § 0.2-2.5mm/day = slow • Always being made and always being delivered o Can be used for a while like an enzyme • Developing Axon o Developing axon is blue while the microtubules are green. o Actin filaments are being continuously assembled in red and yellow. o They extend the tip of the axon as it seeks a target. o Axon sniffs out chemical signals o Survival of the neurons depend on neurotropic factors o Process influences synaptic plasticity o Infant brain is ¼ the size of an adult brain with the same number of neurons. o Larger brain is due to neuron cell bodies, axons, and dendrites increasing in size. • Gilal cells o Outnumber neurons 10-50:1 o Different types of functions o Ependymal cells § Source of neural stem cells o Astrocytes § Make up ½ the cells in the brain o Microglia § Attack things, act as scavengers o Oligodendrocytes • Schwann cell o Help support physically o Help make a muscle either fast or slow o Each schwann cell forms myelin around a small segment of one axon • Satellite cell – a non-myelating Schawnn cell • Interneurons are found entirely in the CNS • Speed of axon o Diameter § Bigger = moves faster o Myelination • Peripheral Neuron Injury o Axons are less likely to repair in the CNS, but sometimes this can occur in the PNS • Graded Potentials o Cell body has dendrites and is receiving information o Sub threshold graded potential o Na+ faster than p Rgw fwkkyueeeeeeotassium § Ends up hitting a • Conduction of Action Potential o The fractory period prevents backwork condtion. o Loss of K+ frmom the cytoplasm replaces the memberane o Send things downstream • Saltatory Conduction o Current leak slows conduction o Demyelinating diseases – conduction slow when current leaks out § Multiple sclerosis • Graded Potential and Action Potential in Neurons • Potassium and Cell Excitability o When blood K+ in the normal range a subthreshold graded potential does not fire an action potential o Normokalemia a suprathreshold stimulus will fire an action potential o Hyperkalemia increased blood K+ concentration brings the membrane closer to the threshold. Now a stimulus that would normally be subthreshold can trigger an action potential. o Hypokalemia decreased blood K+ concentration hyperpolarizes the membrane and makes the neuron less likely to fire an action potential in response to a stimulus that would normally be above the threshold § Inside is more positive than it should be because it is not leaking like it is used to. § Hyper will hit a subthershold § Someone with no potassium • Hypo o Leaks more faster than normal to compensate o Stimulus will be really strong to get it to fire • A chemical synapse o Need a lot of mitochondria o Vesicles with neurotransmitter o Two types § Electrical and chemical o 10000 synapses is a moderate number of synapses for a neuron cell body and dendrites o Can be up to 150,000 synapses on the dendrites o Synapses can also occur on the axon or even the axon terminal • Major neurocrines o Incredible number of neurocrines with a wide variety of effects o CNS has a wide variety o PNS only has three major neuroncrines § Acetylcholine § Norepinephrine § Epinephrine • Synaptic Communication o Second model of secretion of neurotransmitter has emerged – kiss and run pathway. o Synaptic vesicles fuse to the presynaptic membrane at a complex called the fusion pore. • Synaptic Communication • Synthesis and recycling of acetylcholine o Anything that blocks acetylcholine is an issue • The frequency of action potential firing indicates the strength of a stimulus o How to control the firing? o Need to control how much of that thing is going to happen. o Weak stimulus releases little neurotransmitter. o Strong stimulus causes more action ponteials and releases more neurontransmitter • Divergence and Convergence o Cell body has to figure out whether or not to send signal or not. o How strongly are these cell bodies telling me to go? • Fast and slow postsynaptic responses o ESPS – Send the singal o Inhibitory post synaptic signal – do not send the signal • Summation o Spatial o Temporal – occurs when two graded potentials form one neuron occurs close together in time § Starts to add • 3-D reconstruction of dendritic spines and their synapses • Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition o Presynaptic § Inhibitory neuron synapses on one collateral of the presynaptic neuron and selectivity inhibits one target • Long term potentiation o Long term adaptations to the number and quality of synaptic connections which are related to learning and memory o AMPA o NMDA o Glutamate can bind to both AMPA, allows sodium through, or NMDA. o Long term depression § The number of AMPA receptors is reduced and AMPA receptor isoform reduces the flow of ions in the channel o Results in greater number of receptors in longer term • Neuro diseases o Channelopathies o Myasthenia Gravis o Japanese Puffer Fish o Mysterious Paralysis Ch. 9 – CNS • The Evolution of the Nervous System o Evolution of sensory type of receptors o Fish forebrain o Goose forebrain is a little larger o Human forebrain dominates the brain • Tracing Neuron a Network o “Like following in a tiny thread through tangled mass the size of a beach ball” o Horseradish Peroxidase HRP § Catalzyes rxn to produce visible product § Can see where all the neurons are § Can use florescent antibodies and genetic modification in mice to create neurons that light up n a rainbow of colors • Development of the Human Nervous System o A lot of stages in the development § Can be predicted when something happens on what day § Different among genders and species o Day 20 o Day 23 – developed a little bit more o 4 weeks – human embryo showing the anterior end of the neural tube which has specialized into three brain regions § Hollow lumen becomes the four ventricles – two lateral and 3 and 4 are descending ventricles o 6 weeks o 11 weeks § Growth of the cerebrum § Makes us different than other animals o 40 weeks § Convoluted furrowed surface § Other animals have a more smoother cerebrum o Child § Ventral = inferior § Dorsal = superior § Neurons are predictable • The central nervous system o Clusters of neural cell bodies in the brain and the spinal cord are called nuclei o “Tracts” in the CNS mean the same as “nerves” in the PNS o How is the brain protected? § Protected in a bony structure – skull § Vertebrate also protect it the spinal cord § Three layers of minigies • Dura mater – touch mother • Subarchnoid space is between arachnoid membrane and pia mater • Pia mater is thin and lines the spinal cord § Minigitis – if menigies swell, the brain will press against the inside and can cause death o Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid § Lateral § Third § Fourth § Cerebrospinal Fluid • 250-350ml • Used for physical and chemical protection • Reduces the weight of the brain by 30 fold o Allows brain to float in the liquid • Replaced about 3x per day o Cerebrospinal Fluid § Secreted into the ventricles and flows throughout the sybarchnoid space, where it cushions the CNS § Choroid plexus – specialized region of the walls of the ventricles that transport ions and nutrients from the blood in the constant secretion of cerebrospinal fluid § Secretion • Physicians may extract a sample if they suspect an infection in the brain • Done through a spinal tap through the meninges. • Blood Brain Barrier o Highly selective permeability o Lacking at the hypothalamus area of the “portal system” and at the “vomiting center” so we can sense toxins. o Antihistamines – older versions were small and lipid soluble and affected sleep center (drowsiness) o Parkinson’s Disease – issue was dopamine production and dopamine ca’t cross the BBB so L-Dopa was used because uses amino acid carrier; had short lived affects in movie “Awakenings” § Losing control of when you think to move and then actually move • Spinal Cord Organization o 1 § Dorsal and ventral roots § Dorsal – gathering information to the body § Ventral – sending information out for responses o 2 § Interneurons are found in the dorsal horn § Cell bodies of sensory neurons are found in dorsal root ganglion o 3 § Asecneding and descending tracts • Asecnding – carry senroy information to the brain • Descending – o Spinal reflex § Sensory information entering the spinal cord is acted on without input from the brain § Spinal reflex initiates a response without input form the brain • Lateral view of the brain o Different lobes o Brain § 1,400 grams § 10^12 neurons § up to 2000,0000 synapses each § Lots of plasticity • Mid Sagittal View • Cerebellum o Movement coordination o “Little brain” • Lateral view of the brain stem o Brain stem § 11 of the 12 cranial nerves – vision sight thinking movement § Vagus nerve is wandering and has numerous effects § Many nuclei associated with reticular network formation § Medulla oblongotta is transition from spinal cord to the brain proper § Corticospainl tracts run from the cerebellum to the spinal cord § Pyramids in medulla where corticospinal tracts cross to other side of body • The Cranial Nerve o Know the Vagus nerve – mixed type – sensory and efferent to many internal organs, muscles and glands • Diencephalon o Lies between the brain stem and cerebrum o Consists of thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland, and pituitary gland o Thalamus is the integrating and relay station • Functions of the Hypothalamus o Hunger, thirst, homeostasis • Grey Matter of the Cerebrum o Cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes by anatomy o Has folds – gyri and sulci folds for fitting into smaller volume while allowing advanced processing, rodent brains are smooth o Basal ganglia – basal nuclei – helps control the movement and is related to Parkinson’s disease o Cerebrum o Cortex is only a few mm thick § Faces toward the skull o Outer surface of the cerebral cortex § Neurons rest on different layers and have different effects o The limbic system § Has the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus. § Thalamus is shown for orientation purposes and is not part of the limbic system • Simple and complex pathways in the brain o Brain is unique in generating output in absence of input o Cognitive system starts at the cerebral cortex • Functional areas of the cerebral cortex o Primary somatic sensory cortex sense touch, temperature, pain, itch and body position • Cerebral Laterization o Corpus Callosum – allows information to go back and forth in the brain • Overview of Diffuse Modulatory Systems o The neurons collectively known as the diffuse modulatory systems originate in the reticular formation of the brain stem and project their axons to large areas of the brain. • Noradrenergic o Functions – attention arousal sleep wake learning • Serotonergic o Lower – pain and locomotion o Upper – sleep wake cycle, mood and emotional behaviors • Dopaminergic o Motor control o Reward centers linked to addictive behaviors • Cholinergic Acetylcholine o Sleep wake cycles o Arousal o Learning o Memory o Sensory information pasting through thalamus • Somnambulism or sleep walking o Deepest sleep occurs in the first three hours o Somnambulism occurs in stage four of sleep o Stages § Awake, eyes closed § 1 REM § 2 REM § 3 REM § 4 Slow wave sleep delta waves • Language processing o People with damage to Wernicke’s area do not understand spoken or written communication. o Those with damage to Broca’s area understand but are not able to respond Ch. 11 – • Hypothalamus, pons, and medulla initiate autonomic endocrine and behavioral responses • Autonomic control centers o Specific areas of the brain, stem etc, that have control over certain areas • Autonomic pathways o Consist of two neurons that synapse in an autonomic ganglion • Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic o Sympathetic originals in the thorax region o Parasympathetic originate in the cervical and sacral regions • There are a lot different adrenergic receptors • Sympathetic pathways use acetylcholine and norepinephrine. • Parasympathetic pathways use acetylcholine. • There are a few exceptions. One example is that sympathetic posthanglionic neurons release Ach on sweat glands. • Autonomic varicosities release neurontransmitter over the surface of target cells o Spread out over areas like smooth muscle • Affect and stop a signal • Adrenergic receptors are complex o Norepinephrine or epineferine § Can bind to five different receptors at different affinities. § Stronger for norepinephrine 3/5 of the receptors. • Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine into the blood o From the kidneys. o ACh released and modifies postganglionic sympathetic neuron. o Epinephrine is that neurohome that releases in the blood • Efferent Divisions of the Nervous System o Somatic – brain sending message to muscle and you wanting that muscle to contract. o Skeletal muscle § Referred to as NMJ or neuromuscular junction o Cocaine acts by blocking the reuptakel of NE at adrenergic nerve terminal o Autonomic nicotine receptors and somatic nicotinic receptors are no identical due to different units, this is illustrated by the fact that snake alpha bungarotoxin binds at muscle but not autonomic receptors. o Somatic neuron § Can be short or meters in length § Curare • Blocks somatic nicotinic receptors • Used as as poison in South Anerica § Prey will die due to asphyxiation o Somatic motor neurons and neuromuscular junctions § A neuromuscular junction consists of axon terminals, motor end plates on the muscle memebrane, and schwann cell sheaths. • Extentions of the Shwann cells form a thin layer on axon terminals • Secreate a variety of chemcail signal molecules. • Plays a critical role in the formation nand maintenance of the NMJ § The motor end plate is a region of muscle membrane that contains high concentration of ACh receptors § Neuoromuscular junction § Axon terminal arrives at the axon terminal causing voltage gated channels to open. Calcium entry causes … § The nicotinic cholinergice receptor binds two molecules, opening a nonspeficif movalent cation channel. • Clinical appliations o Diabetic neuropathy § Sensory neuropathy – tingling sensation in hands and feet § Pain can be a primary symptom § 30% of diabetic patients develop autonomic neuropathies manifested as dysfunctions of • CV system • GI orders • Urinary oolders • Reproductice system o Nicotine – powerful addition § 1.3M worldwide intentionally take nicotine. § 5M per yearz people die. § Overdose can bind nACR at askelal muscle and cause depolarization without repolarization o Bees in Chia § Need to have a treatment option when attacked § USA need to start dialysis o Toxins will hurt tissues § Affect nerve endings •
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