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by: Alexis Fulton


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Cultural Anthropology > ANT 160 > ANT 160 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
Alexis Fulton

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- study guide
Cultural Diversity in the Modern World
Renee Bonzani
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in Cultural Anthropology at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Mid­Term Exam Study Guide Spring 2016 Franz Boas, founder of the first department of Anthropology in the USA, is perhaps best  known for which concept?  - Cultural relativism French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, noted that an individuals’ access to resources,  status, and power was dependent on which of two different types of societies he/she lived in. What did he call these; what might we call them; and what are the basic differences? ­ Mechanical solidarity o Societies organized in clans ­ Organic solidarity o Product of the development of the division of labor o Collective or common conscience: totality beliefs and sentiments common to the average citizen which forms a determinate system having a life of its own. o Each organ has to work together to maintain the organism Diagram, using the concept of alleles, the offspring of a parental generation with one  parent heterozygote for a trait (Tt) and the other homozygote recessive for a trait (tt). T is  dominant for red color and t is recessive for white color.   T          t t          Tt          tt  t    Tt tt What is natural selection?  ­ The survival of the fittest. Acts on traits that benefit the adaptation of the species to their environment What are the basic postulates (three) of evolution by means of natural selection? ­ The ability of a population to expand is infinite, while the resources available to sustain the population are finite o Causes a struggle for existence among individuals as they compete for resources ­ Organisms vary in their physical qualities o Allow some members to survive and reproduce more successfully than others in the same environment 1 ­ These variations are inherited by offspring from their parents o Traits that confer advantage in survival and reproduction are retained in the population & traits that are disadvantageous disappear. Why might skin color be different in different populations around the world? ­ Melanocytes produce melanin pigment. o The more pigment in the skin, the darker the skin. ­ Explanations of why: o Protection from skin cancer o Dark skin protects the body’s folate store from destruction o UV initiates the formation of vitamin D. Deficiency in this vitamin can result in poor ossification of both bone and skeletal deformation or rickets Why might body size be different in different populations of the world? ­ In colder climates it is better to be large to limit the amount of heat lost through the body. ­ In warmer climates it is better to be smaller. ­ When body volume increases, the ratio of surface to volume diminishes and heat generated by the body is lost more slowly What are some of the changes to human societies that began to occur with the origins of  food production and agriculture? ­ Pottery changed the way humans processed their food for consumption and it improved health conditions of such foods by removing some of the toxins. What problems are associated to the origins of food production and agriculture? ­ Increased population growth ­ Increased the spread of transmissible diseases ­ Decreased the quality of food ­ Warfare ­ Economic inequality between groups and hereditary social inequality. Where are some of the areas of the world where the origins of food production occurred?  List some of the domesticated food plants associated with those areas. 2 ­ Americas o Tomatoes, potatoes, beans, peanuts, manioc, peppers, squash, quinoa ­ Southeast Asia o Rice, millet, taro, yam, banana, oranges, coconut, cucumbers ­ Southwest Asia, o Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, lentils, chickpea, barley ­ Africa o Millet, African rice, sorghum What are the five basic types of subsistence strategies that humans use based on plants? ­ Foraging and collection o Search for and collection of useful plant parts without intentional planting ­ Managing (plant husbandry) o The maintenance of important plants without intentional planting ­ Cultivation and horticulture o The intentional planning, tending and harvesting of plants ­ Extensive Agricultural systems o Seasonal cycle of cutting, burning, planting, and harvest ­ Intensive Agricultural systems o Focus on one or few crops within a field What are the five types of ways that humans interact with animals (exclude nomads) and  what are the two general types of pastoralists? ­ Animal husbandry ­ Hunters o Food extractors who are only interested in dead animals ­ Herd-followers o Correspond to a human population that ranges over the same area in its annual cycle as the animal population or it may apply to particular humans that are associated with particular herds of animals which is equivalent to ranching ­ Rancher 3 o Loosely owns herds of animals for exploitation of meat and other resources that are often marketed the animals may be wild, feral, or domestic but they live as wild animals except that their territory is usually restricted ­ Pastoralists o Live in north Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa o They are herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and the yak. o Pastoral nomadism proper  Characterized by an absence of agriculture as in the Sahara desert  The entire group moves with the animals throughout the year  Frequently found in the Middle East and North Africa.  Trade for crops. o Semi-nomadic pastoralism  When part of the group moves  Europe and Africa.  Produce their own crops in the home village ­ Transhumant o Agriculturalists who move their livestock between mountain and lowland pastures o Found in the Mediterranean and southern Europe, also in the Andes mountains of South America. Pastoralists are usually found in what type of environmental setting and where is  transhumance generally practiced? ­ Semi-arid to arid conditions ­ Transhumance practiced in Mediterranean and southern Europe, also in the Andes Mountains With what does language diversity appear to correlate and why might this correlation  occur?  ­ Areas with the highest diversity seem to correlate with the environments with the richest diversity of plants and animals 4 Language families arise from languages that existed in the past and that have been  reconstructed by linguists. What is the term for these languages? ­ Proto – language Please define these terms based on lectures and readings. Know which of these  terms is associated to the different groups discussed in the book “Marriage in  Culture”. Domestication ­ When humans intervene in the breeding patterns of plants or animals Hunter­gatherers  ­ any group of people that depends primarily on wild foods for subsistence Nuclear family ­ A unit consisting of a married man and women and their offspring Consanguinity ­ “same blood” Affinity ­ Relationship resulting from marriage rather than from descent from a common ancestor Bilineal descent ­ member of his mother's matrilineage and his father's patrilineage Patrilineal descent ­ follows the male line ­ Both males and females inherit a patrilineal family membership but only males can pass it on to their descendants. Matrilineal descent ­ Follows the female line ­ Both males and females inherit membership in a matrilineal family line, but only females can pass it on to their descendants. Monogamy ­ Marriage of one woman to one man at a time Polygamy 5 ­ Multiple marriages Polygyny ­ A man is allowed more than one wife Polyandry ­ Marriage that includes more than two partners Patrilocal or virilocal marriage residence patterns ­ Couple settles in the husband’s home or community Matrilocal or uxorilocal marriage residence patterns ­ Couple settles in with or near the wife’s parents. Cross cousins  ­ The child of a father’ sister or of a mother’s brother Parallel cousins ­ The children of siblings of the same sex Bridewealth or bride price ­ Form of marriage exchange involving giving cash or goods by the husband’s family to the wives. Bride service ­ Service rendered to the bride’s family by the husband as a bride- price Dowry ­ Money, property, or other things of high value given by a bride’s family to the groom. 6


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