survey of US History study guide
survey of US History study guide HIST 2110
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Weiers on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2110 at Georgia State University taught by David Tiller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Alexandra Weiers 1 Cahokia C. 660-c. 1400 CE Technchititian- 1325-1521 CE Cliff Palace- 1190 C. – C.1260 CE ---- Ben frank used their government methods to create constitution – Freedom of Speech. Iroquois Village- 12 -15 Centuries C. 1800 CE European Expansion: o Silk road and eastern trade routes Key Terms and Concepts: o Diversity of the Americans before Columbus o Columbian exchange o Spanish colonization Gold (silver) God (conversion of natives) Glory o French Colonization Empire Fur Fortune o Dutch Colonization Trade. 8-30-16 Extractive Colony Settler colonialism o People move into a colony displacing native population o Primarily English colonization o Assimilation not so successful Reasons for the colonization o Push- Enclosure movement English wool industry Early industrialization ( high demand, High supply) Larger companies were buying property in England from the poor people pushing them to the bigger cities. o Push- over population There was not enough space or jobs in the city to meet the needs of the population. Alexandra Weiers 2 Because of the enclosure movement the poor were pushed into the big cities causing the rise of sickness, disease, and poor living conditions o Pull- Money Power Religion Where did they settle? o Chesapeake: Organization and governance Right hand system (south) Indentured Servitude: Indentured servitude was a labor system in which people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a fixed term of years. It was widely employed in the 18th century in the British colonies in North America and elsewhere. It was a way for the poor in Britain and the German states to obtain passage to the American colonies. o Pilgrims New England Township (North) o Other Factors: Values and beliefs Key Terms Extractive colonization vs. settler Push and pull reasons for colonization o Enclosure movement o Over population o Land o Power o Wealth o Religion o New Ideas of freedom Head right system Alexandra Weiers 3 9-1-16 from servitude to slavery from indentured servants to African slaves slavery- a brief history slavery -received slaves from war trade not race based What about the native Americans? enslavement more for religion vs. race indentured servitude o selling yourself for passageway to the US. for 7 years o economic value place Bacons Rebellion trade conflict, treaties “the discovery of personal whiteness among the people’s of the world is a very modern thing… the ancient world would have laughed at such a distinction” settler colonialism and the unfree only free if you have land laws of slavery o 1662 a child was declared free of enslaved dependent on the status of his or her mother at the time of birth. a child of slave was automatically declared a slave, and a child of a freed woman was considered free. o 1667 slaves who converted to Christianity and were baptized were not free from slavery. o 1669: killing a slave was no longer considered a felony o 1670: non-white, free African Americans and Indians could not purchase a white, Christian indentured servant. o 1680: slaves had to have a pass to leave their master’s property and were not allowed to carry weapons of any kind. 1682: a slave visiting another plantation was not allowed to remain for longer than four hours for longer than 4 hours without permission from his or her owner. o 1691: intermarriage of a white man or woman with an African American or Indian person was cause for banishment from the Alexandra Weiers 4 state of Virginia. (to keep the races separate) Virginia slave codes of 1705 established new property rights for slave owners allowed for the legal free trade of slaves with protections granted by the courts established separate courts of trial prohibited blacks, regardless of free status from owning arms ( weapons) blacks could not strike a white for any reasons whites could not be employed by blacks whites could apprehend blacks who look alike. Triangular trade. • Europeans picked up slaves from Africa bring them to the coast, exchange them for weapons or money, then traded for goods then good brought back to England. Key terms and concepts o indentured servitude o development of race- based slavery o bacons rebellion o slavery laws concerning decent, miscegenation, and religion o regional differences/ experiences of slavery. Natives and colonists: Settler Colonialism and Property Government purchasing property for market value But what is a fair price? o Everyone’s idea of value is different o The English and the Indians value money differently Initial “Peace” Pocahontas was captured by the English o John smith (known liar) Alexandra Weiers 5 o Religion conversion o New Christian name Rebecca o Assimilation: o She died and phocathoas dad died … Dispossession Jamestown Treaty of 1646 (ending of third anglo-powhatan war) o Any Indian child can voluntarily become English. o Assimilation schools o Setting up boarders o placed Indians in eastern Virginia under the control of the King of England o provided them protection from other tribes and also from encroaching settlers. o the treaty imposed many restrictions on the Indians. It confined them to land north of the York River, prohibited them from interfering with English settlement south of that river, required them to communicate with the government by messengers while dressed in distinctive clothing. required the Indians to return all hostages, including "negroes," and turn in their guns, ended Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-46), which was launched by surprise attacks against the English on April 18, 1644 - signed in October, 1646 by Gov. William Berkeley and Necotowance (he replaced Opechancanough, who had been murdered soon after being captured and jailed in Jamestown) - prohibited Englishman from being in Indian territory except with permission from Chief Necotowance or the Governor and declared English would notify Necotowance before settling north of York River on land downstream from Poropotanke (current boundary between Gloucester County and King and Queen County) - required annual gift to English of 20 beaver skins as tribute, acknowledging authority of English rulers and creating status as "tributary" tribes who were to receive some protection against hostile tribes such as the Susquehannocks or Seneca - As summarized by author L. Scott Philyaw: 1 Treaty of 1677 o (following bacon’s rebellion) rebellion in 1676 by Virginia Alexandra Weiers 6 settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley Bacon's Rebellion was an armed o Independence with rules o (following bacon’s rebellion) in which tribes at peace with Virginia government had been attacked by rebels led by Nathaniel Bacon o terms were defined by three royal commissioners (Lieutenant Governor Herbert Jefferies, Sir John Berry, and Francis Morison) who controlled colonial government after they forced Gov. William Berkeley to return to England o -signed separately by Cockacoeske's son (Captain John West), the queen of the Wyanoke, king of the Nottoway, and king of the Nansemond o English refused to allow king of the Appomatucks to sign in 1677, because they thought he was responsible for unrequited death of colonists o additional tribes that signed in 1680 included leaders of the Appomatucks (finally), Iroquoian-speaking Meherrin, Siouan-speaking Monacan and Saponi, plus Nanzatico (Nantaughtacund), Portabaco, and an additional Nansemond king 2 o established a reservation in King William County (because the now-separate Mattaponi and Pamunkey reservations were established a century before the United States was created, the legal basis for those reservations is based on Virginia state law rather than Federal law.) o confirmed Native Americans would not have to pay quit rents on their reservation land, but required annual symbolic payment of three arrows to the colonial governor in addition to the 20 beaver skins as required in 1646 (a ceremonial gift of deer and/or turkeys is presented to the Virginia governor every year around Thanksgiving, to honor this treaty) o banned enslavement of Native Americans who belonged to groups that were friendly with the English o required friendly Native Americans "having notice of any March of strange Indians near the English Quarters or Plantations" to alert the English about threats from Susquehanna from Pennsylvania, Iroquois from New York, etc. o - created buffer zone of three miles around Native American towns, and made clear colonists could not settle within that zone and would be removed if they tried: 3 Meanwhile in New England Alexandra Weiers 7 Small pox o Outbreaks: 1616 and 1633 o “How strangely they have decreased by the hand of god…and it hath generally been observed that were the English come to settle a divine hand makes way for them.” – Daniel Denton o they were all dying and leaving. divine intervention for them to be there on that land. Conflicts o Pequot War- 1637: alliances. The Pequot War was an armed conflict between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Say brook colonies and their Native American allies which occurred between 1634 and 1638. The Pequot’s lost the war. At the end, about seven hundred Pequot’s had been killed or taken into captivity. Hundreds of prisoners were sold into slavery to the West Indies. Other survivors were dispersed. The result was the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-day Southern New England. The colonial authorities classified the tribe as extinct; however, survivors remained in the area and did regain recognition and land along the present-day Thames and Mystic rivers in southeastern Connecticut. Mystic massacre (400-800 casualties) basically stomps out war. Captivity narrative o Capturing women and children as prisoners, used as trade or rescued, or assimilate into the tribe o Depiction of the Indians as savages Proposed solutions: Assimilation- the process of becoming similar to something: o Puritan praying towns o Spanish- catholic o French- predominantly catholic o English – protestant o Conversion was very political. o Religious and political was very intermingled. o Start up of mission towns. Forced assimilation Alexandra Weiers 8 However, kept a lot of the same ways, and was non effective Key Terms and concepts Ideas about property and settler colonialism Assimilation Experience of Powhatan Chiefdom o Treaties o Pushed further and further west Experience of native Americans in new England o Small pox o Warfare o Praying towns o Captivity narratives Revolution – Creation of the US (1713-1783) o Proclamation line of 1783?? o Seven years’ war/ French and Indian war (1754-1763) o Religion (Catholic vs. Protestant) o Building an empire. more land more power. o French had more allies than the British o British wins o Reserve line for the natives o The result: treaty of Paris and the Proclamation line of 1763 o Taxation without Representation o Taxation was done to pay for war 1764- sugar act 1764- currency act 1765- stamp act – paper, stationary 1765- quartering act 1766- declaratory act 1767 –Townshend revenue act 1773-tea act 1774- intolerable or coercive act (following Boston tea party of 1773) Alexandra Weiers 9 o Geographic identity Independence: Philosophies The enlightenment - Republicanism - the people hold popular sovereignty, rather than the people being subjects of a monarch Common sense- Thomas Paine - Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies. Identities – unite or die each part of the snake represents a colony. In order to survive you must unite the colonies. Loyalists o financial costs o 15-20% of the white population goes to loyalist o declaration of independence Women and the revolution o not everyone had rights o women o slaves o women should have rights because they are effected too. Slaves and the revolution o slaves joined British Revolution won o gave spain florida Key Terms and concepts Alexandra Weiers 10 o French and Indian war o Proclamation of 1763 o Impact of the enlightenment, republicanism, common sense o New American identities o Loyalists o Status of women o Slavery under independence o New Frontier established. Lecture 6 The Articles of Confederation was the first written constitution of the United States. Stemming from wartime urgency, its progress was slowed by fears of central authority and extensive land claims by states before was it was ratified, or made effective, on March 1, 1781. Under these articles, the states remained sovereign and independent, with Congress serving as the last resort on appeal of disputes. Congress was also given the authority to make treaties and alliances, maintain armed forces, and coin money. The constitution and organization of the government Three branches o Legislative o Judicial o Executive The great compromise o Delegates to the Constitutional Convention came from different backgrounds and held different political views. For example, they argued about how many representatives each state should be allowed. The larger states favored the Virginia Plan. According to the Virginia Plan, each state would have a different number of representatives based on the state's population. The smaller states favored the New Jersey Plan. According to the New Jersey Plan, the number of representatives would be the same for each state. A delegate from Connecticut, Roger Sherman, proposed a two-house legislature, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate would have an equal number of representatives from each state. This would satisfy the states with smaller populations. The House of Representatives would include one representative for each 30,000 individuals in a state. This pleased states with larger populations This two-house legislature plan worked for all states and became known as the Great Compromise. Who was left out? o Men who didn’t own land Alexandra Weiers 11 o Women Slavery and the constitution o 3/5 compromise o outlawed slaved trade after 1807 Jeffersonian republicanism o Yeoman farmers o Weak federal government o Territorial expansion o Louisiana purchase The United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France at a price of $15 million, or approximately four cents an acre. The ratification of the Louisiana Purchase treaty by the Senate on October 20, 1803, doubled the size of the United States and opened up the continent to its westward expansion. Early Conflict and war with European powers Xyz affair o The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War. Quasi war- France o the Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. After the toppling of the French crown during the French Revolutionary Wars, the United States refused to continue repaying its debt to France on the grounds that it had been owed to a previous regime. French outrage led to a series of attacks on American shipping, ultimately leading to retaliation from the Americans and the end of hostilities with the signing of the Convention of 1800 shortly thereafter. War of 1812- Great Britain o The War of 1812, a war between the United States and Great Britain, and Britain's Indian allies, lasted from 1812 to 1815. The U.S. declared war and historians have long debated the multiple factors behind that decision. Tecumseh’s confederacy Tecumseh's Confederacy was a group of Native Americans in the Old Northwest that began to form in the early 19th century around the teaching of Tenskwatawa (The Prophet). The confederation grew over several years and came to include Alexandra Weiers 12 several thousand warriors. Shawnee leader Tecumseh, the brother of The Prophet, developed into the leader of the group as early as 1808. Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise was a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north, except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. Jacksonian democracy Jacksonian democracy was a political philosophy in the United States headed by the Democratic Party during the leadership of President Andrew Jackson and his followers in the 1820s and 1830s. Sufferage Men without land Slaves Women Nullification Crisis The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis in 1832–33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, that involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government. The crisis ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. Indian removal act the Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to negotiate with Indian tribes in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands. Antebellum north: War of 1812 Jefferson- common man, getting people to vote. Getting states to pass laws to get rid of the environment or get people to get land. Missouri compromise US. Circa 1830 Alexandra Weiers 13 The market revolution - Changes in transportation - Changes in market o Transportation o From household to market. From household quantity to surplus economy o Factories/ mass production Industrial revolution - Factories around bodes of water - Looms - New technologies - 28,000 patents o Goodyear o rubber o elastic o waterproof o winter proof o sewing machine - booms and busts o technology evolves o transportations roads 1811,1818 4000 miles of road building by 1821 increases trade water ways and canals steam engine rail roads funded by reach people o monopolized o communication revolution pony express postal service went from printing press to penny papers “the Lowell mills girls” created jobs for women. These women dormitory… - no rush on marriage - 15-30.. willing to work long hours for low wages - organized strike o organized employee strikes o unions and associations of labor o 1834 organized labor unions o new professions Alexandra Weiers 14 education lengthened childhood for middle class child the old south: the industrial revolution – the cotton gin the cotton kingdom Indian removal act - Internal slave trade - Boom in slave trade - More slaves, more economic success o Identity issue - The planter class “plain white folk” and poor whites the south “peculiar institution” slavery – urban – public beatings, illegal to give slaves education, slavery- rural slavery resistance - Haitian revolution - Nat turner’s rebellion - The Amistad - \ key terms and concepts - cotton gin - the cotton kingdom/ king cotton o growth and economic depencence on cotton o relation to the growth of slavery - southern social structure: planter class, middle/ lower class farmers poor whites, freed blacks Manifest Destiney In the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. Historian Frederick Merk says this concept was born out of "a sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example ... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven". Civilization program Then in 1801 when Thomas Jefferson became president he pursued an Indian policy with two main goals. First, he wanted to establish treaties to bind the Indian nation and the United States to peace. Second, Alexandra Weiers 15 Jefferson pursued efforts to gradually "civilize" the Indians. In his fist annual address to Congress, Thomas Jefferson introduced his program. Thomas Jefferson explained his program in the most benevolent terms. Through education the Indians had become more dependent on practice of "husbandry and the household arts", rather than through hunting and fishing. Jefferson suggested as the Indians became more civilized, their population was increasing. Industrial revolution influence on the west Mexico The Republic of Texas was an independent sovereign country in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming to the north. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians. The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 US annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory, despite the 1836 Texas Revolution. Gold rush A gold rush is a new discovery of gold that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere. Chinese Immigration to the US In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the American west, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of antiChinese sentiment among other workers in the American economy. This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future Alexandra Weiers 16 immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China. Sectionalism In national politics, sectionalism is loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole. It is often a precursor to separatism. Sectionalism in 1800s America refers to the different lifestyles, social structures, customs, and political values of the North, South, and West. Free soil movement The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. Founded in Buffalo, New York, it was a third party and a single-issue party that largely appealed to and drew its greatest strength from New York State. Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican- American War (1846–1848). Kansas/ Nebraska Act The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. Dred Scott Dred Scott was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly Alexandra Weiers 17 known as the "Dred Scott Decision." Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal. The United States Supreme Court decided 7–2 against Scott, finding that neither he nor any other person of African ancestry could claim citizenship in the United States, and therefore Scott could not bring suit in federal court under diversity of citizenship rules. Moreover, Scott's temporary residence outside Missouri did not bring about his emancipation under the Missouri Compromise, which the court ruled unconstitutional as it would "improperly deprive Scott's owner of his legal property." Republican Party The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex- Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854, the Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932.
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