IS 2080C Professor Rapien Exam 2 Study Guide
IS 2080C Professor Rapien Exam 2 Study Guide IS 2080C
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brady Zuver on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2080C at University of Cincinnati taught by Prof.Rapien in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see IS 2080C in Business at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
IS 2080C Professor Rapien Exam 2 Study Guide 1. Types of Networks (Geography) a. Personal Area Network PAN i. Fitbit and Phone Connection b. Local Area Networks (LAN): connects two or more devices in a limited geographical location, such as the same building i. Home Wi-Fi is an example of a LAN c. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) i. Network that runs a city area 1. UC has a MAN d. Wide Area Network (WAN): A network that covers a large geographical area, generally connecting multiple LAN’s i. Provided by common carriers like phone companies ii. Multiple channels: Fi-Optic, Satellite, microwave iii. The internet is a WAN e. Enterprise Network: Interconnected networks within an organization, consisting of multiple LANs and WANs 2. Network Fundamentals a. Communication Channels i. Signals for communication 1. Analog: Continuous waves transmitting data (voice, telephone wire etc) a. Electricity, light, radio, sound waves etc 2. Digital: Pulses of information (on-off) a. Computers are digital, Binary codes (0 or 1) ii. Wired Communication Channels 1. Narrowband a. Twisted Pair Wire: Most prevalent form of communications wiring, used for business telephone wiring i. Twisted copper wire, relatively inexpensive, widely available easy to work with ii. Either electricity or sound is sent 1. Too much electricity can cause melting or fire 2. Broadband a. Coaxial Cable: Single strand of insulated copper, less susceptible to electronic interference and can carry much more data than twisted wire. i. Commonly used for high speed data and television signals b. Fiber-Optic Cable: Contains many thin filaments of glass fibers that transmit information via light pulses. i. Cable is surrounded by cladding to prevent any light from leaking out of the cable iii. Short Range Wireless Channels 1. Wireless LANs: (WIFI) radio signals typically having a range of 300 feet or less a. Used to connect devices to networks within a home or building 2. Bluetooth: Connects devices 30 feet or less a. Computers connecting to Printers, Phones connection to wireless speakers b. Meant generally for personal area networks or small LANs 3. RFID (Radio Frequency Identifier): Tags and readers that are placed in objects to identify them a. Security tags in stores, some pets have tags in them iv. Long Range Wireless Channels 1. Terrestrial Microwave a. Transmit high speed radio signals in a line of sight path i. Relay systems can be placed about 30 miles apart 2. Communications Satellites a. Serves as a relay for communications systems, uses microwave signals 3. Cellular a. Divides geographic areas into smaller cells (1-2 miles generally) b. Uses antennas to relay or transmit data from one cell to another 3. Internet Protocols a. Transmission control protocol/ internet protocol (TCP/IP) b. IP Adresses- Uniquely identify computers on network c. Main functions of TCP i. Manages the movement of data packets between computers by establishing a connection between them ii. Sequences the transfer of packets 1. Packet is information sent digitally iii. Acknowledges the packets that have been transmitted 1. Packet switching d. Four Layers of TCP/IP Reference Model i. Application Layer 1. Enables client application programs to access other layers, and it defines protocols that applications use to exchange data ii. Transport Layer 1. Provides application layer with communication and packet services iii. Internet Layer 1. Responsible for addressing, routing and packaging data packets iv. Network Interface Layer 1. Places packets on, and receives them from, the network medium, which can be any networking technology 4. Types of network Processing a. Distributed Processing i. Divides processing work among two or more computers which enables computers in different locations to communicate with each other via telecommunications ii. Centralized server accessed by other computers, server is doing all the work iii. Websites do some of the work (from centralized server) and your computer does some of the work b. Client/Server Computing i. Links two or more computers in an arrangement with servers to provide computing services fur user PCs c. Peer-to-Peer Processing BitTorrent i. A type of client/server connection where the computers act as both clients and servers ii. Each computer can access (as assigned for security purposes) all files on all other computers iii. Facebook (messenger) your computer tells server that you are online, server sends info to your friends, then could communicate 5. Cloud Computing a. Computing and storage capacity as a service i. Made up of an infrastructure of servers that use platforms such as software to provide applications and databases through a browser 1. Can be shared among many 2. Is scalable and elastic, meaning the size can be changed as needed ii. Instead of buying server, renting server 1. Taking a larger amount of servers and turning them into one server, allowing customers to rent out a piece of the server a. Can rent as needed (if need more for a short period of time, then you can rent more) iii. Applications accessed through a browser iv. Elastic, can rent more as needed 1. Can quickly scale up 6. Collaboration a. Virtual teams meet online from different locations b. Workflow: the movement of information as it progresses through sequences of steps that make an organizations work procedures c. Crowdsourcing: A process in which companies can outsource a task to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call d. Can be synchronous or asynchronous i. Synchronous 1. Where all members meet at the same time ii. Asynchronous 1. Members meet at different times 7. Decision Making Process a. Decision: A choice among two or more alternatives that individuals and groups make, are diverse and made continuously b. Phases of the decision making process i. Intelligence Phase: examine a situation and then identify and define the problem or opportunity ii. Design Phase: Decision makers construct a model for addressing the situation, validate the model by using test data iii. Choice Period: involves selecting a solution or course of action that seems best suited to resolve the problem iv. Implementation Phase: is successful if the proposed solution solves the problem or seizes the opportunity, if fails returns to previous phases 8. What is Business Intelligence? a. Refers to applications and technologies to access, consolidate and analyze vast amounts of data to help make better business decisions 9. BI Applications for Data Analysis a. Multidimensional Analysis or Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) i. Provides a look at what is happening or what has happened 1. Likes, dislikes, sales etc. ii. Enables users to analyze multidimensional data from multiple perspectives 1. Consolidation (roll up), drill down, slicing and dicing b. Data Mining i. The process of searching for valuable info in a large database, data warehouse or data mart 1. Previous behavior is a good predictor of future behavior 2. Determining if there are correlations ii. Datamining achieves two operations: 1. Predicting trends and behaviors 2. Identifying previous trends and relationships iii. What can be done with data mining? 1. Classification 2. Clustering (Beer and Diapers) a. Put Diapers and Beer close to increase convenience of getting both 3. Association Rule Discovery a. Finding things that are purchased in association to one another 4. Sequential Pattern Discovery 5. Regression a. Using what has been done in the past to predict the future 6. Deviation Detection 10.Types of control in Decision Analysis a. Operational: executing specific tasks efficiently and effectively b. Management Control: acquiring and using resources efficiently in accomplishing organizational goals c. Strategic planning: the long-range goals and policies for growth and resource allocation 11.Decision Support Systems (DSS) a. Decision Support System: Combines models and data to analyze semi structured problems and some unstructured problems that involve user involvement b. Sensitivity Analysis i. See if this changes by x, how much will this other value change ii. The change of one part of decision making and how it affects other parts c. What-If Analysis i. What if we get more people, can we handle it ii. Makes predictions regarding input data, based on the assessment of uncertain futures d. Goal-Seeking Analysis i. What do I need to do in order to… (Varies by company) ii. Calculates the number of inputs needed to reach a desired output 12.ES a. Expert System: emulates decision making process by a series of if-then rules to make decisions b. attempt to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain. 13.Business Intelligence Applications for Presenting Results a. Dashboards i. CFS (Critical Success Factors): The factors most critical for business 1. Can be organizational, industry, departmental or for individual workers ii. Key Performance Indicators: Specific measures of CSFs iii. Trend Analysis: Trend of KPIs or metrics which are projected using forecasting methods b. Data Visualization i. Geographic information Systems 1. Integrates and displays data using digitalized maps ii. Reality Mining 1. GIS and GPS used together that allows analysts to extract info from usage pattern of mobile phones and wireless devices 14.Ethics a. systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior b. Frameworks i. Utilitarian Approach 1. States that the ethical action is the one that provides the most “good” and the least harm ii. Rights Approach 1. Maintains that an ethical action is one that best protects the moral rights of the affected parties 2. US court system: Only about the people in the trial iii. Fairness Approach 1. Posits that ethical actions treat all human beings equally 2. If unequal, then fairly based ion some defensible standard iv. Common Goods Approach 1. Highlights the interlocking relationships that underline all societies 2. Compassion for others is the basis for ethical decisions, see all points of views 15.Steps for general ethical Framework a. Recognize an ethical issue i. Does the situation harm anyone, involve a decision between a good or bad alternative, or does it involve more than legal considerations? b. Get the Facts i. What is relevant, is there sufficient information to make the decision? ii. Who has a stake in the outcome? Good or bad? 1. Have you consulted all relevant parties? c. Evaluate Alternative Options i. Look at the 5 Frameworks and choose one d. Make a Decision and test it i. Consider all approaches, which option best addresses the situation e. Act and Reflect on the outcome of the decision i. Implement with greatest care and attention to stakeholders ii. What did you learn from this situation? Use for next time a decision needs to be made 16.Fundamental Tenets of Ethics a. Responsibility- means that you accept the consequences of your decisions and actions i. Who is responsible for the actions- the person not the company b. Accountability-refers to determining who is responsible for actions that were taken i. The company can be accountable; they could have had you do something on behalf c. Liability- a legal concept that gives individuals the right to recover the damages done to them by other individuals, organizations, or systems. 17.Privacy a. The US court upholds two standards of privacy i. Right of privacy is not absolute 1. Balanced against needs of society ii. Public’s right to know overrides individual’s right to privacy b. Definitions i. Privacy- The right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal institutions ii. Information Privacy- The right to determine when, ad to what extent, information about you can be gathered and/or communicated to others iii. Customer Intimacy- getting to know customers better with the use of dossiers 18.Threats to Privacy a. Data aggregators i. Companies that collect public and non-public data and integrate them to produce digital dossiers b. Digital dossiers i. Electronic description of you and your habits c. Profiling i. Processes of creating digital dossiers 1. Looking at situation and observing, “what people have done in the past, they will likely do in the future” d. Electronic surveillance 19.Privacy codes and policies a. Privacy Policies (or Privacy Codes): an organization’s guidelines for protecting the privacy of its customers, clients, and employees. b. Opt-Out Model of Informed Consent: permits the company to collect personal information until the customer specifically requests that the data not be collected. i. Norm in the US c. Opt-In Model of Informed Consent: Privacy advocates prefer this model, which prohibits an organization from collecting any personal information unless the customer specifically authorizes it. d. Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P): a protocol that automatically communicates privacy policies between an electronic commerce Web site and visitors to that site. P3P enables visitors to determine the types of personal data that can be extracted by the sites they visit. 20.Privacy, ethics and IT a. Privacy i. What info should and individual be required to reveal to others ii. Issues involve collecting, storing and distributing information about individuals b. Accuracy i. Who is responsible for errors in information and how should injured parties be compensated? ii. Issues involve the authenticity, fidelity and correctness of information being collected and processed c. Property i. Who owns a piece of information? ii. Issues involve the ownership and value of information d. Accessibility i. What information does a person or company have the right to obtain, under what conditions? ii. Issues revolve around who should be able to access information and whether a fee should be paid for the access 21.Parts of a URL 22.Sizes of files in order
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