Introduction to Secondary Education Dr. Robert Shkorupa
Midterm Study Guide
Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term
Chapter 1 - The Teaching Profession and You
A Teaching Career - Is it Right for You?
- Pay for Performance/Merit Pay Attempts to make teaching more accountable by linking teacher and student performance to the teacher’s salary.
- Better teachers earn more money (In theory)
- Evaluating teachers through test scores
- If you work at an ‘at risk’ school, you could receive a larger salary - Pro Comp - Hard work for small rewards If you want to learn more check out What is the best-selling book that argued for britain's reconciliation and that colonists should be treated as englishmen?
- Tenure - An expectancy of continued employment
- When you get a teaching job, you're on probation for three or so years, and then you can apply for tenure.
- Tenure doesn’t protect you against felonies or broken laws
- You have a right to a job if it’s available.
From Normal Schools to Board-Certified Teachers
- Reverend Samuel Hall - In Concord, Vermont 1823, he established a private school that took people who had graduated from elementary & secondary schools, and provided them with teaching training. (Normal School). This is considered the begining of teachers education in the United States.
- Normal School - ( École normale ) A school that establishes model standards, typically a two year training program, and includes both actual subjects and method training.
- Horace Mann - In 1839 he established the first state supported Normal School in Lexington, Massachusetts.
- By the 1900's Normal Schools were the backbone of the American Education System If you want to learn more check out When did julius caesar invade britain?
We also discuss several other topics like What distinguishes dinosaurs from non-dinosaurs reptiles?
- Normal Schools expanded to 3-4 years, and evolved into state colleges by the 1950's.
- National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) - Established in the 1990's to recognize awesome teachers and make them "board certified". At the time, 3% of teachers were "board certified".
- Pedagogy - The art and science of teaching; especially teaching methods _____& strategies.
- Effective teaching requires both knowledge of the subject &
_________the instructional skills to teach it.
- Also requires effective communication and a talent for
- National Education Association (NEA)
- Created in 1875
- The NEA today offers free legal services and training opportunities - A political force for teachers
- Largest professional and employee organization in the nation with over 3 million members
- American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
- Created in 1916
- Affiliated with the American Labor Movement
- Exclusively by and for teachers
- Activist for black rights in schools
- Similar to the NEA but smaller Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between external motivation and internal motivation?
- Portfolio - A more comprehensive reflection of a candidate's skills using documents and artifacts.
Chapter 2 - Different Ways of Learning
- Carol Dweck - Stanford professor, says a “Fixed mindset views intelligence as ability-focused, finite, and determined at birth. IQ measures intelligence and cannot change
- Growth Mindset - says intelligence can be developed throughout life with effort. - Howard Gardner - Harvard psychologist; worked to broaden intelligence from language emphasized & logical-mathematical abilities. Says intelligence is “The capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one of more cultural settings.”
- Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence - “a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking & action.” - EQ may be a better predictor than IQ
- EQ (emotional intelligence quotient)
- Learning Styles - diverse ways of learning, comprehending, and using information. If you want to learn more check out What is the tendency of a higher electronegative atom to pull electrons toward itself?
- Three factors contribute to a specific learning style. Physiology, Affective, and Cognitive.
- Affective Domain - includes attitudes, values & emotion, factors that influence curiosity, the ability to tolerate and overcome frustration, a preference to learn in groups or individually, and the willingness to take risks.
- Locus of Control - contributing failure to external factors, not taking responsibility for their behavior.
- Students are motivated from within (intrinsically motivated)
- Cognitive Domain - different ways of perceiving, organizing, retaining, and using information. Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic.
- Neuroplasticity - developing new neural brain pathways. This helps to better retain information.
- Flexibility and variety are keys to becoming a great teacher.
- Gender Similarities Hypothesis - Males and females are similar on most, but not all psychological variables
- There are NO important intellectual or psychological differences between genders, but there are some within genders. (I.E. race, ethnicity, and economic status Don't forget about the age old question of Define oxidation.
- “Generalize a pedagogy based on a student's gender will surely miss many students who do not fit neatly into a fixed gender mold.”
- Exceptional Learners - Students with a great range of abilities from years behind, to years ahead.
- Giftedness - originally based on IQ
- “Not about how analytical and insightful you are, but how you use such skills.”
- Approximately 3 million students are identified as academically gifted. Even more remain unidentified.
- Only 20 states require gifted programs
- Advanced Placement (AP) - Provides college level courses for high-achieving high schoolers
- International Baccalaureate (IB) - An internationally recognized degree program that includes a rigorous science, math, foreign language, & diverse culture studies.
- Accelerated Programs - allows gifted students from all grade levels to skip grades or receive early college credit.
- (IDEA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - extends coverage to all disabled learners between the ages 3 & 21, including those with autism and traumatic brain injuries.
- Appropriate Education - accurate diagnosis and responsive programs for these children’s needs.
- Mainstreaming - traditional term for placing special needs students in a regular classroom setting for at least part of the day.
- Inclusion (full inclusion) - separate classes and schools are to be avoided unless a child's disabilities are to the point where this cannot be achieved. - Individualized Education Program (IEP) - A program reviewed & revised annually, to ensure the program is aligned with what a child needs.
- Learning Disabilities - Students who have difficulties with listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical skills.
- Regular Education Initiative - encourages schools to provide special services within a classroom (see inclusion/mainstreaming)
- Assistive or Adaptive Technology - can provide a boost for special needs students in and beyond the classroom.
- Not a perfect system; spellcheck and the like can limit learning, sending technology home can lead to inappropriate use.
Chapter 3 - Teaching Your Diverse Students
- Demographic Forecasting - The study of people and their vital statistics. - You will teach in a nation more diverse than the one you grew up in. - Race - A group of individuals sharing a common socially determined category often related to genetic attributes, physical appearance, and ancestry. - Ethnicity - Shared common cultural traits such as language, religion, and dress. - Culture - A set of learned beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviors; a way of life shared by members of a society
- Multiracial - Claiming ancestry from two or more races.
Theories of Why Some Groups Succeed and Others Do Not
- Deficit Theory - Certain students do poorly in school because they suffer some sort of deficit; cultural, social, economic, academic, linguistic, or even genetic. - Parenting differences as well are a factor.
- One of the more negative points of this theory argues that genetic and IQ deficiencies of “certain groups” are the root cause of academic under achievement.
- Expectation Theory - Some children do poorly because their teachers do not expect much of kids from certain racial and ethnic groups.
- These students are being taught differently, because of this theory, and their performance suffers.
- Cultural Difference Theory - Academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school and home.
- “Triple Package”. Superiority complex, Inferiority complex, impulse control - Assimilation (Enculturation) - Groups incorporated into the mainstream culture. - Cultural Pluralism - a recognition that some groups, voluntary or involuntary, have maintained their culture and their language
- Bilingual Education - The use of two languages for instruction.
- Language Submersion - Students either learn to speak english, or fail the class. - If students didn’t like submersion, they could choose to leave the school - In 1968 congress provided financial incentives for schools that provided bilingual education
- Lau v. Nichols - Teaching students in a language they do not understand is not appropriate education. Afterwards school districts must take positive steps to eliminate language barriers.
- English Language Learners (ELLs) - non english-speaking students - One in five school-age children speak a language other than english. - Teachers can help ELLs transition by creating a stable classroom environment.
- English as a Second Language (ESL) - Supplements immersion programs by providing special pullout classes for additional instruction in reading and writing english.
- Transitional Approach - Uses the native language as a bridge to English language instruction
- Students are first taught in the native language, and then transitioned into english
- The goal is to prepare them for english only classrooms within two to three years.
- Maintenance or Developmental Approach - Designed to help children develop academic skills both in english and their native language.
- Instruction in both languages
- English-Only Movement - A belief that english is unifying, and should be the only language used or spoken in public. The purpose of bilingual education should be to teach english to ELLs
- Multicultural Education - education that incorporates the histories, texts, values, beliefs, and perspectives of people from different cultural backgrounds. - Human relations, single group studies, teaching the culturally different, multicultural, and multicultural reconstruction are all different ways of teaching multicultural education.
- James Banks - believes that we should integrate and broaded the curriculum to make it more inclusive and action oriented
- Identifies four approaches to a multicultural curriculum, Contributions, Additive, Transformation, Social Action approaches
Culturally Responsive Teaching
- Culturally Responsive Teaching - Focuses on the learning strengths of students, and mediates the frequent mismatch between home and school cultures. - Gloria Ladson-Billings - Professor at the University of Wisconsin who developed three culturally responsive principles for teaching.
- Self esteem, cultural competence, and critical consciousness
- Stereotype - Absolute beliefs that all members of a group have a fixed set of characteristics.
- A one-piece plate that repeats a pattern with no individuality.
- Stereotypes only hurt people, and block learning.
- Generalizations - recognizes that there are trends over large numbers of people. - Offers insights as opposed to hard conclusions.
- Never intended to be applied to all.
- An “educated guess”, helps to plan effective teaching methods.
Chapter 4 - Student Life in School and at Home
The Teacher as Gatekeeper
- Gatekeeping - Teachers must determine who will talk, when, and for how long, as well as the basic direction of the communication.
- Most of the time, teachers dominate the conversation.
The Other Side of the Tracks
- Tracking - Students of different abilities (low, middle, high) are assigned to different tracks of courses and programs (vocational, general, college-bound, honors, and AP)
- People have mixed opinions about whether tracking is beneficial or flawed.
- The labeling system begins at an early age
- Jeannie Oakes - Wrote “Keeping Track”; race, more than ability determines which students are placed on which tracks.
- Once set into a track, it is extremely hard to move into a different one. - Many people believe in detracking because of the inequality of the system - Ability Grouping - An alternative to tracking.Students can be grouped by achievement for part of the day, and then heterogeneously for the rest of the day.
The Gendered World of Elementary and Middle Schools
- Sociograms - Graphics that provide insights into the social life of a class
Hidden America: Homeless Families
- McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act - passed by congress in 1987 provides emergency food services, adult literacy programs, access to schooling, job -training and other assistance.
Chapter 5 - The Multicultural History of American Education
Colonial New England Education: God’s Classrooms
- Dame School - A “dame”, or well-respected woman with an interest in education, became (for a fee) the communities teacher, and usually taught from her home. - Boys were usually taught a trade, girls were taught homemaking skills. - In Loco Parentis - In place of a child's parent (Master's, family members, dames, ministers, etc.)
- This system was a flowed method of education, so the system was improved
- Old Deluder Satan Law - Massachusetts law of 1647, the Puritans attempt to thwart Satan’s trickery with scripture-reading citizens.
- Latin Grammar School - Boys who could afford to further their education went to one of these schools.
- Horn Book - Most common teaching device in colonial schools. Alphabet sheet covered by a thin, transparent sheet made from a cow’s horn.
- New England Primer - The first real textbook. 1690’s - 1800’s. 2 1/2 in - 4 1/2 in, 50-100 pages, woodcut illustrations, alphabet words, and small verses. - McGuffey Readers - Named after William Holmes McGuffey, his readers emphasized work ethic, patriotism, heroism, and morality. More than 100 million copies were used from 1836 - 1920. The were geared for different grade levels and they paved the way from graded elementary schools.
A New Nation Shapes Education
- Thomas Jefferson - “Education should be more widely available to white children from all economic and social classes”
- Benjamin Franklin - Penned proposals to the youth of Pennsylvania; Suggested an Academy (Franklin Academy)
- Academy - A school free of religious influence, offered a variety of classes, boys and girls were accepted, and could choose the electives they wanted to take. - Sparked 6,000 similar academies to be established.
The Common School Movement
- Horace Mann - Established the Common School, now known as the Elementary School. Mann is known as the “Father of Public Education.’
- Common School - “Education should serve both practical and idealistic goals.” Education for both the poor and the rich.
- Normal School - Schools devoted to preparing teachers in pedagogy, the best way to teach children.
- By the Civil War, Common and normal schools were an ordinary thing
Spinsters, Bachelors, and Gender Barriers in Teaching
- Gendered Career - Men dominated teaching well into the 19th century. Teaching was gendered male.
- The demand for inexpensive teachers created an opportunity for women to really take hold of the teaching force.
- Homosexuality and married women were threats to teaching children
The Secondary School Movement
- English Classical School - First free secondary school. 176 boys enrolled, and 76 of them dropped out.
- Kalamazoo, Michigan Case - In 1874, the courts declared taxes could be used to support secondary schools.
- The High School split into a Junior High in 1909, and then that split shortly after into a Middle School
John Dewey and Progressive Education
- John Dewey - The most influential educator of the 20th Century, he was a big advocate for Progressive Education
- Progressive Education - Broadens schooling to include health concerns, family and community, life issues, and a concern for vocational education. More diversity and embracing the individualization.
The Federal Government
- National Defense Education Act (NDEA) - Passed in 1958 to enhance the “security of the nation” and to develop “the mental resources and technical skills of its young men and women.
- Tenth Amendment - any area not specifically stated in the Constitution as a federal responsibility is automatically assigned to the states
- Education was not included in the constitution for an unknown reason - Land Ordinance Act (1785) and the Northwest Ordinance (1789) - Both created to reserve land for educational purposes
Black Americans: The Struggle for a Chance to Learn
- Plessy v. Ferguson - Segregation was made legal
- Separate but Equal - Initially legalized separate railway passenger cars for black and white americans , and was also used to justify a legally segregated school system, this lasted in some places for over half a century.
- De jure Segregation - segregation by law or by official action
- De facto (Unofficial) Segregation - occurred as the result of segregated residential patterns, and were often prompted by discriminatory real estate practices
- Brown v. Board of Education - The court ruled “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place.”
- Second-Generation Segregation - A racial imbalance with schools, black and white students were being separated by tracking, treatment, and even separate areas within the school.
Women and Education: A History of Sexism
- Emma Heart Willard - Wrote about her views for higher education for woman, and received favorable responses from Jefferson, Adams, And Monroe. - Opened the first school for female teachers (Troy female Seminary) years before the Normal school was founded
Hall of Fame: Profiles in Education
- Friedrich Froebel - Founded the first Kindergarten (‘childs garden’) in 1837 to “cultivate” the child's development and socialization
- Prudence Crandall - After graduating from a seminary, she established her own school for girls. A huge outrage was caused when she admitted a black student. The repercussions lasted the rest of her career. Several of her students carried on her work.
- Maria Montessori - First female physician in Italy. Established the first Montessori school (Casa dei Bambini) in 1908. Special methods of teaching were used to provide an education for disadvantaged children in Rome.
- Mary McLeod Bethune - First child in her family not born a slave. She focused on providing education to newly freed slaves. She founded the Bethune-Cookman College. She also was an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- Sylvia Ashton-Warner - Devised teaching methods in New Zealand that focused on Child-Centered learning and creativity in the classroom. She focused on key vocabulary, individualized reading, and meaningful learning methods that we still use today. She also wrote the book Teacher about her methods.
- Kenneth Clark - Attended schools in Harlem, and was the first African American to receive his doctorate. Was also the first black to be tenured in 1960. He also did a famous study with children using black and white dolls.
- Paulo Freire - Born in Brazil, his efforts moved literacy to a political instrument. He wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed which illustrated how education could transform society. He was a huge political activist as well as a social justice activist.
- Comenius - Developmental stages of learning and universal education pioneer
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Worked with the stages of development, as well as differentiating school from education
- Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi - worked on curriculum development, and special needs development of the disadvantaged
- Johann Herbert - Recognized for his educational morale development and the creation of structured methodology of instruction
- W.E.B. DuBois - CoFounded the NAACP and encouraged black americans to seek higher education
- Jean Piaget - Created the theory of cognitive development - Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner - Recognized for creating environments to promote learning.