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Introduction to Human Development
Melissa Landers-Potts
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thea Tian on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Melissa Landers-Potts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Development in Family and Consumer Sciences at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
CLAS 1020 TEST 2 CLAS 1020 TEST 2.............................................................................................................1 1.Perseus..............................................................................................................................4 2.Important words................................................................................................................6 3.English Expressions..........................................................................................................6 4.Hercules............................................................................................................................8 5.Aeneas.............................................................................................................................20 6.Underworld.....................................................................................................................21 1 1. Perseus 1.1. Perseus--not apotheosis at last 2 1.1.1.Dictys--kind 1.1.2.King Polydectes--evil 1.1.3.Danaë Acrisius 1.1.4.Zeus 1.1.5.Sea monster Cetus sent by Poseidon--constellation Cetus Andromeda 3 Cassiopeia King Cephus Phieus 2. Important words 2.1. katabasis= “going-down” to Underworld 2.2. apotheosis=deification 2.3. Apollodorus—library 3. English Expressions 3.1. gorgon—ugly or terrifying woman; shrew 3.2. atlas—book of maps 3.3. atlantic ocean—named for Atlas 3.4. chimaera—ridiculous imaginary monster; nightmare phantom; delusion 3.5. chimerical—highly improbable, wildly fantastic 3.6. herculean—possessing or requiring superhuman strength 3.7. ‘hydra-headed’ problem—a persistent or multifaceted problem 3.8. “clean Augean stables”—accomplish a difficult task, especially cleaning up politic corruption; Augean Stable—a filthy place 3.9. an amazon—【a-mazon=“without breast”【1 tall, strong woman; 2 river in South America 4 3.10. shirt of Nessus——a gift containing a booby-trap 3.11. stygian---very dark 3.12. lethean= relating to death or forgetfulness; lethargic=affected by lethargy; sluggish and apathetic; lethal=sufficient to cause death. harmful or destructive. 3.13. rhadamanthine---showing stern and inflexible judgment. 3.14. hypnosis=the induction of a state of consciousness in which a person apparently loses the power of voluntary action and is highly responsive to suggestion or direction. 3.15. somnambulist=sleepwalking; insomnia=habitual sleeplessness; inability to sleep. 3.16. euthanasia=the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. 3.17. morphine=an analgesic and narcotic drug obtained from opium and used medicinally to relieve pain. 3.18. Elysium=Elysium or the Elysian Fields 【place of blissful happiness【 is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults. 3.19. Sisyphean labor/task= endless and ineffective work 3.20. tantalize=tease, hold something desirable out of reach 3.21. Orphean=enchantingly melodious; orphic=mystic, occult 5 3.22. purgatory=having the quality of cleansing or purifying./ purgation=the purification or cleansing of someone or something. 3.23. sibylline=prophetic, oracular 3.24. Procrustean; Bed of Procrustes 3.25. labyrinthine 3.26. clue(<clew) 3.27. adonis 3.28. zodiac—to live 4. Hercules 4.1. Hercules---- Heracles (Greek name); Alcides (French and Italian name) 6 7 4.1.1."Herculean" superhuman strength Wifes Megara---3 sons Deianeira Hebe 4.1.2.two sides of his nature not well integrated human and divine man and beast rational and irrational 4.1.3.Hera, the nemesis of Hercules 4.1.4.Birth of Hercules Delayed by llithyia=eilethyia Hera/Juno nursing Hercules Baby Hercules strangles a snake in his cradle 4.1.5.Growing up Hercules smacks his music teacher Linus up side the head ----free of charge→Amphitrion sent him out to herds Hercules' reward for killing a lion that had been attacking the herds of Thespius Hercules marries Megara and has three sons He kills them all in a fit of insanity sent by Hera(goddess of marriage) 8 He flings his wife Megara into the fire ...and two children of Iphicles---his brother He must atone for this crime by submitting to be the slave of his cousin Eurystheus(King of Tyrins) for 12 years and complete whatever tasks are assigned---ten labors Divine help---Arming sword from Hermes bow and arrows from Apollo chest-armor of gold from Hephaestus peplos from Athena Labors of Hercules---once done→immortal【FIRST SIX LABORS Nemean Lion Its hide is impervious to human weapons Finally he strangles the lion, and skins it with one of its claws Eurystheus hides in a bronze pot Constellation: Leo Hercules with lion skin cloak, claw, and club Hydra of Lerna 9 heads, 1 immortal; lives in a swamp near Learna 9 Each time Hercules clubbed off one head, two grew in its place Hercules's nephew Iolaus applies a torch Before leaving, Hercules dips his arrows in the Hydra's venom Hercules buries the immortal head under a stone crab---"cancer" constellation----TROPIC OF CANCER Hydra constellation---Largest constellation in the sky Ceryneian[Cerynitian] Hind possessed golden horns Erymanthian Boar parergon "side labor" while hunting the Erymanthian Boar, he encounters some Centaurs, who he defeats in a fight Chiron--a kind Centaur who is accidently hit by Hercules with an arrow dipped in the venom of Hydra Cleaning the Augean Stables Hercules accomplishes this task by diverting two nearby rivers-- Alpheus and Peneus to sluice out the stable river god Alpheus & Arethusa Arethusa--a maiden devoted to Artemis 10 While bathing, she attracts the river god Apheus who falls in love with her She flees and he pursues her Arethusa prays to Artemis, who turns her into a water spring She plunges into a channel Artemis cuts into the earth leading from Greece under the Lonian sea floor to Syracuse on Sicily Alpheus also plunges into the channel behind her Arethusa become the spring 'Arethusa' near the harbor of Syracuse Olympic Game Hercules later returns and wages war against Augeas who refused to reward him as promised In commemoration of his victory, Hercules establishes the Olympic Games Stymphalian Birds Athena gives Hercules bronze noise-makers from Hephaestus While the birds flew up in fear, he shots them down with arrows Labors of Hercules---LATTER SIX LABORS 【7【Cretan Bull 11 Version One: It was the bull that carried Europe for Zeus Version Two: It was the bull sent by Poseidon out of the sea Minos, the Kind of Crete, asked Hercules for help Eurystheus released the bull, which wandered to Marathon 【8【Mares of Diomedes[In Thrace] Parergon---side labor Admetus, king of Pherae in Thessaly. Admetus neglected to sacrifice to Artemis, Apollo's sister. Apollo made the Fates drunk, and the Fates agreed to reprieve Admetus if he could find someone to die in his place His wife Alcestis offered to substitute her own death for his. Thanatos, the god of death, takes Alcestis to the Underworld Hercules saves Alcestis from 'Death' Orcus Hercules fed the mares the flesh of their master. Hercules took the mares back and gave to Eurystheus who released them later. 【9【Girdle of Hippolyta---belt of Ares 12 Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, race of female worriers in Pontus worshiped Artemis and Ares---hunting and warfare newborn boys exposed or hobbled girls deprived of right breast? No surviving work of ancient art can prove it POOR QUEEN! Hera disguised herself as an Amazon woman went through the crowd saying that the new arrivals were kidnapping the queen. Women were armed then. Hercules killed the queen even she promised before. Parergon---side labor King Laomedon of Troy---children: Priam and Hesione Contracted with Poseidon and Apollo to help him build the walls of Troy, but he defaulted They sent sea monster and plague Laomedon forced to sacrifice his daughter Hesione Hercules rescued Hesione at Troy Laomedon refused to give Hercules the horses promised in return for his help Hercules later returned with an army and sacks on Troy Hercules leaded the sack of Troy 【10【Cattle of Geryon Triple-bodied son of Chrysaor(Son of Medusa) 13 Eurytion(cowherd) Orhos, two-headed dog, offspring of Echnida and Typhaon Keeps a herd of red/ crimson cattle on an island off the coast of Spain Pillars(steles) of Hercules Riding in golden cup of Helios Killed them all Parergon/Parerga---side labor King Evander"Good man" As Hercules drives the cattle of Geryon back to Greece, he passes through Italy where he meets King Evander of Pallanteum(future site of Rome) Monster Cacus"Evil", son of Vulcan, steals Hercules' cattle Hercules defeats Cacus 【11【Hesperides' apples Home of Atlas and his daughters, the Hesperides, on the western edge of the world Hesperides--3 daughters of Atlas who live in NW Africa in a grove with a golden apple tree, guarded by an immortal snake named Ladon(sibling of Graiai and Gorgans) Parerga---side labor 14 Nereus, sea god--father of 50 Nereides Hercules wrestles with Nereus---metamorph Antaeus, giant in Libya, son of Ge Busiris, king of Egypt oracle: sacrifice a male stranger annually on an altar of Zeus Hercules sacrifices Busiris Riding in the golden cup of Helios Prometheus: Hercules kills the eagle Hercules frees Prometheus by shooting the eagle Prometheus suggested to let Atlas steal apples Hercules tricked Atlas after Atlas helped him to steal the apples Athena eventually returns the apples 【12【Cerberus Hercules goes to Eleusis The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. They are the "most famous of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece". Hermes 'psychopompus' leads the way Hercules saves Theseus, and does not have chance to save Pairithous 15 Hercules, protected by lion-skin cape, wrestles with Cerberus without weapons 4.1.8.Back home in Tiryns---At Delphi In another fit of insanity, Hercules kills Iphitus, a guest Again goes to Delphi to be purified Is scorned by the Pythia Steals her secret tripod Hercules and Apollo fights over the tripod Zeus separates them with a thunderbolt Hercules must go into slavery again to atone for his crime He is bought in a slave market by Omphale, Queen of Lydia 4.1.9.Hercules and Omphale Hercules carries the Cercopes twins Cercopes twins call him "Ole Black Bottom" Jupiter transforms the Cercopes twins into monkeys Hercules joins Jason and the Argonauts' voyage to Colchis to fetch the Golden Fleece 4.1.10. Hercules returns and sacks Troy 4.1.11. Deianeira She was engaged to marry the river god Achelous So Hercules must fight this god, who like all water deities is able to change shape 16 Achelous changes into a bull Hercules breaks off a horn of Achelous The centaur Nessus, a ferry man, tries to kidnap Deianeira Hercules shoots Nessus with an arrow dipped in the Hydra's venom Shirt of Nessus soaked with his blood now tainted with the Hydra's venom He tells Deianeira it will act as an aphrodisiac, while in fact it is poisonous 4.1.12. Death of Hercules When Deianeira finds out the love affair between his husband and his concubine Iole, she sends Hercules the Shirt of Nessus He puts it on and it kills him Hercules on his pyre: He gives his bow&arrows to Philoctetes(son of Poeas) Philoctetes lights Hercules' pyre His mortal half burns away, but his divine half is escorted to Olympus by Athena 4.1.13. Apotheosis of Hercules Athena presents Hercules to Zeus on Olympus Marriage of Hercules to Hebe, daughter of Hera 17 Constellation Hercules 5. Aeneas 5.1. Vergil【 Aeneid--epic poem describing life of Trojan hero Aeneas 5.1.1.Venus&Anchises→Aeneas 5.1.2.Aeneas carries his old father Anchises from burning Troy 5.1.3.Cumae---oldest Greek settlement in Italy---an entrance to the underworld The Sibyl---Cumae is the home of the priestess of Apollo Aeneas had earlier been instructed to consult her and follow her into the underworld to speak to his dead father Anchises 5.1.4.Aeneas will first have to find the Golden Bough, a branch sacred to Proserpina find and bury the corpse of his comrade Misenus, a trumpeter 5.1.5.Aeneas and Achises view parade of great future Romans waiting to drink from the river Lethe and then be reborn 5.1.6.Aeneas returns to upper world Twin gates of sleep Horn【 an easy exit for true shades ✔️Ivory【exit for false dreams 18 6. Underworld 6.1. Underworld=Tartarus, Erebus("darkness"), Realm of Hades(Pluto/Dis), Inferno('below') --place of fire or intense heat 6.1.1.Abduction of Persephone(Kore) daughter of Demeter Hades (Pluto 'wealthy') with cornucopia Venus asks Cupid to shoot the love arrow at Hades Demeter insists that Zeus get Hades to release Persephone But because Persephone had eaten some pomegranate, she had to return to Hades several months every year Eleusinian Mysteries--nine day Panhellenic festival in early autumn celebrating the cycle of life, death, and rebirth 6.1.2.River Alpheus pursues Arethusa Arethusa prays to Artemis, who turns her into a water spring She plunges into a channel Artemis cuts into the earth leading from Greece under the lonian sea floor to Syracuse on Sicily. Alpheus also plunges into the channel behind her. While underground, Arethusa sees Persephone being held captive by Hades, and she tells Demeter 6.1.3.Chthonic('underground') geography 19 Erebus---forecourt River Acheron--boundary Asphodel Meadows--indifferent Tartarus---bad Elysium---good 6.1.4. 6.1.5.Five Rivers Styx--stygian Acheron---boundary Asphodel Meadows--indifferent Cocytus---"lament" Phlegethon---"fire" Lethe---"oblivion" Judges Minos---King of Crete Rhadamanthus, famous as a law giver. Tutor of Hercules Aeacus, son of Zeus 6.1.7.characters Hermes---psychopompus"Leader of souls" Cerberus---three headed watch dog Charon---Ferryman across river Acheron 20 Furies=Erinyes Alecto Megaera Tisiphone Thanatos(=Orcus)--- Death Hypnos(=Somnus)---- Sleep Morpheus--- Dream notrious sinners---punished in Tartarus Sisphus---rolls a stone Grandfather of Bellerophon Mistreated and killed various guests Revealed one of the secret seductions of Zeus Ixion----spins on a fiery wheel Ixion & Nephele(cloud phantom of Hera) Their grandchildren are the centaurs Tantalus---hunger and thirst Tityos---vultures eats his liver son of Gaia Tries to rape Leto--mother of Apollo and Artemis Apollo slays Tityos Danaids or Belidae---carry water in seives 21 6.1.9.Orpheus & Eurydice(dryad: forest nymph) Apollo + Calliope(muse)→Linus【killed by Hercules【 + Orpheus Orpheus and his Lyre Orpheus charming the beasts Wedding of Orpheus and Eurydice Hymen: god of the wedding feast, son of Aphrodite and Dionysus, wedding torch, saffron-colored clothes Roman weddings: torch-lit procession escorting bride from her father's house to her new husband's house Eurydice stung by a serpent Orpheus plays for Hades and Persephone Orpheus leads Eurydice out of the underworld Orpheus breaks the Taboo---he looks back Loss of Eurydice The grief of Orpheus The Death of Orpheus Orpheus attacked by Ciconian women Nymphs finding the head of Orpheus Orpheus and Eurydice reunited in death Orphism 22 A mysterious cult focused on Orpheus, son of Apollo(Prophecy) who had see the underworld Underworld seen as a place of purgation Reincarnation=metempsychosis 'change+soul' Myth of Er a soldier named Er who is killed in the battle comes back to life after 12 days, and tells about life after death. Example of Ardiacus. Heavenly bodies set in Crystalline Spheres By Plato's day. it was known that the earth is a globe, and size accurately known. Dream of Scipio Cicero 1st century BC Roman statesman, orator, amateur philosopher; his De re publica, inspired by Plato's Republic Dream of the Conversation between Scipio the Elder, 3rd Century Roman general who defeated Hannibal in Second Punic War, and Scipio the Younger, his grandson Heavenly bodies set in Crystalline Spheres Geocentric 'Ptolemaic model' of the world Music of the Spheres As the Crystalline Spheres rotate, each produces a different musical pitch, resulting in a heavenly harmony 23 sphere containing the moon produces the lowest pitch sphere containing the stars produces the highest pitch octave--scale of 8 notes=basis of western music 3 Fates(Moirai/Parcae)---Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos They set the crystal spheres spinning to produce a celestial harmony They also determine the length of each person's life by spinning a thread of a certain length 24


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