Chapter 4-5 Test Review
Chapter 4-5 Test Review ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
Popular in Art History
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Ch 4 (Ancient Aegean) Review Friday, October 9, 2019:14 AM Chapter 4: Aegean Art Early Cycladic Art (c. 3000-2000 BCE) Figure of a Woman, c. 2,500-2,200 BCE (4-2) Minoan Old Palace Period (c. 1900-1700 BCE) Kamares Ware Jug, c. 2000-1900 BCE (4-4) Minoan New Palace Period (c. 1700-1450 BCE) Palace Complex, Knossos, Crete, c. 1700-1450 BCE (4-5) Bull Leaping, Knossos, Crete, c. 1,550-1,450 BCE (4-7) Harvester Rhyton, c. 1,650-1,450 BCE (4-9) Landscape, Akrotiri, Thera Cyclades, Before 1630 BCE (4-14) Mycenaean (Late Helladic) Art (c. 1600-1200 BCE) Megaron in Palace at Pylos, Greece, c. 1,300-1,200 BCE (4-19) Mask of Agamemnon, c. 1600-1550 BCE (4-20) Dagger Blade with Lion Hunt, c. 1,550-1,500 BCE (4-21) Tholos “Treasury of Atreus”, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1200 BCE (4-22, 4-23, 4-24) Part I. We have discovered that ancient societies had unique manners of representing the figure. Please consider the figural style portrayed in the following images. Figure of a Woman (4-2) • Abstract and geometricized • Modern artists took to them ○ A lot of the evidence has been lost because they were over popularized and forged • Cycladic figures proportional scheme ○ Contributes to the meaning? • It was painted at one point ○ Eyes all over the face and even some on the legs Deities with multiple eyes? ○ Healing? Calls attention to certain places on the body Bull Leaping (4-7) • People Thin waist Elongated bodies Elegantly dynamic Woman in white? men in red? • Bull Galloping pose Curved Harvester Rhyton (4-9) • Minoan styled people ○ Anatomy is very observed Narrow and elongated ○ Narrow and elongated ○ Overlapping • One figure that has long hair and has sort of a cape ○ Leader? • People are screaming or singing ○ Emotionis distinct ○ Actually in the act of doing something • Subject ○ Sowing? Harvesting? Warriors? Vapheio Cup (4-13) • (we didn’t talk about it) • Similar bull Part II. In relation to Minoan palaces, particularly the “Palace” Complex at Knossos (4-5, 4-6) please consider the following questions: Was it principally a royal residence or did it serve other purposes? • No idea who the rulers of the Minoans are ○ So who lived here? • Writing script called "linear A" ○ Never been translated • Storage ○ Giants jars and stone pits for storage What materials were used in its construction? • Earliest examplesof ashlar masonry ○ People didn’t just pile up a bunch of boulders to make a wall ○ They cut stones and smoothedthem and stacked them to make a way • Made of wood too ○ Had more flexibility for earthquakes What were the principles behind its layout? • It lookshaphazard but there is an actual organization to it Roomsgrouped together by function □ Southeast--living quarters □ Northern--Artisans and other people rooms(filled with pottery wheels) □ Western--sculptures were found and pits for sacrifices(?)perhaps a ritual room • Centralized around a courtyard No winding road to lead to a gate Everything is facing inward What allowed light and air to circulate? • Location,stairwells, and windows How was it decorated? • Columns ○ Thicker at the top, thinner at the bottom (tapered) • Fresco Part III. The following images are described in your text as possessing novel features. Please describe these. Landscape (4-14) Landscape ("Spring Fresco") • Akrotiri, Thera, Cyclades, Before 1630BCE • Unique because it doesn’t have any figures in it The first purely landscape art ○ The first purely landscape art • Possibly accurately portrayed ○ Color of the cliffs are accurate for a certain time of day ○ Semi-animatedquality Harvester Rhyton (4-9) The Harvester Rhyton, New Palace period, 1650-1450BCE • Reconstructedat the bottom • Used to pour liquid offerings • Minoan styled people ○ Anatomy is very observed ○ Narrow and elongated ○ Overlapping • One figure that has long hair and has sort of a cape ○ Leader? • People are screaming or singing ○ Emotionis distinct ○ Actually in the act of doing something • Subject ○ Sowing? Harvesting? Warriors? Part IV. What are possible interpretations for the imagery or decoration of the following objects? Figure of a Woman (4-2) Figure of a woman with a drawing showing evidence of original painting and outling designing scheme, Cyclades, 2600-2400BCE, Marble, 24 3/4" • Abstract and geometricized • Modern artists took to them ○ A lot of the evidence has been lost because they were over popularized and forged • Cycladic figures proportional scheme ○ Contributes to the meaning? • It was painted at one point ○ Eyes all over the face and even some on the legs Deities with multiple eyes? ○ Healing? Calls attention to certain places on the body Head with Remains of Painted Decoration (4-3) Head with remains of a painted decoration, cyclades, 2500-2200BCE, marble and red pigment, 9 11/16" • No idea why they painted them but many theories Statuette of a Male Figure (4-8) Statuette of a male figure, 1500-1475BCE • Not any large scale sculptures ○ Departed from near eastern or ancient Egypt art • This one is a little over a foot tall and it's the largest found • Damage ○ It was in a fire ○ Found in thousands of fragments ○ Took 3 years to restore • Multimedia piece ○ Body is made of ivory Hippo teeth ○ Serpentine (a dark stone) was used for some parts Gold was used for someparts ○ Gold was used for someparts • Who is it? ○ No idea ○ Deity? Represented as a human Harvester Rhyton (4-9) The Harvester Rhyton, New Palace period, 1650-1450BCE • Reconstructedat the bottom • Used to pour liquid offerings • Minoan styled people ○ Anatomy is very observed ○ Narrow and elongated ○ Overlapping • One figure that has long hair and has sort of a cape ○ Leader? • People are screaming or singing ○ Emotionis distinct ○ Actually in the act of doing something • Subject ○ Sowing? Harvesting? Warriors? Flotilla Fresco (pp. 92-93) The "Flotilla Fresco" from Akrotiri • Room 5 of the West House, Akrotiri, Thera, New Palace period, 1650 BCE • Rather than being a whole wall this is like a border around the top • Unsure what it's supposed to be ○ Ships going off to war ○ Ships coming back from war ○ Just the city life and trading • You can still see this place from this perspective • Minoan artists just seeing the world and capturing it Lion Gate (4-17) Lion Gate • Mycenae,1250 BCE • Two lions resting their paws on what archaeologists believe is an alter • Very Minoan in style • The heads of the lions are gone ○ Attached separate made out of a separate material ○ Probably a precious metal ○ Possible that the heads were not those of lions (somehybrid?) • Lions were considered guardian figures • Sophisticated engineering ○ Mycenaeans excel in building ○ Post and lintel entrance (pretty basic) ○ The stone over the door should break in half but they put the triangle with a sculpture to distribute the weight as relief ○ Corbelling arch Part V. In the images below please describe the characteristic features and accomplishments of Mycenaean architecture. Citadel at Mycenae (4-16) • Graves ○ The graves were not looted Dead were buried with different objects ○ Dead were buried with different objects • Place is completelyenclosed in walls ○ Which were expanded 3 differenent times • Narrow entrance (Lion Gate) ○ Easy to defend Pylos Palace: Plan of Megaron (4-19) • Plan of the megaron of the pylos palace • 1300-1200BCE • Megaron ○ Royal buildings that was a part of palaces of kings ○ The forerunners of temples ○ Not very complicated buildings • Reconstructionof the Megaron (Great Room)of the Pylos Palace • 1300-1200BCE • Writings by the Mycenaeans ○ Linear B--and it was able to be translated • Exquisitely crafted and decorated Corbeled Vault, Interior of Tholos (4-24) • Beehive tombs called a tholos • Very sophisticated building style • Sort of underground ○ Buried under a thick piece of ground ○ Kept the dome together • Dromos ○ Passagewayleading up to it • Tholos ○ The actual tomb • Largest dome space for 1000 years until the roman pantheon was build • No columns • Already looted when it was discovered ○ Body gone, treasure gone ○ No information, really Part VI. Mycenaean burials were more elaborate than the Minoans. What were their funerary customs and types of funerary architecture? Mask of Agamemnon (4-20) • Mask of Agamemnon • Funerary mask, Grave Circle A, Mycenae, Greece, 1600-1550BCE • They placed masks over the faces of men that were buried • All gold sheets hammeredfrom the back • Agamemnon ○ Possibly not. ○ These were made 300 years before he was born ○ The archaeologist possibly doctored this up to look more "noble" for people to believe him • Don’t know if theyre actually supposed to resemble the people either Tholos (4-22 to 4-24) • Cutaway Drawing of Tholos, The So-Called Treasury of Atreus • Beehive tombs called a tholos • Very sophisticated building style • Sort of underground ○ Buried under a thick piece of ground Kept the dome together ○ Kept the dome together • Dromos ○ Passagewayleading up to it • Tholos ○ The actual tomb • Largest dome space for 1000 years until the roman pantheon was build • No columns • Already looted when it was discovered ○ Body gone, treasure gone ○ No information, really Dagger Blade with Lion Hunt (4-21) • Dagger Blade with Lion Hunt • From shaft grave iv, Grace Circle A, Mycenae,Greece, 1550-1500BCE • Similarities to the Minoan fresco ○ Leaping animals ○ Elongated figures with pinched waists and black hair ○ At least influenced by Minoan ○ Mycenaean culture Terms: Heinrich Schliemann Sir Arthur Evans Gail Hoffman Homer Legend of King Minos Old Palace Period New Palace Period Labyrinth Linear A and Linear B Kamares ware Light well Buon fresco Fresco secco Rhyton “marine style” Repoussé Akrotiri Thera vertical recession Helladic Megaron Cyclopean masonry Relieving triangle Shaft graves niello Tholos Corbel vault Courses ashlar Agamemnon Agamemnon krater Ch 5 (Ancient Greece) Review Friday, October 9, 2019:15 AM Chapter 5: Greek Art Geometric and Orientalizing (c. 900-600 BCE) Funerary Krater, c. 750-700 BCE (5-2) Olpe, c. 640-625 BCE (5-4) Archaic (c. 600-480 BCE) Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing a Game, c. 540-530 BCE (5-1) Metropolitan Kouros, c. 600 BCE (5-18) Peplos Kore, c. 530 BCE (5-21) Classical (c. 480-323 BCE) Warrior, c. 460-450 BCE (5-29) Kallikrates and Iktinos, Parthenon, Athens, 447-432 BCE (5-36) Lapith Fighting a Centaur 447-432 BCE (5-38) Erectheion, Acropolis, Athens, 421-406 BCE (5-44) Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 350 BCE (5-52) Alexander the Great Confronts Darius at the Battle of Issos, c. 310 BCE – original (5-56) Lysippos, Apoxymenos, c. 350-325 BCE (5-54) Hellenistic (c. 323-31/30 BCE) Epigonos, Dying Gallic Trumpeter, c. 220 BCE (5-60) Theater, Epidauros, 4 century BCE (5-59) Athena Attacking the Giants, Altar, Pergamon, Turkey, c. 175-150 BCE (5-63) Nike of Samothrace, c. 180 BCE (5-65) Part I. In the following examples describe the manner in which Greek sculptors represented the human figure. Make note of any innovation in pose or system of proportions. Funerary Krater (5-2) FUNERARY KRATER • From the Dipylon Cemetery,Athens. c. 750-735BCE. Ceramic,height 42-5/8"(108 cm) • Incredibly geometric Metropolitan Kouros (5-18) METROPOLITANKOUROS • "Kouros"just means athletic, youthful male ○ Used as grave markers, votive figures in temples or sanctuaries • This one was one of the earliest kouros figures ○ Over 6 feet tall ○ Starting to create large scale life-size figures • Freestanding ○ Negative space Between the arms and legs Different than Egyptian art ○ It is just standing alone and stable • Nude • Greeks carved out of marble and limestone ○ Easier to carve Anavysos Kouros (5-20) ANAVYSOS KOUROS ANAVYSOS KOUROS • Marble with remnants of paint, height 6'4" (1.93 m). • From the cemeteryat Anavysos • Also called the Kroisos kouros ○ Marked the grave of Kroisos ○ He was a warrior and they engraved a grave for him • Style ○ Becoming more natural Muscles and face shape ○ Still have the archaic smile ○ 60-70 years between this and metropolitankouros Kritios Boy (5-26) • Classical sculpture style ○ The shoulders are angled Not as front-figured Not locked in the egyptian pose ○ Contrapposto The principle of weight shift One leg is straight One leg is bent Hips are tilted ○ Head shift ○ Not as wide hips on the male ○ Incredibly realistic Implied movement ○ A lot moreunderstanding of the movementof the body ○ Archaic smile is gone Polykleitos, Doryphoros (5-42) PolykleitosSPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS) • Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 450-440BCE. ○ Marble, height 6'11" (2.12 m); tree trunk and brace strut are Roman additions. ○ National Archaeological Museum, Naples. • Polykleitos ○ Greek scultptor ○ In order to achieve harmony in sculpture it requires a mathematic proportional scale Set down a treatise on his mathematicalformula Called it the canon The body is 7 head lengths tall ○ Created one statue using the previous method ○ Created one statue using his method (the canon) Turned out better • Greek ideal of a heroic athletic man Part II. What solution did Greek sculptors adopt for arranging sculptures in temple pediments? Temple of Aphaia, Aegina (5-13) • The idea of putting art in the pediment ○ Awkward shape of a triangle ○ They would put big ones in the center and little ones in the corners ○ ^ this is the solution they've come up with The poses are altered but theyre all roughly the same size (besides Athena) Part III. What themes did the sculptural decoration on the Parthenon emphasize? • Made out of marble = $$$ • Not a perfect Doric temple ○ Had ionic columns in the extra room in the cella ○ Continuous frieze in the cella Ionic element Ionic element • Proportions ○ 2x+1=y • There are no straight lines ○ The ceiling is bell curved ○ Columns are swollen at the bottom ○ The columns are also tipped inward ○ Why? Vitruvius Wrote 10 books on architecture Our eye distorts a straight line from a distance If you distort the line it will appear straight Makes it seem morestatic and lively than rigid too • Exterior 4 sides ○ Each side has a different theme 1. Battle of gods and giants 2. Battle of Greeks and Trojans 3. Battle of Greeks and lapiths 4. Battle of Greeks and amazons ○ Was to reference actual events Mixed with mythology Civilized vs. uncivilized • IONIC FREIZE • Phidias is the sculptor or at least the designer ○ Probably had a workshop • Continuous frieze • They didn’t use real people in their art • Athens had one of the best armies in the city-state ○ There are a lot of horses on the frieze ○ Promotesthe city-state ○ Tells how they are protectedby the gods • Runs along the inside of the ceiling ○ Very long (500+ feet) • RE-CREATION OF PHEIDIAS' HUGE GOLD AND IVORY FIGURE OF ATHENA • Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. • Model of what the cult statue would have looked like • 30 feet tall • Made out of gold and ivory ○ Nothing is really left • Holding the goddess of victory(Nike) Part IV . Sculptors of the Late Classical period developed new ideals for the human figure. Describe the innovative qualities of the following. Praxiteles, Hermes and the Infant Dionysos (5-52) • Probably a Hellenistic or Roman copy after a Late Classical 4th-century BCE original. ○ Marble, with remnants of red paint on the lips and hair, height 7'1" (2.15 m). ○ Archaeological Museum, Olympia. • Moving into late classical period • Muscles aren't as exaggerated • More textured hair • More elongated body • Lookslike flesh • Juts out the hip ○ S-pose • Portrayedmore human ○ Hermes as a man with Dionysus as an infant Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (5-54) Lysippos MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) • Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 350-325BCE. • Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 350-325BCE. ○ Marble, height 6'9" (2.06 m). ○ Vatican Museums, Museo Pio Clementino,Gabinetto dell'Apoxyomenos,Rome. [Fig 05-54] • Lysippos was the only one who was allowed to make sculptures of Alexander the Great • Fig leaf ○ A lot of the sculptures in the Vatican museum have the penises knocked off • Subtle changes ○ More textured hair ○ Leaner/longerfigure Lysippos changed the proportions 8 head lengths long rather than 7 ○ Arm reaching out into the viewers space Anticipates the Hellenistic period □ A lot of art breaking through to the viewer Encourages the viewerto see it from all angles Part V . What do the following works tell us about what stylistic features were prized inn monumental painting even though few examples survive? Style of the Achilles Painter, Woman and Maid (5-51) Style of the Achilles Painter WOMAN AND MAID ○ c. 450-440BCE. White-ground lekythos. Ceramic, with additional painting in tempera, height 15-1/8"(38.4 cm). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Francis Bartlett Donation of 1912.(13.201). ○ Still classical period ○ New pottery style emerging White-brown figure □ White slip Paint other colors on □ Glaze □ Tempera Not very durable ○ Polygnotos Artist Created greater color variations Showed more depth ○ Commonstyle coming about ○ Lightweight fabric Long nose no bridge ○ ○ Curly hair Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos (5-56) ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONFRONTS DARIUS III AT THE BATTLE OF ISSOS • Floor mosaic,Pompeii, Italy. 1st-centuryBCE Roman copy of a Greek wall painting of ○ c. 310 BCE, perhaps by Philoxenosof Eretria or Helen of Egypt. ○ Entire panel 8'10" × 17' (2.7 × 5.2 m). Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. • Mosaics became very popular ○ Floors • This is actually a Roman work ○ Copy of an original Greek painting? • Details ○ Making a flat 2D surface look like an illusionistic space ○ Naturalistic ○ A lot of action and movement ○ There is a reflection of a solider being trampled in a shield Part VI. Pergamon established itself as a leader in the arts in the Hellenistic period. What are the characteristics of the Pergamene style as seen in the following images? How does it differ from High Classical art? How does it differ from High Classical art? Epigonos (?), Dying Gallic Trumpeter (5-60) Epigonos (?) DYING GALLIC TRUMPETER • Roman copy (found in Julius Caesar's garden in Rome)after the original bronze of c. 220 BCE. Marble, height 36-1/2"(93 cm). Museo Capitolino, Rome. • Pergamonpeople had to fight the Gauls ○ Pergamonwon ○ They created a monumentshowing their victory • Differences ○ Gaul study The statue has a moustache,different hair, and a necklace Not something you would see on Greeks It is something more classic on Gauls Portraying observed details ○ Sense the struggle and pain Athena Attacking the Giants (5-63) • Movement,texture, elegance, deeper cuts, emotion,drama, contrast Nike of Samothrace (5-65) • Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace.c. 180 BCE (?). Marble, height 8'1" (2.45 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris. • This was part of a fountain ○ She was placed as a piece of a ship ○ Wind blowing at his clothes is depicted Part VII . Please be able to identify the various phases or components of each of the following: The Greek Orders (p. 110) • Columns ○ Have a shaft (shaft part) ○ Have a capital (top part) ○ Groovesin the column are called "fluting" ○ Doric Does not have a base Less decorative capital ○ Ionic Has a base More decorative capital than Doric but less that Corinthian ○ Corinthian Has a base Incredibly decorative capital with acanthus leaf • Entablature ○ The chunk above the columns ○ Consists of the architrave and frieze ○ Doric Frieze consists of a triglyph and metope ○ Ionic "continuous frieze" There are pictures that repeat like a pattern There are pictures that repeat like a pattern • Pediment ○ Slanted roof Standard Shapes of Greek vessels (p. 117, 5-22) • Greeks made large scale panel paintings but none have survived • So for paintings, a lot of examples are based off of vessel painting • Amphora ○ Popular type of vessel ○ Used to store wine • Hydria ○ Used to store water • Oinochoe and olpe ○ Pitchers • Krater ○ Used for mixing • Kantharos ○ Double handed wine glass • Lekythos ○ Elegant shaped ○ Used for perfumes ○ Usually left at graves Black-figure and Red-figure technique (p. 118) • Black-figure ○ "black figure painting" Black on red/cream/somevariation thereof Preferred method of decoration Started at the beginning of the archaic period Started at the beginning of the archaic period Sometimessome purplish color or white ○ The black came through the firing process Difficult to recreate i. Oxidizing □ A slip (watered down clay) is added to the clay □ Wet red clay is added to red clay (hard to see) □ It is then fired and oxidized ii. Reducing □ Reducing the oxygen □ Smoke fills the chamber □ Everything turns black iii. Reoxidizing □ Oxygen is reintroduced □ The actual body of the vessel is more porous □ The vessel will turn back to red Details would have been carved while still wet • Red-figure ○ Red Figure Technique takes over and black figure dies out ○ Red coloring was closer to an actual skin tone ○ Black details could be painted instead of carved ○ Lots of advantages with red figure ○ Less silhouette-like ○ More naturalistic approach The Buildings of the Athenian Akropolis (5-35) • • The Parthenon • The Propylaia (Mnesikles) with the Temple of Athena Nike (Kallikrates) on the bastion at the right. ○ c. 437-423BCE. ○ Raised sacred area in Athens ○ Had two faces One facing Athens One facing the Akropolis ○ Pinacoteca Picture gallery • The Erechtheion • Akropolis, Athens. 430s-406BCE. View from the east. Porch of the Maidens at left; the north porch can be seen through the columns of the east wall. [Fig. 05-44] • The Parthenon is the main temple • The Erechtheion ○ Ionic temple ○ Female figures as columns ○ Doesn’t follow the set temple plan Is not a paristyle (have columns all the way around) Not in a perfect rectangle Has porches off of it Different ground levels 3 different rooves 3 different rooves ○ Explanation Had to fit with the site (shifting ground levels) Built to house 3 different sacred places 1. Shrine housing wooden image of Athena 2. Athena's olive tree 3. Poseidon's trident mark 4. Ruins of Archaic temple • Temple of Athena Nike • Fragment of relief decorationfrom the parapet (now destroyed), Temple of Athena Nike, Akropolis, Athens. Last quarter of the 5th century (perhaps 410-405)BCE. ○ Marble, height 3'6" (1.06 m). Akropolis Museum, Athens. • Tiny temple ○ Surrounded by a low walk • Still very decorated by images ○ Repeated images of Nike Part VIII. For each of the following structures consider the basic characteristics of their layout (ground plan), ratio of columns, particular order, and proportions. Are there any unique aspects to their layout or use of orders? Why? Temple of Aphaia (5-10) TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • View from the east. c. 500 or c. 475 BCE. Column height about 17' (5.18 m) • DORIC • To a local goddess (not one of the 12 deities) • Comparison ○ Not as big ○ Becomes more refined as time goes on ○ Less swelling in the shaft ○ Capital is more refined and elegant ○ Straight edges RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • c. 500 or c. 475 BCE. PLAN OF COMPLEX of the TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • c. 500 or c. 475 BCE. • There aren't any columns blocking the statue now ○ There are two rows of columns instead of one so that leaves a gap between the two almost as an aisle • The proportions of the length and width of the temple are better too The Parthenon (5-36) • Not a perfect Doric temple Had ionic columns in the extra room in the cella Continuous frieze in the cella □ Ionic element • Proportions 2x+1=y ○ There are no straight lines The ceiling is bell curved Columns are swollen at the bottom The columns are also tipped inward Why? Vitruvius □ Wrote 10 books on architecture □ Our eye distorts a straight line from a distance □ If you distort the line it will appear straight □ Makes it seem more static and lively than rigid too Erechtheion (5-44) ERECHTHEION • Akropolis, Athens. 430s-406BCE. View from the east. Porch of the Maidens at left; the north porch can be seen through the columns of the east wall. [Fig. 05-44] • The Parthenon is the main temple • The Erechtheion ○ Ionic temple ○ Female figures as columns ○ Doesn’t follow the set temple plan Is not a paristyle (have columns all the way around) Not in a perfect rectangle Has porches off of it Different ground levels 3 different rooves ○ Explanation Had to fit with the site (shifting ground levels) Built to house 3 different sacred places 1. Shrine housing wooden image of Athena 2. Athena's olive tree 3. Poseidon's trident mark 4. Ruins of Archaic temple Terms: Polis Krater Pythia oracle Treasury Caryatid Black-figure style Red-figure style White ground Stylus Slip Corinth Olpe rosettes Entasis Entasis Kouros/ Kouroi Kore/ Korai Peplos Classical Canon of Polykleitos Contrapposto Hollow casting Perikles Pheidias Peloponnesian Wars Acropolis refinements of design Canon Stele Polygnotos Painted Stoa Pausanias Mosaic Tesserae Pliny the Elder Philoxenos of Eretria Helen of Egypt Alexander the Great Philip of Macedon Darius III Battle of Actium Cleopatra Corinthian Order Orchestra Skene Proscenum Baroque Pergamon Attalos I Eumenes II
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