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Chapter 6-8 Test Review

by: Lisa Render

Chapter 6-8 Test Review ART 2050-001

Lisa Render
GPA 3.578

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6 Etruscan and Roman Art 7 Jewish and Early Christian Art 8 Byzantine Art
Survey of Western Art History 1
Dr. Amy Morris
Study Guide
Art, history
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This 58 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Ch 6 (Etruscan and Roman) Review Monday, November 9, 2015 8:22 AM Chapter 6: Roman Art Archaic EtruscanArt, ca. 600-480 BCE Master Sculptor Vulca, Apollo, Temple of Minerva, Portonaccio, Veii, c. 510-500 BCE (6-4) Reclining Couple on a Sarcophagus from Cerverteri,c. 520 BCE (6-9) Later Etruscan Art, 480 BCE – first century Novios Plautios, The Ficoroni Cista, 350-300 BCE (6-1) Republic, 509-27 BCE PortraitHead of an Elder from Scoppito, 1 century BCE (6-13) Temple of Portunus,Rome, Late 2 century BCE (6-18) Early Empire, 27 BCE-96 CE st Augusutusof Primaporta,early 1 century CE (6-19) The Arch of Titus, Rome, c. 81 CE (6-36) Peristyle Garden, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, 62-79 CE (6-27) High Empire 96-192 CE Pantheon,Rome, c. 118-128 CE (6-49, 6-50) Column of Trajan, Rome, 113-116 CE (6-47) Late Empire, 193-337 CE The Tetrarchs, c. 300 CE (6-62) Arch of Constantine,Rome, 312-315 CE (6-65) Part I. Describe how Greek art influenced the following works and which elements were unique to the Etruscans. Apollo (6-4) Master Sculptor Vulca, Apollo • Temple of Minerva, ○ Portonaccio,Veii ○ c. 510-500BCE • Architectural sculpture ○ Didn’t put sculpture in the pediment ○ Put sculptures on the roof ○ • Similar and same period ○ Archaic smile ○ Hair ○ Face shape  Long nose  Stylized eyes ○ Stylized leg muscles • Differences ○ Clothes ○ Not as focused on the details of the body ○ Arms were reaching forward  a sense of vitality and movement ○ Made of terra cotta clay  Learned to make large scape ceramics  Not very easy Etruscan Temple (6-3) Reconstructionof an Etruscan Temple • Borrow a bit from Greek art • No Etruscan temples have survived ○ Not because the Romans wiped them out ○ Temples are made of wood, terra cotta, and mud  Not very durable Floor plan • Similar design • Layout difference ○ Fewer columns ○ Lookslike it's only supposed to be entered from the front • Material differences ○ Made out of mud bricks, terra cotta, and wood  Less durable  No ruins because it's literally all gone  No ruins because it's literally all gone • Pediment ○ Not really a pediment ○ Didn’t put sculpture in it • Tuscan order ○ Made of wood ○ Smooth shaft (no flutes or grooves) ○ Rests on a base ○ Brightly painted Part II. What information does the following work give us about the nature of Etruscan belief in the afterlife? Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs (6-8) Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri,Italy, 3rd century BCE • Tombs ○ They crematedtheir bodies though ○ Decoratedall over with different objects ○ Filled with objects for the afterlife Reclining Couple on a Sarcophagus from Cerverteri,c. 520 BCE • Tombs would have a separate place to bury the dead • Filled with the cremated remains • Made of terra cotta • Stylized • Stylized ○ Hair ○ Almond shaped eyes ○ Archaic smile • Position is impossible ○ Anatomy is not the focus • Emphasis on interaction ○ Vitality ○ Greek art never had this emotionin this time period Part III. Portraiture was a significant category of artwork in the Roman world. For the following examples describe the prominent stylistic qualities of each and explain which features were propagandistic. Portrait Head of an Elder (6-13) PORTRAIT HEAD OF AN ELDER FROM SCOPPITO • 1st century BCE • Detail ○ Incredible ○ Naturalism ○ Wrinkles • Compared to a portrait of Perikles • Compared to a portrait of Perikles ○ His portrait looked somewhatlike him but obviously idealized • Verism ○ Faithfully true portraiture of people Augustus of Primaporta (6-19) Augustus of Primaporta,Early 1st century CE • Very aware of the power of art • Romans became masters of propaganda ○ Conveying what they want to become real ○ Images places everywhereso they're constantly on their mind • Traditional Roman portraits was wrinkly old men • Augustus is more early classical Greek style ○ He revived classical Greek Art ○ Beautiful and idealistic ○ Contrapposto ○ Realistic features but still idealized • Augustus also made marble buildings ○ Rome was a city of brick and he turned it into a city of marble Caracalla (6-59) Caracalla, early 3rd century CE • Showing a lot of personality • Marcus Aureilis > Lucius Verus > Commodus> African dynasty > Caracalla • Crazy people being put in power again • Caracalla ○ Murdered his brother because his mothertold him to ○ Glaring look • Difference from classicized Augustine youthful look The Tetrarchs (6-62) The Tetrarchs, c. 300 CE • Change in style • Augustus = greek idealism ○ Greek art always loomed as an influence • Now it seems to jump back ○ Almost Egyptian/Asian ○ More stiff ○ Anatomy is terrible  They look short and squashed ○ They all look the same ○ Back to being stylized  More simplified and abstracted ○ Message is pretty obvious though  4 rulers ruling as one ○ "late antique style" • But it conveysa message rather quickly ○ Not much need for interpretation ○ Less admiration for the art ○ More conceptual Part IV. In the following Roman buildings, what features were influenced by Greek architecture? Temple of Portunus (6-16) Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium, Rome, late 2nd century BCE • At some point Romans captured Greece and Macedonia ○ After they were introduced to Sicilian Greek art they were hooked and importing it by the boatload ○ So they were kind of captured by the Greeks in a way • So much influence from the Greeks ○ Roman gods are very similar to the Greek gods ○ Art and architecture • Roman art is very eclectic ○ Greek  Columns  Ionic  Columns go all the way around…but they're not full ones □ Pseudo-peripteral ○ Etruscan  Enter from one side  Columns fused to 3 sides of the temple □ Engaged/half-columns  Layout Pantheon (6-49 - 6-52) Pantheon, Rome,c. 118-128CE • Most structurally innovative building that Romehas every built • Turned into a Catholic church early on ○ It's very preserved ○ A couple popes are buried here ○ Raphael is buried here • Roman buildings usually have a face and a walkway on a pedestal ○ Set on a podium ○ The land has sunk • Dedicated to 3 deities ○ Jupiter, mars, ??? • Lookslike a classic temple from the front ○ Walking inside to be surprised by the rotunda Part V. In the following examples please explain the innovative qualities of Roman architecture. Pont du Gard (p. 172) – discuss the arch Romans innovation in architecture • Extremelyefficient builders • Features a rounded arch ○ Not something that we see in Greek architecture ○ Sort of in Etruscan architecture ○ Romans standardized it • They would use series of arches • Construction ○ Pier to pier is a bay ○ Wooden centering would be placed ○ Voussoirs would be added in and the weight would be distributed out ○ Less materials/lessmoney/moreability to pile it on PONT DU GARD • Nîmes, France. Late 1st century BCE • Part of an aqueduct Main Hall, Markets of Trajan (6-42) – consider concrete (p. 196) • Trajan’s Market, Rome100-112CE • Separate from the forum but since the marketis like a shadow to the forum they're usually confused as connected • 150+ shops • • Main Hall, Trajan’s Market, Rome100-112CE • Great hall/main hall ○ Like a mall • • Groin vault • 2 barrel vaults places perpendicularly • Weight is transferred down to a pier ○ Square support ○ Allows to use big open arches Pantheon (6-49 - 6-52) Pantheon (6-49 - 6-52) • Rotunda ○ Largest dome every constructed in the ancient world ○ Diameterof something around 100 feet ○ Perfect sphere • Some parts of the wall are 20 feet thick ○ Concrete is efficient as heck  Lime, water, rough stones, and volcanic sand called pozzolano  They would also add in pumice to make the rock at the top lighter and thinner • Beautiful colored marble • Alternating niches ○ Coffers ○ Hollowing out parts of the dome to make it lighter ○ Functional and beautiful • 12 deities would have been housed in the side but now it's saints • Oculus ○ Opening in the top center ○ Creates a concentratedshaft of light that movesabout around the day Basilica Nova (6-67) Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome,306-313CE • Constantine also paid for the Basilica Nova • It was started by Maxentius (Constantine's enemy) ○ When he won, he continued off the idea • Architecture ○ Much like the markets of Trajan ○ Groin-vaults with perpendicular barrel-vaults • Also had a HUGE sculpture of Constantine ○ Seated, it was 40 feet tall ○ The head was 8 feet tall Part VI. Pompeii has provided us with much information about the daily lives of Roman. What do we know about the arrangement of their cities and their houses? City of Pompeii (6-24, 6-26) Ruins of Pompeii,Destroyed79 CE • Volcanic eruption from mount Vesuvius ○ Very quick ○ The ash destroyedthe city but also froze it • Started excavating in the 16th century ○ Still continuing ReconstructionDrawing of Pompeii • Based the city on a grid plan • Forum ○ Long rectangular courtyard ○ Surrounded by columns ○ Heart of city life  People would meet here  Business  Markets ○ Feature of most Roman cities ○ Would have a temple at one end • Basilica next to the forum ○ Basilica functioned as a court of law ○ Copied by Christian churches  No churches (but we call churches basilicas) House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, 1st century CE • Atrium houses ○ One of the gathering roomsis called an atrium • Vestibule ○ Entrance (throat) • Rainwater would gather in the pool ○ Opened ceiling • Cubicula ○ Cubicles ○ Bedrooms • Peristylecourtyard ○ Another gather place ○ Covered walkwayon all 4 sides ○ Opened ceiling ○ Garden House of the Vettii (6-27, 6-28) PeristyleGarden, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Rebuilt 62-79 CE • Walls were painted • Recreated gardens Wall Painting, Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii • Studied wall paintings of the homes • Homes would have customizedwall paintings • Augustus Mau ○ Studied all the wall paintings ○ Saw there was different styles that evolved ○ Created a classifications of Pompeiian wall painting  4 styles • Mythologicalscene of Ixion ○ 4th style ○ Archaeologist would cut out parts of the whole thing to sell to museums  Takes away from the actual composition Part VII. What do the following works tell us about the nature of Roman wall painting? Wall Painting, Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, 62-79 CE (6-29) Wall Painting, Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, 62-79 CE (6-29) Wall Painting, Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii • Studied wall paintings of the homes • Homes would have customizedwall paintings • Augustus Mau ○ Studied all the wall paintings ○ Saw there was different styles that evolved ○ Created a classifications of Pompeiian wall painting  4 styles • Mythologicalscene of Ixion ○ 4th style ○ Archaeologist would cut out parts of the whole thing to sell to museums  Takes away from the actual composition Cityscape, House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, late 1st century BCE (6-31) Cityscape, House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale,c. 50-30 BCE • Cityscape • Intuitive perspective ○ Multiple vanishing points Part VIII. Please explain how the following images or buildings communicated the political ideology of the emperor under whose reign they were built or commissioned. Ara Pacis Augustae (6-20, 6-21, 6-22) Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace),Rome, 13-9 BCE • Decorativeeverything ○ Rinceaux pattern ○ Vines coming and twirling with birds chirping along ○ Very pretty ○ Creates a sort of lush/foliage effect ○ Prosperity/peace  Romans are craving it after this civil war The Colosseum (6-38, 6-39) • Vespasian and the Coliseum • Anti-Nero • Nero would exploit his architects for his palace • Vespasian would use his architects for the people • Coliseum ○ There was a huge statue of Nero called the colossus  Coliseum is a nickname ○ Nero had a lake build on his palace grounds ○ Vespasian drained it and build the theater ○ It went from something that could only be used by a bad emperorto a place where everyonecould go  Propaganda ○ Construction began 72 AD  Paid for by the Jerusalem ransacking □ Built by Jewish slaves  160 feet tall □ Tallest roman structure built ○ Architecture  Just two Greek theaters put together  Theater in the round  Intricate staircases and corridors  Entry gates and ticket numbers  Designed to keep people comfortable  Had a retractable roof to keep people shaded and air conditioned ○ Water channels  Flood the arena for naval battles □ Fighting on boats  They would channel water to the middle of the arena • Vespasian died the year before the coliseum was finished • Events Carnage that you would only see in war ○ Carnage that you would only see in war ○ Animals killing people ○ Prisoners being executed ○ Gladiator fights Romans Crossing the Danube and Building a Fort (6-48) Column of Trajan • One of 2 surviving columns in Rome • Has a statue of a saint on the top ○ Originally it would have had a statue of Trajan ○ The emperor didn’t put St. Peter on his column. • 125 feet tall Romans Crossing the Danube and Building a Fort • Relief sculpture winding up the entire way • 23ish bands of relief ○ Thousands of figures ○ Single spiraling band ○ Similar to a scroll  This is between 2 libraries • Apollodorus of Damascus may have designed this too • Apollodorus of Damascus may have designed this too • Depicts 2 campaigns against modern day Romania ○ They were efficient builders in time of war  Building forts and bridges ○ Shows a general superiority in every single way The Arch of Constantine (6-65) Arch of Constantine, Rome,312-315CE • Commemoratehis victory • 3 arches • More decorative • Originality ○ Only part that Constantine had carved is the lower frieze • Everything else on this monumentwas taken from other monuments ○ Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius  All great emperors ○ Propagandistic stunt? ○ Recarves a couple to match his likeness Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo; Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum • Still have that regressiveart style in the frieze ○ Comparativelyto the grace of the rest of them ○ Communicatesthe message quickly  "Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum" Part IX. In the following images please explain the main stylistic trends. Which works mark moments of significant change? What are the stylistic qualities of each? In what way does style convey meaning? Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, 13-9 BCE (6-20, 6-21, 6-22) Imperial Process,Ara Pacis, south side, 13-9 BCE • North and south sides of the Ara Pacis have the imperial process • Membersof the emperorsfamily • Similar to the Parthenon • Roman art mimicking Greek art ○ Greek idealization ○ Idealized figures  Greek figures with curly hair and long noses ○ But they also have their own identifiable features • Imitating Greek frieze • Parthenon frieze was copied many times • Served as a model but they're not the same ○ Inspired • Roman ○ Have more sense of depth  Illusionism  Varying the relief □ Gives it the look that there are people behind them ○ Carving detail is very good ○ Naturalistic poses and movement Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem (6-37) Spoils from the Temple of Solomon,Arch of Titus, c. 81 CE • One of the reliefs on the Arch of Titus • Different levels of relief • The arch of Titus is deeper ○ Sense of depth and background • Height of figures in relation of how much space ○ Arch of Titus has a blank space ○ Sense of atmosphere Arch of Constantine (6-65, 6-66) Arch of Constantine, Rome,312-315CE • Commemoratehis victory • 3 arches • More decorative • Originality ○ Only part that Constantine had carved is the lower frieze • Everything else on this monumentwas taken from other monuments ○ Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius  All great emperors ○ Propagandistic stunt? ○ Recarves a couple to match his likeness Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo; Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum • Still have that regressiveart style in the frieze ○ Comparativelyto the grace of the rest of them ○ Communicatesthe message quickly  "Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum" Terms: *** This list does not include individual emperors’ names. You will be responsible for those. voussoir Keystone Centering Barrel vault Groin vault Podium Tuscan order Vitruvius cista Republic Senate Patricians Plebians Verism Aqueduct Pozzolana Engaged column Veneer Opus reticulatum Opus reticulatum Octavian Augustus Pontifex maxiumus Pax Romana Julio-Claudians insulae Forum Atrium Peristyle Tablinum Intuitive perspective Nero Vespasian Flavians Titus Domitian Nerva Triumphal Arch Apollodorus of Damascus Dacians Basilica Apse Clerestory Coffers Oculus Rotunda Severans Soldier Emperors Tetrarchy Diocletian Maximian Constantine Constantius Chlorus Helena Battle of the Milvian Bridge Edict of Milan Licinius Maxentius Symmachorum Symmachus/ Nichomachus Ch 7 (Jewish and Christian) Review Monday, November 9, 208:23 AM Chapter 7: Jewish and Early Christian Art Early Jewish and Early Christian Art, Third Century Wall with the torah Niche, Synagogue, Dura-Europos, Syria, 244-45 (7-3) Good rdepherd, Orants,and Story of Jonah, Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Late 3 -early 4th century (7-7) Imperial Christian Art, 313-526 Saint Peter’s, Rome, c. 320-27 (7-9, 7-13) Sarcophagus of JuniusBassus, c. 359 (7-17) Part I. In a process described as syncretism, Early Christians gave new meaning to familiar pagan and Jewish images. How would the following works be interpreted depending on the religion of the audience? The Harvesting of Grapes (7-12) Harvesting of Grapes, Santa Costanza, Rome,c. 350 • Mosaics became very popular Recently they were on the floor ○ Recently they were on the floor ○ Now they are moving up the walls and onto ceilings • Geometricpatterns • Syncretism ○ Images that can be interpreted differently across religions ○ Some people would think that Jesus was Apollo • The meaning of the mosaics is interpreted different ways ○ Constantia was a Christian; Constantia's husband was Pagan ○ Cherubs smashing grapes and making wine  Dionysus is the god of wine = pagan  Jesus blood of Christ wine = Christian Part II. How did the way Christ was represented change after Christianity became Imperial? Good Shepherd (7-20) The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c. 425-426 • Christ's visual appearance changes again ○ Still the good shepherd ○ More powerful and godly though Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (7-17) Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359 • Junius Bassus was a prefect of Rome • Baptized on his deathbed in 359 • Different stories portrayed ○ Daniel and the lion den ○ Sacrifice of Isaac ○ Adam and Eve ○ Christ is on the 2 center scenes  Enthroned flanked by Peter and Paul  Palm Sunday • First images we've seen of Jesus in a while ○ He is portrayed as moreof an emperor now ○ Still has a classical kind of style ○ Proportionsare still odd Part III. What meaning was conveyed in the following images and their subjects? Good Shepherd, Orants, and Story of Jonah (7-7) The Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb of SS. Peter and Marcellinus, late 3rd-early 4th century • Fresco on the ceiling • Divided into geometric patterns • Jesus is portrayed as the good shepherd ○ Gives his life for even one of his sheep  Salvation ○ Referring to scripture • Jonah and the whale ○ On a boat ○ Being spit up from the whale ○ Lying nude resting  Pagan references • Orants ○ Figures with outstretchedhands Walls and Baptismal Font, Dura-Europus (7-5) Walls and Baptismal Font, Baptistery, Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Syria, before 256 • Not well preserved • Depicting Christ's miracles The Good Shepherd with Adam and Eve after the Fall, Baptistery, Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Before 256 • Image above baptismal font • One of the earliest images in which Jesus is portrayed ○ As a shepherd ○ Not as a great king or powerful being • Adam and eve • Adam and eve ○ Created original sin ○ Baptism cleans that Part IV. What became the architectural model for new Christian churches and why? What was new in Early Christian architecture? Old St. Peter’s (7-9, 7-13) Old St. Peter’s • Constantine had it built for Christians • Constantine had it built for Christians ○ Emperors had a tradition of building basilica = • Doesn’t exist anymore ○ Survived for about 1200 years ○ Not taken down until the 1500s • Dedicated to St. Peter ○ Much like temples are dedicated to gods ○ Thought that St. Peter was buried here • Built it like a basilica ○ Didn’t want to build it like a Roman temple ○ Not religious in nature ○ Very appropriate ○ Big and open  Allow a lot of people into it • Terms ○ Center aisle = nave ○ Courtyard = atrium ○ Entrance but not quite = narthex ○ Window level = clerestory ○ Transverse hallways = transept  Important!  This wasn't in anything before  Right where St. Peter was believed to be buried □ Circulate to see where he was buried  Christian innovation Terms: Catacombs Synagogue Torah niche Syncretism Orant Loculi Cubicula Jonah and the Whale Dura-Europos House-church Basilica-plan church/longitudinal Central-plan church Vulgate Transept Tholos Ambulatory Schism Arianism Ch 8 (Byzantine) Review Monday, November 9, 20158:24 AM Chapter 8: Byzantine Art Early Byzantine Art, 527-726 Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532-37 (8-2, 8-3, 8-4) Emperor Justinian and Attendants,San Vitale, Ravenna, 547(8-8) Middle Byzantine Art, 843-1204 th David the Psalmist, Paris Psalter, second half of 10 centhry (8-27) Pantokrator,Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece, late 11 century (8-21) Late Byzantine Art, 1261-1453 Anastasis, Funerary Chapel, Church of the Monastery of Christ in Chora, Constantinople, c. 1310-21 (8-31) Part I. Several churches are discussed in this chapter. What are the basic features of their ground plan and elevation? What was their conception of space? Did any new architectural features appear? Hagia Sophia (8-2, 8-3, 8-4) Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532-537 • Dedicated to Holy Wisdom ○ Aspect of god or Christ • "architects" weren't a thing ○ They hired mathematiciansand master craftsman • Mosaic dome ○ Would have had a lot of original mosaicsof religious art ○ Turned into a mosque ○ Turned into a state monument • Unique ground plan ○ Merges both the central plan and longitudinal plan ○ Has a soaring dome but also elongated Hagia Sophia vs. The Pantheon Construction methods • No oculus • Windows are at the base of the dome ○ If they would've done that on the pantheon it would've collapsed ○ "Riding on a halo of light" • Pendentives ○ "dome on pendentives" ○ They put the dome on a square base  Shave off the edges Carries the weight down ○ Carries the weight down ○ Still can have wide open arches San Vitale (8-5) San Vitale, Ravenna, dedicated 547 • Justinian helps complete this church • St. Vitalus ○ Italian = San Vitale • Dome ○ Really popular in the Byzantine empire • More intricate and complicatedspaces • A lot of color and patterns • Ornate • Themes of offering ○ Old testamentoffering of blood ○ New testamentoffering of bread Christ Enthroned, Flanked by Angels, St. Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, San Vitale • Jesus offering crown of martyrdom • Bishop Ecclesius offering church ○ He built the church Katholikon (8-17, 8-18) MonasteryChurches at Hosios Loukas, Greece, Katholikon (left) early 11th century; Theotokos(right) late 10th century • St. Luke • Same monasterybut 2 churches DomedSpace and Apse, Katholikon, Monasteryof Hosios Loukas, Early 11th • Architecture ○ Beautiful brick and stone  Outlines in different colors  Cloisonné □ Outlining in different colors □ Used in jewelry □ Kind of like stained glass windows outlined in lead ○ Small compact central plan churches  Has a dome ○ Hagia Sophia introduced the complexity of space  Churches continue this practice ○ Everything goes up to the dome  Hierarchy of subject  Most important art goes in the center of the dome □ Usually Christ Part II. Similar to the art of the Early Christian period, Byzantine art was not stylistically unified. Consider the style and artistic sources for the following images. Despite other influences are there any qualities that make it typically Byzantine? Empress Theodora and her Attendants (8-9) Emperor Justinian and his Attendants • In between church and state Empress Theodora and her Attendants • They never set foot in this church • Offering bowl and chalice • Byzantine court known for its wealth Byzantine art • Flat • Frontal • Linear ○ Straight pleated clothes ○ No emphasis on the body • No shading • Background ○ Flat but gold • Proportions ○ All the same ○ Elongated and elegant • Simplified Christ Pantokrator (8-21) Christ Pantakrator,Dome, Church of the Dormition,Daphni, Greece • Pantakrator ○ Stern looking but hand blessing the viewer Archangel Michael (8-12) Archangel Micheal, early 6th century • Different styles coexisting at the same time ○ Late-antique/romanstyle ○ Iconic flat style • Byzantine emperorsstill think of themselvesas Roman emperors ○ Classical heritage • This ivory follows a more classic style ○ Arm uplifted ○ Roman architecture as background ○ Curly hair framing face ○ Facial features  Emotion ○ Drapery folds ○ Natural proportionsof the body ○ Spacial issues with the feet though  Wings are outside the columns  Feet cover 3 steps  Are they in the niche or not?  Are they in the niche or not? • Ivory diptych ○ Holes drilled in the side ○ 2 panels • Greek inscription on the top ○ Greek becomes the language of the Byzantine empire David Composing the Psalms (8-27) David the Psalmist,Paris Psalter, second Half of 10th century • Macedonian Renaissance ○ Dynasty of emperors ○ Rebirth or revival of classical art ○ Macedonian emperors  866-1056  1 family in power  Great supports of art and intellectual endeavors ○ Basil the first • Paris Psalter • Paris Psalter ○ Illustrates the book of psalms ○ Believed that David wrote the book of psalms ○ Style  Entire space is used  Personifications  Background  Greek look  Drapery follows the body  Animals  Antique representations Part III. Emotional appeal was a desired quality in Byzantine art. How is this reflected in the following images? Virgin of Vladimir (8-28) Virgin of Vladimir, 11th-12thcentury • Icons were popular in this period • Ideas that it protected the city • Commonsubject of icons was the Virgin and child ○ Cheeks pressed together ○ "virgin of compassion" Crucifixion (8-22) Crucifixion, Church of the Dormition,Daphni, Greece, late 11th century • Subtle adding of more emotionand meaning • Skull at the foot of Christ ○ Christ was crucified on Golgotha ○ Skull is Adam ○ Christ is the new Adam • Water and blood coming out of Christ's side ○ Blood = wine ○ Water = baptism ○ Salvation PART IV. Describe the features of an icon (6-14) and the event of iconoclasm in the Byzantine period. • Icon "image" in Greek ○ "image" in Greek ○ Stylistic ○ Usually painted on panels ○ Mosaic is common ○ Usually portrayed holy figures  Jesus  Mary  Saints  People would pray to these ○ Direct focus on figures  No background ○ Elongated figures ○ Frontal staring  Wide eyes ○ Questionable use of images  Miraculous powers  Protection  Praying to them • Then Leo III issues a ban on images ○ Forbidden to be produced ○ All of them are destroyed ○ About a handful survive ○ Iconoclasm  "image-breaking" or "image-destroying" ○ Reasoning being that the use of images goes against the second commandment ○ Iconophiles  "lover of images"  Image supporters  Not worshiping the image itself, worshiping the person who it is of □ Veneration of praise  Helps explain to the illiterate ○ Leo III was trying to just piss people off  Turning attention away from something else  Maybe he didn’t even have a problem with icons  The empire had shrunk drastically during his reign  May have been influenced by Islamic practices □ They don’t worship icons  Monasterieshad power □ Monasterieshad icons Terms: Justinian Theodora Procopius of Caeserea Pendentive Squinch Naos Galleries Iconostasis Ravenna Ecclesius Ecclesius Saint Vitalis Reverse perspective Consul Iconoclasm Emperor Leo III John of Damascus Virgin of Compassion Macedonian dynasty Psalter Anastasis


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