Intro to Political Thought, Exam 1 Study Guide
Intro to Political Thought, Exam 1 Study Guide PLSC 1610
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by ivonkleydorff on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLSC 1610 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jeffrey Chadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Thought: Power, Liberty, and Justice in Political Science at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
10/4/2016 Presentation Review Group 1: Founding Documents and Philosophy Overarching Themes/Arguments Within documents 1. Equality; which rights are inalienable a. Inalienable rights: Rights that every person should be able to have, cannot be taken away i. Not allowing anyone to be above anyone else ii. Bill of Rights: What cannot be taken away b. This is not necessarily true in terms of rights as to what the documents allow people of different race and gender 2. What is required to own property/vote and what is considered as property a. Slaves considered property b. White males with property 3. Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness a. Living life without restrictions b. People used to have restrictions put on them before US, they want something different 4. Democracy balanced with representation a. Pulling people from districts and states to represent the people Key terms 1. Declaration of Independence: Document declaring independence from Britain a. Included grievances against the monarchy b. Laid out what was wrong with monarchy but also solutions to these problems c. 2 parts i. Philosophy 1. Similar to many philosophers like John Locke ii. List of grievances 1. Transferred into what becomes Bill of Rights (a lot of them) 2. Constitution: The governing document of US a. How govt. is to be set up 3. 3 Branches: legislative, executive, judicial a. Debated a lot through the conventions b. Separate powers that balance and check each other 4. Amendments: Additions to the Constitution a. Began with Bill of Rights 5. Bill of Rights: First 10 amendments of Constitution 6. Articles: Parts of amendments a. Organizing the amendments to point out particular arguments and specify b. EX: Article 1 Section 8; Supremacy Clause; migration & importation of people i. Know what they say and how they came about *** 7. Clauses: Split up amendments 8. Question: Which document is most important/influential? 9. Helpful website: http://hwcdn.libsyn.com/p/1/7/7/17720551a876a46e/const- summary.pdf? c_id=1742831&expiration=1475598983&hwt=4fdadabd54ff22d860f1a 863e073c389 Key Concepts 1. Protection from the government found through inalienable rights, equality a. Letting people live their life differently from England 2. Checks and balances a. Previously, no one wanted to argue against the government b. Now, the founders wanted people to feel that they had a say in government 3. Elections a. You get to choose who is in charge and who represents you 4. Opposed these things: a. Monarchies: mentioned in Constitution and Declaration; US will never be a monarchy, power is not found by right or by birth i. Similar to philosophers b. Unbalanced power i. Checks & balances c. Articles of Confederation (initial document before Constitution) i. Trying to get away from these to broaden thoughts on how country should be run (Federalists) 5. Q: What’s more important, civil liberties or civil rights? a. Civil rights: Protecting you from harm from government and other people b. Civil liberties: what government can’t do; Bill of Rights Connections 1. John Locke: View on human nature and Social Contract Theory a. Invests trust in human nature and people i. Similar to government where they put more power in the people 1. BUT there are still hurdles b. Social Contract Theory seen in the establishment of what the government does for the people and how it asks for concessions from the people in the form of taxes etc. c. Corruption: If there is no government, things will become corrupt d. Constitution & Bill of Rights are very similar to Social Contract Theory i. We give up rights or lend them to the government 1. Conditions under which government fails and we can take back the rights we have lent 2. Q: How was Locke the main influence in these key documents Group 2: Social Contract Theorists Overarching Theme 1. Social Contract Theory: The belief that all societies exist through a mutual contract between individuals and the government who work maintain the will of the people 2. Rousseau, Lock and Hobbes all theorize on what type of govt. works best a. Work backwards and define human nature in a way that would best suit that government b. Readings in which they are somewhat right and somewhat wrong i. Cooperation, isolation Key Concepts/Terms 1. Rousseau: “Men are born free, yet everywhere they are in chains” a. Men are born free in state of nature and isolated with compassion and amour de soi (Powers and needs match) i. Life in a civilized society creates pity and amour propre (can corrupt man into egoistic and vain tendencies) Similar to Hobbes in terms of a destructive self love 1. Inequality stems from agriculture and metallurgy 2. Small community of people b. People band together for mutual preservation and create a collective sovereign that promotes the common good c. Envisions a direct democracy where small communities created states and decide on rights for everybody in the community i. They all have the same limitations and rights 2. Locke: a. Tabula Rasa: Born with no memories or knowledge, blank slate for a mind b. “All wealth is the product of labor” i. Similar to American spirit, negative perception of people we don’t think work properly c. Relatively positive state of nature i. Stark contrast with Hobbes who claims that majority of society is bad ii. Large society will make rule-breakers outcasts because the majority of society is inherently good d. “When there is no property there is no injustice” i. Similar to Rousseau’s origin of inequality ii. SCT find things to agree about 1. Important to examine differences e. Role of government is to protect life, liberty, and property i. But property is the gateway to injustice ii. Government is there to protect inequality by protecting property 3. Hobbes: “Nature hath made men so equal in the faculties of body and mind.” a. We’re all born with strengths and weaknesses which all balance out b. Three Principal Causes of Quarrel: Competition, Diffidence, and Glory i. Fuel our society; main reason for conflict ii. Diffidence: Trust/mistrust, fear of mistrust iii. Competition: Protecting what’s yours iv. Glory: Vanity, you want to seen as better than others, you’ll do what it takes c. “Condition of man… is a condition of war of everyone against everyone” i. Hobbe’s state of nature 1. Nasty, brutish, short; vain idea d. Solution= Common Wealth by “institutions” agree to give up one’s natural rights in order to create a sovereign (Leviathan) to govern them i. Monarch is best government because it is more unified and most able to keep the peace ii. No divine monarchs iii. Rules by consent, not fiat iv. If they’re not doing their job, you have the ability to overthrow 4. Key concept: All have a version of consent a. Different forms, different ways, and why Connection 1. Natalie Angier: Why We’re so nice: We’re wired to cooperate a. Rousseau: In state of nature, man is happy being isolated but will cooperate with others to create a sovereign that protects the common good i. Creation of societies=corruption of ourselves b. Locke: People are born as social begins and in a society consent their rights to the ruling power for life, liberty and property i. Cooperates the most with the Angier article c. Hobbes: Ruling power rules by consent so long as peace within the society is maintained i. Most contradictory because its each man against himself d. Theme: modern science shows we are built to cooperate because we were built in hunter-gatherer groups i. All theorists all believe that people are smart enough that it is in their best interest to work together to move out of state of nature 1. How they do this is different according to each theorist Group 3: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists Overarching Theme/Arguments 1. Federalists: For a consolidation of states to make up a central federal government; Supported the Constitution a. Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Madison, John Jay 2. Anti-Federalists: For a confederation of states that, while united, acted mostly on their own. Supported Articles of Confederation; believed that personal rights should be protected; wanted state- centered rights a. Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison Influential People 1. Jefferson: 3 president of US; believed that states should govern themselves 2. Madison: Started as a Federalist but ultimately switched to Anti- Federalist; wrote Federalist 10 as well as many other Federalist Papers; helped write Constitution and his roots as a Southerner help him see the split between N/S which pulls him to anti-feds 3. Henry: Leader of anti-fed movement “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it 4. Hamilton: Leader of Federalist movement; wrote 51/85 federalist papers 5. Feds are voted in for 3 terms and start certain policies that put some people off Key Terms and Concepts 1. Federalist 10 a. Written by Madison b. Majority Rule c. Factions i. Don’t put too much pressure on factions 2. Election 1800 a. Switch from Fed to anti-fed mindset i. Jefferson was one of the presidents that has expanded Executive office more than most presidents 1. Hamilton’s support of Jefferson because he wouldn’t dismantle government like Burr might, he has principle ii. Anti-feds have more organization and Feds are less organized iii. Switch wasn’t as big and one might think b. Alien and Sedition Acts i. Silencing journalists, changing immigration laws ii. ***Review*** 1. what’s happening in the background that’s causing people to want a different party in power c. Who won? 3. “Obedient Servant” a. Tensions between Hamilton and Burr i. Duel 4. Increasing gap between party factions So what? 1. The US we live in today a. Slavery i. No longer explicitly seen in US b. Constitution? No Constitution? i. Seen as very important today ii. Inalienable rights c. Majority rule, faction rule i. Madison was against faction rule, but it has become extremely prevalent in the US as seen in our two-party system which rules much of what happens in Washington and State governments 1. How hard it is for other parties to “break in” Connections 1. Look at just about EVERY philosopher we’ve read up until this point a. Locke; Hobbes; Rousseau 2. Other Opinions a. Wilson’s opinion on the decisions that were made b. Bill of Rights came from anti-fed dissent i. Fed argument as being counter-majoritarian (Elitist) c. WEB DuBois d. Sylvia Law i. These ideas weren’t debated in the Convention so we still see them as problems today Group 5: Test Review Test Format st 1ndect. 15-20 questions multiple choice, t/f, fill in the blank 2 sect. 3 or 4 of 1-2 sentence answers “Direct Answers” ex: Locke’s name for a blank mind 3 : choice of 1-2 Longer essay 4 : Bonus questions; tidbits we’ve talked about that might be challenging ex: intl. foundation that Wilson founded; how many fed. Papers did Hamilton write Theme 1: State of Nature 1. Locke: positive view of people a. People also have a dark side b. Wants a legislature 2. Hobbes: people are amoral and self interested a. People lived in a state of war b. All power transferred to monarch, leviathan 3. Rousseau: primitive, compassionate man a. Get back to compassionate state with a community as a sovereign authority Theme 2: Compromises 1. Constitutional Compromises a. Majority rule vs minority rights i. Framers were mainly elites and concerned about majority imposing taxes on the wealthy ii. Madison’s discussion of factions iii. Settles on system of checks and balances and separation of power to work together b. Large states vs. small states i. Representation in congress 1. Larger states wanted congress rep. based on population 2. Smaller wanted equal representation 3. Settled on bicameral legislature a. Equal in senate c. Legislative vs. executive i. Argued on which should be stronger 1. Hamilton wanted strong legislative because he saw how weak executive was 2. Settled on stronger legislative ii. Still designated certain powers on executive iii. Settled on electoral college 1. Based on each states H.o.R. d. National vs. state/local elections i. Feds wanted national power ii. Anti-feds wanted state powers 1. Settled on Supremacy Clause in article 6. a. Any natl. law in conflict with state law trumps state law b. 10 amendment: The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution or prohibited by the states are given to the states, or the people e. Slave states vs. free states i. Slave states wanted slaves to count as a person for more representation in congress 1. 3/5 Compromise for purposes of representation and taxation ii. Slave states didn’t want to abolish slavery 1. Article 1 section 9 put off slave trade discussion until 1808 f. Locke: Right to contract freely i. Women give up this right though marriage ii. He is compromising his argument to concede to the norms of his time 1. Already proposed radical ideas 2. Wanted to be taken seriously by white men of his time; women rights would be too radical g. Hamilton: i. Election of 1800 1. Jefferson vs. Burr ii. The “Room Where it Happens” 1. Hamilton, Madison, Jefferson came out and Hamilton had given capital of US to Jefferson and in return, they gave them support for his financial plan a. Great Compromise of 1790 Questions 1. According to Rousseau, primitive man first lost his freedom with the development of metallurgy and agriculture a. Form inequality 2. What are the two causes of factions according to Madison? a. Liberty: Liberty is to faction as air is to fire; can’t be erased b. Natural differences/human nature: can’t make everyone the same person with the same ideals, not a democracy i. Two causes of factions, can’t stop causes, have to control effects 3. Anti-fed’s possible criticism of the points raised in Fed. No. 10 would be a. Actively attempting to limit political factions undermines the personal freedom of the people i. Aren’t looking to restrict commerce but to expand commerce ii. First Past the Post: People mark their chosen candidate on a ballot and the candidate with the majority in that state wins 4. T/F Rousseau believes that civil/modern society will make us more free a. In civil/modern society, people develop amour propre and other “chains”, thus making people less free i. Chains no matter what, but they are worse in civil society 5. What was a grievance that Henry voiced during Virginia’s Constitutional Convention? a. States’ and individual rights/liberties were violated i. Wanted to protect people from the federal government 6. Which side was a proponent of the laissez-faire form of government? Feds or anti-feds? a. Anti-Feds favored this “hands off” government 7. What is one similarity and one difference between the social contract theorists viewed minority groups and the way that the Framers viewed minority groups (in terms of numbers, gender, race, etc.)? Do the differences matter, or do they result in the same overall effect? a. Similarity between SCT and framers? i. Minority don’t have a capacity to consent, need to rule 1. Give up consent to representatives, a husband b. Differences i. Consent is important but we shouldn’t consent to a Leviathan 1. Madison says it would stop factions, but we can’t allow this 2. Institutional and geographical hurdles c. State and Explain and Examples d. Do they matter? i. Open-ended but make argument for one or the other Sept. 20: Questions to Consider 1. What are the qualities for the type of community that Rousseau prefers “for the place of his birth” and for the people (social contract) to create? In terms of features, what would such a society look like and how does it relate to the 2 major forms of democracy? 2. How does Rousseau’s work connect to Montesquieu? What is a confederate republic? 3. What are the two “amours” and what are the roles pre-civil society Questions to Consider for Review Sept. 13: Questions to Consider 1. What are the 4 main features of the Articles of Confederation? a. Unicameral Congress from which the Executive position was chosen b. A committee of the states made up of one delegate from each State c. No federal system d. Each state had one vote in Congress 2. What are the Articles of Confederation? The original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781 and replaced by the US Constitution in 1789 3. Why were they created in ways that seem to be very weak and inefficient? The Articles gave more power to the state because there was no strong central government. When congress wasn’t in session, one delegate from each state managed the government. Therefore, congress didn’t have the power to levy or collect taxes, and congress couldn’t regulate trade or force anyone to obey the law. In order for laws to be passed, they had to be approved by 9/13 states. 4. How did the founders view human nature in general? The masses? Themselves? The founders believed that humans are naturally self interested and rational and therefore, the government should contain its natural self interest. In this sense, they viewed the masses as predominantly self interested and following the philosophy of Hobbes, government should be able to keep the population in control. As the founders and controllers of government, the founders viewed themselves as above the masses in a sense and therefore less likely to cave to the natural instincts of self-interest. 5. What do people like Charles Beard say about the founding of the US and the founders? 6. What are the 5 major compromises of the Constitutional Convention? a. The Great Compromise: The number of representatives in the H.o.R. would be based on the state’s population while the number of representatives in the Senate will be equal for all states (2) th b. 3/5 Compromise: Southern states wanted slaves to be counted as population in order to receive more representation. So every slave was counted as 3/5 of a person. c. Commerce Compromise: Northern states wanted tariffs to protect from foreign competition, Southern states relied on trade. The compromise imposed tariffs on imported goods but not exported goods. d. Slave Trade Compromise: North wanted to stop slave trade, South didn’t. Constitution ruled that after 1808, slave trade must be stopped. Pushed the issue of slavery off. e. Compromise on Executive Elections: Complete democracy vs. republic. Ruled that presidents would be elected by electoral vote where the people vote indirectly and the representatives vote directly. 7. What was strongly included and what was left out? 8. What are the Federalists and Anti-Federalists? Sept. 15: Hobbes and Locke 1. What are the handful of very specific conditions that Locke identifies for when and how a government should be dissolved? What does a government have to do in order to push people to this point? Locke believes that people consent to lend their power to a 3 party in order to make decisions through elections. Although people are naturally reasonable, Locke argues that if the governing force stops setting up rules, stops meetings, stops elections, sells out people for power, or isn’t doing it’s job, then government is to be dissolved by the people. 2. Think of one specific way in which Locke’s arguments influenced the founding fathers, especially some of their famous documents. Only those with property are allowed to vote 3. How can we explain Locke’s connection to the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolinas? 4. What natural rights are a focus for Locke? How does God fit into his work (if at all)? How do we see the issues of unanimous consent and later we see “limits” on consent? a. Locke focused on life, liberty and property i. Moral life ii. Freedom to act, only within the limits of natural law iii. Labor theory of estate: all have a collective right to estate, nobody has a God-given right to any part of the earth b. Locke believed that God is the lawgiver who has no role as enforcer and all individuals are born free and equal. God directs them to the good. Human nature is moral, rational, egoistic, and social. c. People surrender their individual right to enforce natural law against offenders when they consent to a social contract. All are free to leave a governed society at any time, those who stay are assumed to give their unspoken consent. The contract is originally instituted by unanimous consent. i. Only those with property are entitled to vote 5. What are property and money’s central issues pre-social contract and after the new social contract? 6. How can Locke’s work be seen as revolutionary and less than revolutionary? How can we account for this situation? a. Many revolutionary ideas that contradicted the original “Divine Right of Kings” by saying that the population and majority had a say in their governing force with a bottom-up democracy and stating inalienable rights. b. Locke claimed that women gave up their consent to the guidance of the male i. Too revolutionary a thought for his time? Easier to make sacrifices when you’re on the winning side. 7. How does Hobbes view human nature? In your own words, how would you describe the concept of the “state of nature”? Hobbes believed that there would be a completely free reign of appetitive individuals which leads to friction between bodies that produces a state of violent anarchy. A steady increase in disagreement can lead to a state of war. Each individual behaves like a solitary beast who feels no natural obligation to others and is guided by survival and self-satisfaction. Everyone lives in fear of death at the hands of others 8. What are some of the similarities and differences between Hobbes and Locke? How do their backgrounds affect their views? a. Differences: Locke believes the majority of humans are good with a few “bad apples” while Hobbes believes the majority of humans are self interested and evil; Locke believes that people lend their powers to and elect a governing official while Hobbes believes that they give up their consent and powers to a Leviathan b. Similarities: Locke and Hobbes agree that the state of nature can be dangerous. Locke warns that without “law of nature” individual decisions can lead to war. Hobbes believes that in the state of nature, man is always in a state of war. Both philosophers also failed to constitute women as equal to men upon marriage. c. Helpful website: https://lifeexaminations.wordpress.com/2010/10/20/comparing- and-contrasting-locke-and-hobbes-state-of-nature/ 9. How does consent factor into the work of Hobbes (if at all)? Hobbes believed that consent activates the contract that creates the sovereign. He favors a strong sovereign who rules by consent, not fiat (decree, arbitrary order). Unlike Locke, Hobbes does not agree with the lending of one’s power, but rather giving up their powers in consent to the Leviathan. Sept. 20: Questions to Consider 1. What are the qualities for the type of community that Rousseau prefers “for the place of his birth” and for the people (social contract) to create? In terms of features, what would such a society look like and how does it relate to the 2 major forms of democracy? 2. How does Rousseau’s work connect to Montesquieu? What is a confederate republic? 3. What are the two “amours” and what are the roles pre-civil society/the social contract and after the formation of civil society/the social contract? 4. What is Rousseau’s anthropology/view of human origins? Is it positive, negative, historically accurate? How does this view relate to the end product of his social contract/civil society? 5. What does Rousseau identify as the condition(s) that lead to inequality, vice, focus on the self, and the potential downfall of individuals and societies? 6. How does some of his famous statements such as “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains” relate to these readings? 7. In what ways is the “general will” similar to and different from a typical legislative body as well as a typical central government? How does the issue of “consent” factor into his work and where (if at all) is it limited or checked? Sept. 22: Questions to Consider 1. What are the Federalist Papers? What does the title of Fed. No. 10 mean to aim or prove? What are factions? How does Madison propose to deal with factions (2 things)? 2. What are the majority and minority that Madison talks about? Which one is he trying to protect/promote? Which one is he trying to contain? 3. What are the “wicked projects” that he (and other founders) fear and why? 4. Cabinet Battle 1: What is the main issue that the founders are debating during the early years of the country under the new Constitution? What are some other key issues that come out of this debate? Sept. 27: Questions to Consider 1. What did the Anti-Federalists and their supporters think about the Constitutional convention and its purpose(s)? 2. Who is Patrick Henry? What were at least 2 specific ideas that he expressed about the Constitutional convention 3. What issues seemed to define Feds. Vs. Anti-Feds 4. Despite some divisions among the founders, they still manage to mobilize consent of the masses and come together themselves. How? Why? Sept. 29: Questions to Consider 1. What does the prisoner’s dilemma say about cooperation? What are its implications for economics, politics, etc.? 2. How do some of these ideas overlap with, but also counter the ideas of Rousseau and Locke? 3. Why are the 2 arts of agriculture and industry such a big turning point in human history according to Diamond? How does the view of the human mind by evolutionary psychologists run counter to Rousseau’s view? 4. Why is the Senate such an important focus for Wilson? Does he have any political or leadership inside/outside of government? How does this add or take away from his ideas? 5. Name 3 features that make the Constitution progressive. Less than progressive? How can you make an argument that the Constitution was an economic compromise among a fairly uniform minority group despite disagreements? 6. How are women less than full citizens during the Revolutionary War and Constitution, yet at the same time, they are able to make strides? 7. How can one explain Jefferson’s reaction to Haiti in light of his own role in another revolutionary experiment? How can it be said that the US helped cause the events in Haiti? Possible Essay questions 1. Comparing and Contrasting the thoughts of Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes in terms of the state of nature, consent a. Compare contrast chart to study b. Know the SCT formula i. State of naturesomething wrongsocial contract created and consented to create a constitution to solve what went wronggovernment/third party formed from such contract 1. SCT worked backwards from this to create their ideal society 2. How the founders incorporated or changed the views of the Social Contract Theorists in the Constitution 3. Differences between feds and anti-feds. How they came to agree?
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