Chapter 15-17 Test Review (Final)
Chapter 15-17 Test Review (Final) ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Ch 15 (Early Medieval) Review Tuesday, December 15, 2015 10:46 PM Chapter 15: Early Medieval Art in Europe Early Medieval Art (before 1000) th Hinged Clasp, Sutton Hoo Burial Ship, first half of 7 century (16-4) Man, Book of Durrow, second half of 7 century (16-5) Gripping Beasts, Oseberg Ship, c. 815-20 (16-12) Equestrian Portrait of Charles the Bald, 9 century (16-15) Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 (16-16) Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels, early 9 century (16-19) Saint Matthew, Ebbo Gospels, second quarter of 9 century (16-20) Church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 (16-23) Doors of Bishop Bernward, Abbey Church of Saint Michael, Hildesheim, Germany 1015 (16-25) Christ washing the feet of his disciples, Aachen Gospels, c. 1000 (16-27) Part I. For the following example, please describe the style, identify the techniques used, and provide interpretations for the meaning of some of the motifs if possible. Please also consider how it reflected the time period in which it was created. Hinged Clasp (15-4) Hinged Clasp, Sutton Hoo Burial Ship, Suffolk, England, First half of seventh century • Treasures found in the burial mound • King Raedwald ○ Body is decomposedand disintegrated but that’s who archeologists think it is ○ Pagan king convertedto Christianity • There's a story in Beowulf that a king was put in a ship with treasures after he died ○ Could've been sent off to sea, burned, or buried • Shoulder clasp ○ Used to hold large amounts of fabric stable at the shoulder • Skilled metal workers ○ Cloisonné Sheets of gold filled in with paste and enamel Almost like making walls ○ Millefiore Checkerboard effect • Subject ○ Abstracted boar Strength Bravery Part II. In the Carolingian and Ottonian periods there was a return to monumental architecture. In the following examples, please identify what influenced the works and what new features were added. Palace Chapel of Charlemagne (15-16) Palace Chapel of Charlemagne (15-16) Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 • Built a palace with a chapel attached ○ Could have mass said to him privately • Buried there too ○ Mausoleum • Added westworkor pronounced entrance ○ Entrance compound ○ Can have multiple stories ○ Usually towers on either side that provide access ○ Innovation of Carolingian architecture ○ Charlemagne could be seen from the window Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 • Has a center capped with a dome • Surrounded by a gallery • Tribune where Charlemagne would have sat Inspired by San Vitale • Wanted to create a connection between himself and Christian rulers (Justinian) • Connected with the Roman empire in general • Adaptation not an exact copy • Heavier and solid columns Church of Saint Cyriakus (15-23) Ottonian Empire • Received name from emperors – Otto • New Saxon dynasty in Germany/Austria • After the family of Charlemagne’s grandson, Louis the German, had died out ○ Susceptible to Viking raids • Gained control of Northern Italy • Holy Roman Empire – Germany and Italy under German ruler Church of St. Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 St. Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 • intenior Ottonian vs. Early Christian Architecture • Deviationfrom model ○ Santa Sabina and St. Peters • Longitudinal plan • No consistent column hall ○ Columns ○ Column, block, column, block ○ Breaks up space when you alternate Alternating support system • Cyriakus has a 3 story plan ○ Arcade, gallery, clerestory Part III. There was a variety of styles that co-existed in Carolingian painting. For each of the following describe the stylistic characteristics. Matthew, Coronation Gospels (15-19) Matthew, Ebbo Gospels (15-20) St. Matthewthe Evangelist, CoronationGospels, Early 9th century • Author portrait/evangelistportrait • More realistic than what we've seen in a while ○ Lookslike a roman Cropped hair Toga ○ Forges a connection with the Roman past • Purple parts ○ Paint has flaked off ○ Pages were dyed purple Possible that this was made for Charlemagne St. Matthew,Ebbo Gospels, Second quarter of 9th century • Reims ○ One of the cities that may have given rise to an alternative style of book production ○ Ebbo • Same model--differentinterpretation Part IV. Different styles existed in Ottonian manuscript illumination. What was one of the primary influences on the following work? Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples (15-27) Christ Washing feet of Disciples, Aachen Gospels of Otto III, c. 1000 • Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced • Style ○ Tall slender figures ○ Strongly outlined forms ○ Heavy drapery ○ Byzantine Otto II married a Byzantine princess named Theophanu Still considered a court of history, art, and etiquette Otto III was proud of his Byzantine heritage ○ Dialogue through strong gestures ○ • Domeof byzantine church • Similarity of style Terms: Barbarians Ostrogoths Visigoths Franks Burgundians Merovingians Merovech Animal style Beowulf Norse Hiberno-Saxon Sutton Hoo Cloisonne’ Millefiore Scriptiorium Vellum Parchment Eadfridth Ethelwald Charlemagne Carolingians Charles the Bald Renewal of the Roman Empire Cloister Benedictine Benedictine Benedict of Nursia Ebbo of Reims Viking Gripping beasts Bishop Bernward Otto I, II & III Ch 16 (Romanesque) Review Tuesday, December 15, 20110:47 PM Chapter 17: Romanesque Art Romanesque Art, c.1050-1200 Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, 1078-1122 (17-4, 17-5) Notre-Dame, Fontenay, Burgundy, France, 1139-47 (17-9) San Clemente, Rome, 1128 (17-11, 17-12) Tower of Babel, Saint-Savin-Sur-Gartempe, Poitou, France, c. 1095-1115 (17-15) Durham Cathedral, England, 1087-1133 (17-18) Wiligelmus, Creation and Fall, Modena Cathedral, Italy, c. 1099 (17-20) Gislebertus, Last Judgment, Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1120-30 (p. 483) Bayeux Tapestry, c. 1066-82 (17-29) Messengers Signal the Appearance of a Comet St. Matthew, Codex Colbertinus, c. 1100 (17-33) Part I. The following represent two distinct types of Romanesque architecture that developed in this period. Please identify these types and the identifying characteristics of each. Saint James, Santiago de Compostela (16-4, 16-5) Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela,Galicia, Spain, 1078-1122 Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela,Galicia, Spain, 1078-1122 Characteristics of Pilgrimage Architecture Characteristics of Pilgrimage Architecture • Aisled transepts • Radiating chapels • Ambulatory Vaulting in Santiago de Compostela • Ribbed barrel vaults • Groin vaults • Quadrant vaults Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Fontenay (16-9) Notre-Dame,Fontenay, Burgundy, France, 1139-47 • Influenced by a different church • Not a pilgrimage church • Pointed arches ○ Commonin Burgundy • Lots of windows Lets a lot of light in near the alter ○ Lets a lot of light in near the alter • Beautiful stonework ○ Pink stone • Has no sculpture Features of Cistercian Architecture • Simplicity and austerity ○ So that it's not distracting ○ Did not fund any sculpture Expensive and distracting • Emphasis on fine stonework • Lacked carved and painted decoration • Pointed, ribbed barrel vaults • Pointed arches in nave arcade • Large windows in end wall Part II. What characteristics of each of the following would be defined as regional or was typical of that particular region? San Clemente (16-11) San Clemente,Rome, 1128 • Not cistercien ○ Very decorative Interior of Santa Sabina, Rome • Still dependent on roman and early Christian churches • Similar architecture and decoration • Would build similar buildings in similar places • Ceiling of san vitale and oratoryof something something • Lots of influence in styles • Lots of influence in styles Saint-Savin-Sur-Gartempe (16-14, 16-15) Tower of Babel, Saint-Savin-Sur-Gartempe, Poitou,France, c.1095-1115 • Hall Church ○ The sides are as high as the nave • Tower of babel ○ Tower of babylon ○ Tried to build a tower tall enough to reach the gods • Style ○ Garments kind of kick out a the end Dovetail Part III. What are some of the vaulting systems arrived at in the Romanesque period? Saint James (16-4, 16-5) Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela,Galicia, Spain, 1078-1122 Durham Cathedral (16-18) Durham Cathedral (16-18) Part IV. Romanesque sculpture displays different stylistic tendencies. What are the most prominent stylistic characteristics of the following? Wiligelmus, Creation and Fall (16-20) Wiligelmus, Creation and Fall, Modena Cathedral, Italy, c. 1099 • Adam and Eve • Large scale monumentalsculpture • Art was meant to portray visual representations ○ For people who can't read ○ They could understand images and stories • Commonimages of Christ ○ Does not appear as the good shepherd or an infant ○ Portrayedas a figure of authority • Vices and Virtues come about in this time period • Italy kind of seperates itself from European architecture ○ Roman influence stays strong Gislebertus, Last Judgment (p. 483) Gislebertus, Last Judgment, Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1120-30 • The last judgement • Warning against hell • Hierarchy of scale • Wondering if the person who signed it is the artist or the patron Part V. What messages did Romanesque sculptural programs communicate to the public? Left wall of Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac (16-23) Reliefs on left wall, Priory of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c. 1115 • Parable of the leper lazarus ○ He goes to a rich man's house ○ The man treats his dog better than Lazarus ○ Lazarus dies The rich man goes to hell ○ The rich man goes to hell Gislebertus, Last Judgment (p. 483) Gislebertus, Last Judgment, Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1120-30 • The last judgement • Warning against hell • Hierarchy of scale • Wondering if the person who signed it is the artist or the patron Terms: William the Conqueror Normans Pilgrimage Crusades relics reliquaries First Romanesque Bernard of Clairvaux Romanesque First Romanesque “Pilgrimage Plan” Santiago de Compostela Compound pier Transverse arch strip buttress Aymerly Picaud Cistercians Cluny King Alfonso VI Hall church Wiligelmus Archivolts Tympanum Trumeau Trumeau Book of Revelation Gislebertus Historiated capital mute façade speaking façade avarice luxuria Dives Linda Seidel Throne of Wisdom Bishop Odo Ch 17 (Gothic) Review Tuesday, December 15, 201510:49 PM Chatper 18: Gothic Art Gothic Art c. 1140-1500 Plan and Ambulatory and Apse Chapels, Saint-Denis, France, 1140-44 (18-2) Chartres Cathedral, France Prophets and Ancestors of Christ (18-6) Plan and Nave (18-9) Reims Cathedral, France, begun 1211 Facade, c. 1225 (18-13) Annunciation and Visitation (18-14) Upper Chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 1243-48 (18-18, 18-19) Queen Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX, Moralized Bible, 1226-1234 (18-21) Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220-58 (18-24, 18-25, 18-26) Church of Saint Elizabeth, Marburg, Germany, 1235-83 (18-28, 18-29) St. Maurice, Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany, c. 1240-1250 (18-32) Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, Baptistery, Pisa, Italy, 1260 (18-34) Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Shepherds (18-35) Coppo di Marcovaldo, Crucifix, c. 1250-1270 (18-37) Part I: Architecture What are the features of the new architectural aesthetic achieved in Saint-Denis (17-2)? Saint-Denis ○ Birthplace of Gothic style ○ Abbot Suger commissionedrebuilding ○ Significance of church • Intellectual time in Paris • The cities would have to contribute to these buildings ○ Became a source of civic pride for that city ○ Cities began to competewith each other • Opus dernudum ○ "new style" of architecture ○ Movesto other countries and they call it the "French style" Opus francigenum • Royal foothold ○ Held the crown Plan of the Choir, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144 Ambulatory and Apse Chapels, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144 • Saint Denis was important to France • Has someof the features that we encountered in Romanesque art ○ Pointed arches ○ Ribbed groin vaults Saint-Denis Romanesque PilgrimageChurch, Saint-Sernin Same ground plan as St. James Achieved a sense of open space without walls Pilgramage architecture -radiating chapel and ambulatory Stained glass windows Stained glass windows -pseudo dionysius (thought he was reading the writings of saint denis but he was reading this) -written as "divine light" Choir of Saint-Denis • Walls of stained glass replace masonry • New aesthetic based on open spaces • Combined ribbed groin vaults, pointed arches, wall buttresses, and window openings • Masterful use of vaulting Rib Vaulting • The ribs becomethe primary transfers of weight • The ribs becomethe primary transfers of weight • Gothic rib vault construction ○ Center stone ○ Ribs rest on piers ○ Point arches ○ Area in between ribs was brickwork called webbing Not very heavy or anything ○ One rib vault covers one bay The Flight into Egypt, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, c. 1140-1144 • Stained glass window What are the main characteristics of Gothic churches in terms of vaulting, the layout, and the nave elevation (17-9)? What are some of the unique or outstanding features of Reims’ (17-13) facade? West Façade, Cathedral of Notre-Dame,Reims, c. 1225 • Follows the ground plan of Chartres • Significant church for royalty ○ New kings were crowned here ○ Coronation church • Pinnacle of façade design in the gothic era ○ Getting rid of walls and emphasizing verticality ○ Most stained glass on a façade ○ Sculpture has been placed in the doorway ○ Replaced somesculpture with stained glass ○ Compartmentsfeel stretched to be narrow and elongated ○ Connectorswhere lines continue upwards ○ Stone work called bar tracery Refined stone work • Importance of Mary Annunciation and Visitation, Central Portal, Reims Cathedral • There are a lot of figures along the Reims Cathedral • Annunciation ○ Angel Gabriel and Mary • Visitation ○ Mary and her cousin Elizabeth • Style of figures ○ Early gothic and high gothic ○ Becoming more naturalistic rather than elongated ○ Break away from the architecture Don’t look like columns anymore Not as constricted to the lines ○ Call the sculptor the classical master Possibly 3 different artists working on these sculptures Difference between the annunciation and the visitation □ Drapery folds and stances □ Left side becomesmore popular What are the differences between French (17-9) and English High Gothic churches (17-25, 17-26) in terms of façade design, ground plan, Gothic churches (17-25, 17-26) in terms of façade design, ground plan, and nave elevation? Why is Sainte-Chapelle (17-18, 17-19) an extraordinary manifestation of the Gothic style? Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 1239-1248;Upper Chapel, Sainte-Chapelle • Private chapel of Louis the IX ○ Associated with a more courtly style of gothic architecture ○ Built to hold the relics he had acquired from his relative that had ruled Constantinople ○ Relics from Christ's passion Crown of thorns Sponge Part of the lance ○ Small compared to the scale of some gothic churches but still rather large Part II: Sculpture What subjects were depicted on the following and why? Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral (17-5, 17-6) What characterizes the style of Gothic sculpture in France and in Germany? Royal Portal (17-5, 17-6) St. Maurice (17-32) Ekkehard and Uta (17-33) The sculptures of the right side of the central portal at Reims (17-14) The sculptures of the right side of the central portal at Reims (17-14) reflect the style of three different workshops. What are the stylistic qualities and sources for each? Terms: Abbot Suger Saint-Denis Pseudo Dionysius Divine Illumination Ile-de-France Gothic St. Thomas Aquinas Scholasticism Flying buttresses triforium cluster medallion windows fleur-de-lis Tunic of the Virgin Louis IX Blanche of Castile hall church Rib vaulting Mendicant Franciscan Hall church Frederick II polychromy maniera greca
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