Psychology Midterm review
Psychology Midterm review Psych 101L
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Heavey on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101L at Marist College taught by Dr. Moody in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Marist College.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Psych Midyear Review I. Intro to Psychology - Research Methods/Schools of Thought A. What is Psychology? - the scientific study of behavior and mental processes - behavior, thinking, and emotions B. Psychology Rooted in Philosophy and Physiology - philosophy: who are we? why? - physiology: physical functions and structures of the body C. Wilhelm Wundt - structuralism - father of psychology - lab experiments - structuralism: consciousness - perception, feelings, and mental images - brain divided into components - compartmentalized jobs D. Figures whose Ideas Paved Way for Modern Psych - philosophers: who are we? - Socraties: “know thyself”, introspection-look within - Plato- senses to experience the world, reason and thought to understand people, maximize pleasure and minimize pain, biological cause for behavior - Aristotle- knowledge acquired through senses - Confucius- born good, society can corrupt us, society should capitalize on human strengths - middle ages- mental illness means possessed E. Basic focus of the Following fields - developmental psych: development over time, behaviors, benchmarks - clinical psych: severe psychological disorders ex. schizophrenia, depression, research or treatment - industrial psych: hiring, business morale, job satisfaction - social psych: group dynamics, influence of a group on an individual and vice versa - experimental psych: lab experiments, animals, correlate behaviors, other lab results, neurochemistry, drugs and alcohol - counseling psych: life events, family issues, stress, grief, divorce F. Difference between psychology and psychiatry - psychology: predict and control behavior - psychiatry: prescribe medication (psychologist who treats by altering body chemistry) G. Pros and Cons of Research methods - Natural observation: less bias, little control over variables - Experimental method: volunteer or researcher bias, control all variables 1. control group-placebo: no change, get false change 2. experimental group-treatment: group getting changed variable 3. independent variable: manipulated variable 4. dependent variable: measured variable 5. population 6. sample - longitudinal study: long term study - cross-sectional study: full rendering of population - survey: checklist, questionnaires, can get data from a lot of people - case study: behavior of 1 or more people studied in depth - correlational studies: relationship between 2 variables - Stanley Milgrim’s experiment and ethics: trust, obedience, teacher “shocks” student, used lethal dose, how far will people go when ordered to?. people will not disobey authority, will disobey if someone else disobeys first - Harry Harlow and rhesus monkeys: newborn monkeys separated from mothers at birth, 2 “mothers”, 1 wire with food, 1 cloth without food, monkeys prefered cloth mother because of touch and physical contact, feared touch of other monkeys and humans H. Schools of thought- beliefs and ideas - Behaviorism (pavlov, skinner, watson, thorndike): learned behaviors, observable, little albert, skinner’s box - structuralism (wundt and titchner): brain divided into components, compartmentalized to do certain jobs - functionalism (james): survival of the fittest, adaptation to the environment, whole conscious experience - psychoanalysis (freud): iceberg theory, thoughts pushed into subconsciousness are what makes you who you are, talk therapy, sex, dreams - gestalt psychology (sensation and perception): pattern making, whole over parts - cognitive psychology (seligman and bandura): kids mirrored parents actions, learned helplessness I. Psychological perspectives - biological: what you are given, gender, physical illness, disability, genetic vulnerability, immune function, neurochemistry, stress reactivity, medication effects, bio or learned, - cognitive: thinking, thought patterns, learned helplessness - psychoanalytical: unconscious motives/drives, past trauma, talk therapy - behavioral: how people act and react J. DSM-R IV - The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders - Revised, Fourth Edition - Book K. Stanford Prison Experiment, Milgrim Obedience - Stanford: take on roles of prisoner and guard, psychological and physical attacks, students became their character - Milgrim: trust, obedience, teacher “shocks” student, used lethal dose, how far will people go when ordered to?. people will not disobey authority, will disobey if someone else disobeys first II. Psychobiology: Nervous System and the Brain A, Psychology and The Brain - all behavior and mental processes are caused by neuronal transmission B. Parts of the Neuron C. Neurotransmitters - excitatory: speeds up firing of neuron - inhibitory: slows firing of neuron - acetylcholine: excitatory, muscle control, heart, memory, loss=alzheimer's - dopamine: ex/in, pleasure, voluntary muscle movement, less=parkinsons, more=schizophrenia - serotonin: in, mood, depression, eating disorders, sleep, mood - norepinephrine: in, heart, arousal, learning, memory, mood disorders - endorphins: in, natural painkillers, “runner’s high” - Gaba: mood, calm or anxiety, less or more can be used in tranquilizers and alcohol D. Process of neurotransmission - resting potential: hold gun - depolarization: load gun - action potential: point gun - all or nothing: fire or misfire gun - refractory period: rest - reuptake: pick up unused bullets - resting potential: hold gun E. Central Nervous System - spinal cord: sends messages - brain: forebrain (smart part), midbrain (mammal brain), hindbrain (basic life support) F. Peripheral Nervous System - Autonomic: involuntary, fight or flight - parasympathetic: calm you down - sympathetic: stress you out, instincts - Somatic: voluntary - sensory - motor G. Structures of the Brain - hindbrain: oldest, connects brain to spinal cord - limbic system: middle - forebrain: newest, largest, most advanced in humans - medulla: basic life support - brain stem: connects spinal cord and brain - medulla oblongata: transfers info between brainstem and thalamus, regulates basic life functions - pons: arousal, alertness, sleep and wake cycles, respiratory rhythm, facial movement, motor control - cerebellum: motor function, balance, coordination - thalamus: relay sensory info to/from cerebral cortex, takes info in, makes sense, sends response out - hypothalamus: temperature, heart rate, homeostasis, hormones, set drive-hunger, sex - amygdala: emotional center, aggression, fear, fight or flight - hippocampus: long term memory - pineal gland: melatonin-puts to sleep, sleep and wake cycles - cerebral cortex: outer layer - corpus callosum: bridge between right and left hemisphere - somatosensory strip: receives messages from skin, temperature, movement, pain, pleasure - somatomotor strip: sends messages from brain to body, movement - parietal lobe: top, touch sensation, regulates muscles, joints, and skin - temporal lobe: lower sides, hearing, recognize visual tasks - occipital lobe: back, visual info - frontal lobe: front, smart part, PG impaled, problem solving, planning, reasoning, emotions, impulse control - broca’s area: muscles in speech production - wernicke’s area: temporal lobe, auditory info, comprehends language H. Neuroplasticity, phantom limbs, convolutions in the cortex - neuroplasticity: brain rewiring after injuries I. Stories from “Man who Mistook..” - brain disorders J. Hemispheres - right: art and music appreciation, facial recognition, creativity, left side of the body - left: language, math, problem solving, right side of the body K. Sensory vs. Motor Neurons - sensory: take in info - motor: put out info L. Brain Imaging - EEG: current electrical brain activity - CT: 3d photo of brain - PET: video of where injected dye goes - MRI: clear photo M. Deep Brain Stimulation - lobotomy: removing part of brain - electroconvulsive therapy: electric shocks - ablation/lesioning: burning parts of brain - -electrical recordings: record electrical changes from stimuli - electric stimulation: mild electric current to observe effects - deep brain stimulation: pacemaker for brain, catheter in brain that send low waves of electricity N. Brain Abnormality - phineas gage: became erratic, angry, outburst - alzheimer's: forgets, always gets worse, missing things, then forgetting family, then basic life functions III. Endocrine System A. Glands - function, hormones, conditions - Pituitary gland: main growth hormone, childbirth, nursing (oxytocin), milk production (prolactin), tells other glands to do job - Pineal gland: melatonin, sleep and wake cycles, jet lag - thyroid: thyroxine- metabolism, can be replaced with medicine, hyperthyroidism or hyperthroxine: too much, skinny, high energy, sleep problems, hypothyrodism or hypothyroxine: too little, gain weight, low energy, tired, both conditions in normal range - pancreas: insulin-regulates blood sugar (glucose), not enough insulin leads to diabetes - adrenal: stress hormones: cortesal, adrenaline, blood pressure, heart rate, aldosterone-keep potassium at good levels - testes: testosterone, sperm production, pubic hair, facial hair, voice deepening, adam’s apple, acne, mood swings - ovaries: estrogen, egg production, breast development, menstruation, pubic hair, acne, mood swings B. Nature vs. Nurture, Locke and Rousseau - locke: people born with clean slate and environment shapes us - rousseau: born good but society corrupts us C. Twin Studies and their use in Nature vs. Nurture argument - same genes and environment if raised together - apart: find out what is nature and what is nurture D. Transgenderism and hormones - hormone blockers - sex change hormones - not a lot of research of long term effects - no children later in life - permanent change E. Homosexuality and theories - older brother effect: more older brothers and right handed increases chance of being gay - mom’s body attacks y chromosome more after multiple kids - some genetics, some hormonal, some environmental F. Alcoholism - 50% genes and 50% environment - raised in environment - genes react differently IV. Sensation and Perception A. Absolute Threshold - minimum amount of stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time B. Sensory Adaptation - get use to stimulus C. Vision - visual info takes up most of brain D. Visual Perception - see things in whole not in parts - size, color, brightness, shape E. Hearing - sound waves due to changes in air pressure F. Taste - savory, bitter, salty, sweet G. Touch - pain threshold - nerves send info to the brain H. Smell - odorant binding protein
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