Chapter 1-3 Test Review
Chapter 1-3 Test Review ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
Popular in Art History
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Ch 1 (Prehistoric) Review Wednesday, September 16, 2015 8:53 AM Chapter 1: Prehistoric Art Paleolithic c. 30,000-9000 BCE Lion-Human, Germany Woman from Willendorf, Austria Wall Painting with Horses, Rhinocereses, and Aurochs, Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Ardèche Gorge, France Spotted Horses and Human Hands, Pech-Merle Cave, Dordogne, France Bird-Headed Man with Bison, Lascaux Cave, Dordogne, France Bison, Le Tuc d’Audobert, France Neolitihic c. 8000-2300 BCE A House in Çatal Höyük, Çatal Höyük, Turkey Tomb Interior with Corbeling and Engraved Stones, New Grange, Ireland Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire England Part I. Why certain objects were made in the Prehistoric period continues to perplex researchers. Please explain in relation to the images below the theories regarding their imagery and function. Be sure to make not of the various scholars’ names (when applicable) and the gist of their theory and evidence that they provide for it. Woman from Willendorf (1-7) • About 5 inches • No facial features • Round and full body type ○ Fertility and health? • Early archeologistscalled her Venus ○ Deity ○ Goddess of fertility Bird-headed man with Bison (1-12) • First narrative in history? • A man! (usually it's women or animals) Stonehenge (1-20, 1-21) • Stone on stone • Ceremonialburial • Mike Parker Pearson ○ Archeological excavations ○ Developing theories • Constructed in 8 different phases ○ Essentially two kinds of stones used ○ Larger stones that range from 13-16 feet tall Sarsen (a kind of sandstone) ○ Smaller stones Bluestones All the way from Wales The bluestones were placed first ○ The bluestones were placed first ○ Heel stone placed outside the circle ○ Alter stone placed • Theory of astronomicalideas ○ At a certain point of day the heel stone point shines to the middle of Stonehenge • Mike Parker Pearson ○ Lookedoutside of Stonehenge ○ Found Durrington walls ○ 100s of homes ○ Animal remains in proportions to theorize feasting ○ Perhaps the communitythat built Stonehenge Part II. A large portion of the artwork that has survived from the Prehistoric period is cave painting. With respect to cave paintings please consider the following questions. How have interpretations of the cave paintings changed in more recent times? What evidence challenges earlier theories? What concrete evidence suggests that the paintings on cave walls were not mere decoration? • Deep within caves • Cave paintings are deep within places that aren't easy to reach ○ Not decorations? Part III. Consider the stylistic qualities or modes of representation for the following images Hall of Bulls, Lascaux Cave (1-11) Subject matter • Always animals • Always painted from the side ○ Profile ○ "twisted perspective" You can see two horns of the bull and the legs so it's not exactly profile • Either outlines or silhouettes • No background • Naturalistic ○ You can tell the species due to the details Bison, Altamira (1-13) • A couple feet big • Sculpture-esque • Pretty accurate proportions ○ naturalistic Terms: Paleolithic Neolithic Homo sapiens sapiens Sculpture in the round Relief sculpture Clive Gamble abstract abstract Memory image composite pose Shaman Solomon Reinach Sympathetic magic Abbé henri Breuil André Leroi-Gourhan Leslie Freeman Steve Mithen David Lewis-Williams Ian Hodder history houses Corbeling post and lintel Megalithic architecture Dolmen cairn Passage grave henge entoptic Mike Parker Pearson Ch 2 (Ancient near east) Review Wednesday, September 16, 28:56 AM Chapter 2: Ancient Near East Sumerian c. 3500-2332 BCE Anu Ziggurat and White Temple, Uruk Votive Figures, Square Temple, Eshnunna Face of a Woman (Warka Head), Uruk Akkadian c. 2332-2150 BCE Stele of Naram-Sin Ur and Lagash and Babylonian c. 2150-1600 BCE Votive Statue of Gudea Stele of Hammurabi Assyrian c. 900-612 BCE Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions, Palace of Assurnasirpal II, Kalhu Citadel and Palace Complex of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin Neo-Bayblonian and Persian c. 612-330 BCE Ishtar Gate, Babylon Ceremonial Complex, Persepolis, Iran Part I. Meaning and Function Several objects in this chapter were used in a religious context. Please describe the meaning and/or function of the objects below. Anu Ziggurat and White Temple (2-2) • Temple to Anu • 2 aspects ○ The temple itself ○ Lower base or platform called the ziggurat Platformor pedestal for a temple Raise the temple to the sky Face of a Woman (2-3) • Almost the same size as a human head ○ Slightly more naturalistic in the lips • Clean cut neck ○ Either not meant to be a statue ○ Or the body of the statue was made from another material • The material for this was something rare at the time ○ Eyes were probably crystals ○ Mark in the top of the head possibly for a wig • Goddess mostlikely • Goddess mostlikely Votive Figures (2-5) • Votive--offeringgiven in thanksgiving • Men and womencould set up images of themselvesin the temple ○ Stand-ins waiting perpetually for the god or goddess • Similar features ○ Large eyes ○ Stylized hair and beard ○ Tar-like substance to paint beard and eyes black ○ Clasped hands • Scale ○ Larger figure = god? ○ There are many different levels of the scale By class and $$$ How is the power or authority of the king expressed in the following images? Stele of Naram-Sin (2-1) • Stele ○ Kind of like tombstones ○ Sort of for documentation • Depicts Naram-Sin ○ Started conquering Mesopotamia ○ Historical battle ○ Shows power ○ Hierarchic scale Naram-Sin is bigger than anyone else ○ Inscriptions above him that has faded; inscription on rock added later on • 6'6" tall Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions (2-17) • Showing his power and skill • Detailed process of the lion hunts • Less formal quality than previous art ○ Higher level of narrative quality and detail Citadel and Palace Complex of Sargon II (2-18) • One way in, one way out • Hundreds of roomsfor warriors and officials • Designed to be defensive to protect the king Part II. Style Please describe the artistic conventions of ancient near eastern art as seen in the images below. Votive Figures (2-5) • Men and womencould set up images of themselvesin the temple ○ Stand-ins waiting perpetually for the god or goddess • Similar features ○ Large eyes ○ Stylized hair and beard ○ Tar-like substance to paint beard and eyes black ○ Clasped hands • Scale ○ Larger figure = god? There are many different levels of the scale ○ There are many different levels of the scale By class and $$$ How does the following image break with the established conventions of the art of the Ancient Near East? Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions (2-17) • Less formal quality than previous art ○ Higher level of narrative quality and detail Part III. Important people Describe what is known of the following people and their contributions to art and architecture: Naram-Sin Hammurabi Gudea Assurnasirpal II Sargon II Nebuchadnezzar II Darius I Terms Cuneiform stylus Epic of Gilgamesh Enkidu Ziggurat Inanna Anu Uruk inlay lapis lazuli Registers Dumuzi Votive figures conventions Sir Leonard Woolley bitumen Sargon lost wax Naram-Sin Lullubi hieratic scale stele King Urnammu Nanna Lagash Amorites Gudea Hammurabi Hammurabi Code of Hammurabi Assurnasirpal II low relief portal Sargon II Dur Sharrukin lamassu Nebuchadnezzar II Processional Way Marduk Crenellations Glazed bricks Parsa (Persepolis) Achaemenids Cyrus II Darius I Xerxes I apadana Alexander the Great Darius III Ch 3 (Egypt) Review Wednesday, September 16, 28:57 AM Chapter 3: Egypt Early Dynastic c. 2950-2575 BCE The Narmer palette Funerary Complex of Djoser, Saqqara Old Kingdom c. 2575-2150 BCE Great Pyramids, Giza Khafre Seated Scribe Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, Tomb of Ti, Saqqara Middle Kingdom c. 1975-1640 BCE Head of Senusret III Rock-Cut Tombs, Beni Hasan New Kingdom c. 1539-1075 BCE Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt Hatshepsut Kneeling Akhenaten Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel Judgment of Hunefer Before Osiris Part I: Style For the following images please describe Egyptian artistic conventions. Narmer Palette (p. 52) Menkaure and a Queen (3-9) Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt (3-12) Please explain how images of common people were portrayed differently than royalty or other high officials. Seated Scribe (3-10) Butcher (3-11) On a few occasions royal imagery broke with artistic traditions. Please describe how the following images deviated from traditional Egyptian stylistic qualities and why. Senusret III (3-13) Akhenaten (3-25) Part II: Egyptian pharaohs often expressed their power through their monuments and images. How was this achieved in the images below? images. How was this achieved in the images below? Narmer Palette (p. 52) Temple of Ramses II (3-30) Part III: Much of Egyptian art work, especially funerary architecture, was created for the afterlife. Please be familiar with the most characteristic features of the following structures. mastaba (p. 55) Step Pyramid (3-3) Great Pyramids (3-4) Rock-Cut Tombs (3-14) How did the following images function in their funerary context? Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt (3-12) Stele of the Sculptor Userwer (3-16) Part IV: Worship of the Gods Describe how Egyptians worshiped their gods. What are the identifying features of their temple complexes? Great Temple of Amun at Karnak (3-18, 3-19, 3-20) Terms: Herodotus Pre-Dynastic Egypt Hierakonpolis sed festival Ra artistic conventions Narmer ka mastaba serdab necropolis Djoser Imhotep causeway funerary temple valley temple Khafre Menkaure Khufu Kai Nebhepetre Mentuhotep Senusret III Nubia rock-cut tomb canon of proportions Amun Mut Mut Khonsu pylon peristyle court hypostyle hall Sety I Ramses II clerestory Hatshepsut Thutmose I, II, & III Akhenaten Aten Tiy Thutmose Tutankhamun Ramses II Abu Simbel Aswan High Dam Nefertari Book of the dead Osiris Anubis Ma’at Ammit
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