New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BSC114 Chapter 8 Study Guide

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC114 Chapter 8 Study Guide BSC 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 114 > BSC114 Chapter 8 Study Guide
Lauren Dutch
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Our exam is October 18. I will be starting to post the study guides for each chapter every few days so y'all can go ahead and start studying if you want.
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in The Principles of Biology 1

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for BSC114 Chapter 8 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 8 Study Guide: 1. Anabolic pathways synthesize more complex organic molecules using the energy derived from catabolic pathways. 2. Organisms are thermodynamically open systems because they acquire energy from their surroundings and also lose energy to their surroundings. 3. A farmer’s crops growing over a season must be open system in order to obey the first law of thermodynamics, which states that energy is only converted, not created or destroyed. 4. Energy can be freely transformed among different forms as long as the total energy is conserved. 5. The aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose produces six molecules each of carbon dioxide and water represents the second law of thermodynamics. 6. According to the second law of thermodynamics, the decrease in entropy associated with life must be compensated for by the increased entropy in the environment in which life exists. 7. If the entropy of a living organism is decreasing, energy input into the organism must be occurring to drive the decrease in entropy. 8. A starch molecule has the most free energy per molecule. 9. ΔG tells you if a process is spontaneous. 10.If, during a process, the system becomes more ordered, then ΔS is negative. 11.When one molecule is broken down into six component molecules, ΔS is positive. 12.From the equation ΔG = ΔH – TΔS it is clear that a decrease in the system’s total energy will increase the probability of spontaneous change, an increase in the entropy of a system will increase the probability of spontaneous change, and an increase in the temperature of the system will increase the probability of a spontaneous change. 13.An exergonic (spontaneous) reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy when proceeding in the forward direction. 14.Glucose + fructose  sucrose is an endergonic reaction. 15.Molecules A and B contain 110 kcal/mol while molecules C and D contain 150 kcal/mol. The reaction that proceeds to convert A and B to C and D is endergonic because the products are more organized than the reactants. 16.The sign of ΔG for a reaction is determined by the free energy of the reactants and the free energy of the products. 17. Metabolic pathways in cells are typically far from equilibrium. To keep metabolic pathways far from equilibrium, the products of one pathway are continuously removed to be used in other reactions, and there is an input of free energy from outside the pathway. 18.Free energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP can be used to perform many kinds of cellular work. One such example proton movement against the gradient of protons. 19.In general, the hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by releasing free energy that can be coupled to other reactions. 20.An example of energy coupling is when ATP hydrolysis is used to drive the active transport of an ion into the cell against its concentration gradient. 21.Much of the suitability of ATP as an energy intermediary is related to the instability of the bond between phosphate groups. These bonds are unstable because the negatively charged phosphate groups vigorously repel one another and the terminal phosphate group is more stable in water than it is in ATP. 22.When 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a test tube without an enzyme, about twice as much heaet is given off as when 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a cell. This is because, in the cell, the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to other endergonic reactions. 23.The free energy released by ATP hydrolysis may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate. 24.The formation of a glucose-6 phosphate from glucose is an endergonic reaction and is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP. 25.A chemical reaction is designated as exergonic rather than endergonic when the potential energy of the products is less than the potential energy of the reactants. 26.The activation energy of a reaction is changed by the presence of an enzyme. 27.Neither the sign nor the magnitude of ΔG has anything to do with the speed of a reaction. 28.Enzymes lower activation energy by locally concentrating the reactants. 29.Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction without changing the ΔG for the reaction. 30.Enzymes can lower the activation energy of reactions, but they cannot change the equilibrium point because they cannot change the net energy output. 31.A plot of reaction rate against temperature for an enzyme indicates little activity at 10 degrees C and 45 degrees C with peak activity at 35 degrees C. The most reasonable explanation for the low velocity at 10 degrees C is that there is too little activation energy available. 32.An enzyme is not consumed during the reaction it catalyzes. 33.The active site may resemble a groove or a pocket in the surface of a protein into which the substrate fits. 34.Induced fit means the enzyme changes shape slightly as the substrate binds to it. 35.Heat from the environment is necessary for substrates to get over the activation energy barrier and the kinetic energy of the substrates is increased as the amount of heat in the system is increased. 36.Above a certain substrate concentration, the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction drops as the enzymes become saturated. A faster conversion of the substrate into the product under these saturated conditions could occur by increasing the concentration of the enzyme or increasing the temperature by a few degrees. 37.Heating the enzyme, cooling the enzyme, substrate concentration, and pH all affect the rate of an enzyme reaction. 38.Enzyme activity is affected by pH because high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions and thus change the shape of the active site. 39.The action of competitive inhibitors may be reversible or irreversible. 40.Succinylcholine is structurally almost identical to acetylcholine. If succinylcholine is added to a mixture that contains acetylcholine and the enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (but not succinylcholine), the rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis is decreased. Subsequent addition of more acetylcholine restores the original rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis. This is because succinylcholine must be a competitive inhibitor with acetylcholine. 41.The process of stabilizing the structure of an enzyme in its active form by the binding of a molecule outside the active site is an example of allosteric activation. 42.Allosteric proteins are sensitive to environmental conditions, are acted on by inhibitors, and exist in active and inactive conditions. 43.Allosteric inhibitors cause a structural change in the enzyme that prevents the substrate from binding at the active site. 44.High levels of ADP result in allosteric activation of catabolic pathways.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.