Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide BIOL 1014
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey Jennings on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1014 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Matthew Overturf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
BIOL 1014 – Exam Two (Chapters 1-8) STUDY GUIDE Chapter One: Overview of A&P 1) The double-layered membranes lining body cavities that do not open to the outside of the body are called ____________. A. visceral membranes B. parietal membranes C. serous membranes D. mucous membranes 2) The tip of the nose is ________ and ________ to the eyes. A. distal and medial B. inferior and medial C. proximal and lateral D. superior and proximal 3) A structure defined as closer to the midline would be _________. A. medial B. lateral C. distal D. proximal 4) The posterior area between the hipbones is the ________ region of the body. A. gluteal B. crural C. popliteal D. sacral 5) The diaphragm separates the __________ and the __________. A. mediastinum and cardiac cavity B. thoracic and abdominal cavity C. pleural and cranial cavity D. abdominal and pelvic cavity Things to Remember: directional terms, the 7 structural levels of the body, organ systems and their functions, the 5 characteristics of life, homeostasis and homeostatic mechanisms, serous membranes (balloon illustration) Chapter Two: Chemical Basis of Life 1) A mixture of liquids, gases, or solids in which substances are evenly distributed with no clear boundary – A. mixture B. solution C. colloid D. compound 2) Polar Covalent _ A. electrons are equally shared between 2 atoms Nonpolar Covalent __ B. electrons are unequally shared between 2 atoms Ionic __ C. bond formed by gain or loss of an electron 3) The covalent bond that connects amino acids to one another is known as a _______ chain. A. peptide B. disaccharide C. carbohydrate D. nucleic acid 4) A fatty acid containing as many hydrogens as possible with the carbon- carbon bonds are all single bonds would be a ______. A. unsaturated fat B. trans fat C. saturated fat D. polyunsaturated fat 5) The atomic number of an element is determined by _______. A. protons B. electrons C. neutrons D. protons & electrons Things to Remember: Matter, mass, weight, elements, atoms (protons, neutrons, electrons) Types of Chemical Bonds (ionic; covalent-nonpolar/polar, double/single; hydrogen Types of Chemical Reactions (synthesis-dehydration, decomposition- hydrolysis, exchange, reversible, oxidation-reduction) Reaction rates affected by concentration of reactants, temperature, presence of catalyst (enzyme) Acids/Bases/pH/buffers Water & Solubility- solution, suspension, colloid Carbohydrates (Sugars)- polar, water soluble monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Lipids (Fats)- nonpolar, water insoluble Neutral fats, saturated/unsaturated fats, phospholipids, steroids, fatty acid derivatives Proteins & their structure Nucleic Acids- sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base RNA, DNA, ATP Chapter 3: Cell Structure & Function 1) Translation occurs in the nucleus/cytoplasm of the cell? 2) What factors determine the rate of active transport? A. concentration of ions and viscosity of solvent B. availability of ATP and number of ATP-powered pumps C. temperature and heat of the solution 3) What happens when solutes are highly concentrated in one area and less concentrated in another? A. equal movement of molecules from one area to another B. Solutes will move from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration. C. Solutes will move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. 4) A segment of DNA that codes for the production of a molecule of RNA, which in most cases codes for one or more proteins is called a: A. chromosome B. genome C. chromatin D. gene Know the structure of the phospholipid bilayer. (Fluid Mosaic Model) - Phospholipid-fluid (sea) - Proteins-icebergs (mosaic) - Cholesterol determines fluidity. This membrane is semipermeable. Know the way molecules are transported across it. - Nonpolar-dissolve and pass through (lipid soluble); Polar-passage slowed (water soluble) - Some materials require vesicles for transport. (endocytosis/exocytosis) Cellular Organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cytosol, cytoskeleton, microtubules, actin filaments, intermediate filaments, ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vesicles, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, centrioles, spindle fibers, cilia, flagellum, microvilli – Know their functions. Know the different types of passive and active transport. Know the processes of DNA transcription and translation. Know the process of the cell life cycle: mitosis-interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis Chapter 4: Histology 1) The type of epithelium, a single layer with both columnar cells reaching the apical surface and shorter basal cells, is called: A. simple columnar B. pseudostratified columnar C. stratified columnar D. pseudostratified cuboidal 2) Epithelial tissue is nonvascular/vascular in regards to the presence of blood vessels? 3) In cartilage, what type of cells secrete the cartilage matrix? A. Chondroblasts B. Fibroblasts C. Chondrocytes D. Osteoblasts 4) What type of exocrine gland has the secretory cells form a dilated “sac?” A. tubular B. acinar C. branched D. tubule-acinar 5) Function of the basement membrane: A. House stem cells for new cell production B. Secrete mucus C. Adhere connective tissue to underlying muscle tissue. D. Adhere epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue. Things to Remember: Four types of tissue (epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous) Epithelial: classified by number of cell layers and cell shape (know these types & their functions) - Glands: exocrine/endocrine (know different types) Connective: classified by nature of matrix and fibers present - Loose CT, Dense CT, Supporting, Fluid (know types and functions of each) Muscle Tissue: skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary), smooth (involuntary) Nervous Tissue: irritable & conducts electrical impulses - Know structure of neuron. Embryonic Tissue: 3 germ layers-endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm - Mesenchyme (forms from mesoderm) Membranes- serous, mucous, synovial Tissue Repair: regeneration & replacement Chapter 5: The Integumentary System 1) Components of the dermis include: A. Fat & Loose CT B. Stratified Squamous Epithelium C. Merkel and Langerhans cells D. Fibers, glands, blood vessels, nerve endings 2) Melanocytes are responsible for: A. strength and flexibility of the skin B. protection from UV damage C. inhibition of microorganism entry D. temperature regulation 3) Which layer of the epidermis has only a single layer and is capable of mitotic division? A. stratum basale B. stratum spinosum C. stratum corneum D. stratum granulosum 4) Which layer of the epidermis is present only in thick skin? A. stratum corneum B. stratum basale C. stratum lucidum D. stratum granulosum 5) The smooth muscle associated with hair follicles is_ A. hair papilla B. arrector pili C. cuticle D. lunula Things to Remember: Functions – protection, thermoregulation, sensation, excretion, vitamin D production Epidermis: 5 layers, melanin, keratin, carotene, Langerhan & Merkel cells Dermis: papillary & reticular layers, arrector pili, Hypodermis: Loose CT & Adipose (not part of skin proper) Hair, Nails, Glands: accessory organs of skin Chapter 6: The Skeletal System 1) Passageways/canals that extend from the periosteum to the medullary cavity are called: A. perforating (Volkmann’s) canals B. central (Haversian) canals 2) What is the perichondrium? A. connective tissue covering bone B. connective tissue covering cartilage C. growing plate between epiphysis and diaphysis D. marking indicating a muscle attachment point 3) Bones with elaborate shapes are classified as: A. Short B. Long C. Flat D. Irregular 4) In endochondral ossification, the primary ossification center for a long bone is located in the: A. Epiphysis B. Periosteum C. Diaphysis D. Mesenchyme 5) During endochondral ossification, bone is formed by the replacement of: A. Bone Marrow B. Cartilage C. Diaphysis D. Epiphysis Things to Remember: Functions – protection, movement, mineral storage, support, blood cell production Components – tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone Structure of Long Bone – epiphysis, diaphysis, periosteum, medullary cavity, endosteum, articular cartilage, spongy and compact bone, red and yellow marrow, epiphyseal plate Types of Ossification – intramembranous and endochondral Bone Remodeling and Bone Repair Types of Fractures and Bone Disorders Chapter 7: Bones of the Skeletal System 1) What are the three types of vertebrae? 2) The number of sacral vertebrae that fuse to form the sacrum is: A. 4 B. 5 C. 7 D. 12 3) How many bones make up the skeletal system? A. 126 B. 80 C. 128 D. 206 4) What is the bone of the thigh called? A. Fibula B. Tibia C. Patella D. Femur 5) The sacroiliac joint: A. Receives most of the weight of the upper body B. Stretches and causes pain in pregnancy C. Both A & B D. None of the above Things to Remember: Axial Skeleton – made up of 80 bones altogether Skull (22), Auditory Ossicles (6), Hyoid (1), Vertebrae (26), thorax (25) Appendicular Skeleton – made up of 126 bones altogether Pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, pelvic girdle, femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges Bones of the orbit of the eye, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, intervertebral disks, sacroiliac joint Chapter 8: Articulations 1) The four sutures (fibrous joints) in the adult skull are the: 2) Bones joined by hyaline cartilage are defined as what type of joint? A. Fibrous B. Synchondrosis C. Symphysis D. Syndesmoses 3) Synarthrotic joints are characterized by what type of movement? A. Slightly movable B. Freely movable C. Immovable 4) Where do synovial joints occur? A. Between skull bones B. The epiphyseal plate C. Pubis symphysis D. Knee joint 5) A joint in which fibrocartilage binds bones together: A. Symphysis B. Gomphosis C. Synchondrosis D. Syndesmoses Things to Remember: Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial joints Movement Types: multiaxial, biaxial, multiaxial Synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
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