Social Work vs. Social Welfare
• Social Welfare- quality of life experienced by an individual or the collective
o Friedlander’s Definition
▪ “Social Welfare encompasses the well-being and interest of large numbers of people including: physical, educational, emotional, mental, economic and emotional needs.”- Friedlander
• Social Work- profession that attempts to improve quality of life for individuals or a society
Value: principle or quality that is considered important to you and influences your behavior
John Tropman’s Seven American Values
• Work- an individuals attempt to control their own environment, work is usually seen as a measure of success in America and can be tied to self-concept
Don't forget about the age old question of Why can the human body be referred to as a system of compartments?
o Central-essential to your growth
o Instrumental- necessary evil w/ financial reward
• Independence- free from demands of external systems, America founded on independence, we fear interdependence, self reliance is important for American Dream
• Individualism- we value uniqueness, Myth???? individual is independently in control of their future • Mobility- persons ability to move or change locations demographically and socially Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 4 types of political parties?
Don't forget about the age old question of What their shape tells us about the bivariate distribution?
• Moralism- assigning judgment, responsibility/fault to a person or event instead of reporting objectively, stems from religion
• Status-relative position of an individual within a society
o Based on class/$, occupation, educational degree, prestige, power (stems from & and lack of fear)???? not earned
• Ascription- assigning attributes or qualities to a group w/o knowing them individually???? racism, ageism, sexism
• Social- social problems are the result of oppressive and unfavorable societal factors???? programs to solve problems are gov’t responsibility If you want to learn more check out What is the best economic activity in nordic countries?
• Individual- social problems are the result of individuals actions and choices???? should be alleviated through personal applications of psychological theory and therapeutic intervention
o Support free market economy and limited government
o Profit for individuals is motivator
o Role of gov’t should be limited to defending private property rights and maintain social order o Social needs should be met through private organizations, donations
o Regulated market and activist government
o Gov’t responsibility to address common ills
o Expand role of government in legislation and programs such as health care, civil rights, environment We also discuss several other topics like How are molecules held together?
Policy If you want to learn more check out What is another name for the protein factories of a cell?
Definition: collective course of action, set by policymakers, involves the use of sanctions, to address the needs of some group • Fundamental characteristics
o A policy is coercive or constraining for the members of the collective
o Typically refers to decisions made at the highest level of the collective
o Stated to benefit the collective
Definition: a mechanism for promoting a collectives standard
• Regulatory- building codes, zoning, licensing, copyrights
• Financial- taxes, contracts, loans, fines, grants
Types of Institutions
• Economic institutions- seek to make a profit
• Political institutions- branches of the gov’t that seek to support, regulate business as well as promote social welfare of the society
• Social institutions- entities that seek to provide what economic and/or political institutions are failing to do for the benefit of the collective
Four Documents of Freedom
• Declaration of Independence
o “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” • Articles of Confederation
o “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
• Bill of Rights
• The spoils system: He worked to replace as many government employees as possible from previous administration. When the President took office he now could bring his new party affiliates with him to his Presidential Cabinet rather than keeping those that had served previously in the past administration.
• Laborers Working Hours- shortened the work day, allowing laborers to keep their jobs with reasonable and legally protected hours rather than being threatened/fired if they were not willing to work the long hours demanded of them • Corporations inception- attacked 2nd US bank, called for general laws of incorporation, all companies could apply and be approved for establishment regardless of already establish companies???? ending monopolies of companies in towns, cities or states.
Trail of Tears
• Indian Removal Act of 1830
• Forced migration of Native Americans
• Many died as a result
Seneca Falls Convention
• 1984 in Seneca Falls, New York
• Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretta Mott
• First women’s rights convention
• Differences btwn North and South
o South wanted strong state rights, North wanted strong central gov’t
o The North wanted land parcels sold off in small portions so that many would have the opportunity to own and work their own land. The South on the other hand wanted large parcels sold to protect and maintain aristocracy and land owners who could already afford their plantations and agricultural monopolies.
o The North wanted high tariffs on foreign products so Americans would buy their finished products. And The South wanted low tariffs so they could buy their foreign ‘wants’ and that when foreigners bought their cotton there would be a tax they could collect
Missouri Compromise- measure passed by US Congress to end first a series of crises concerning the extension of slavery. Balance of one state admitted free the next slave. – Maine came in a free state in order for Missouri to be admitted as a slave state.
Kansas-Nebraska Act- established the territories of Kansa and Nebraska
Freedmans Bureau- U.S. federal gov’t agency that aided distressed freedmen during the reconstruction of the South post Civil War
• Provided transportation home for refugees and aided in reuniting families.
• Distributed rations and medical supplies (first 3 years distributed 21million rations – 6 million of which were to white)
• Established 46 hospitals and orphanages
• Built 4329 schools – from elementary to Higher Education (Howard and Fisk Universities)
• Established Courts in South/Legal Assistance to Freed Slaves
The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, known collectively as the Civil War Amendments, designed to ensure equality for recently emancipated slaves.
The 13th Amendment banned slavery and all involuntary servitude, except in the case of punishment for a crime. The 14th Amendment defined a citizen as any person born in or naturalized in the U.S., overturning the Dred Scott V. Sandford (1857) Supreme Court ruling stating that Black people were not eligible for citizenship. The 15th Amendment prohibited governments from denying U.S. citizens the right to vote based on race, color, or past servitude.
• American activist who advocated for the mentally ill
Josephine Shaw Lowell
• Progressive reformer in the 19th century
• Advocated for human rights for all and for the eradication of poverty
• Created the New York Consumers League in 1890
• “Mother of Social Work”
• Brought the settlement house movement from Europe to the U.S.
o Six fundamental principles of social work
▪ Emphasized neighborhood services and community development.
▪ Social Welfare became a helping mechanism
▪ Served mostly immigrant populations whose problems were associated with making the transition from rural to urban living from a known culture to an unknown culture.
▪ Clients viewed as able, normal, wanting to work families whom the wealthier upper class were joined in mutual dependence
▪ Neighborhood clubs providing recreational and educational opportunities
▪ Pushed societal reform, social research and social action leading to legislative leadership and political change
Charitable Organization Societies- began in the eastern United States during the 1870s to improve the organization of social services due to lack of cooperation between organizations which had led to duplication
Mary Ellen Wilson- First Child Abuse Case
▪ The first case of child abuse, Mary was removed from her home and protected as a “small animal” Progressive Era- significant because it originally started as a social movement and then became a political movement
▪ Developed the "Square Deal," a domestic program formed: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection
▪ Placed millions of acres of land under federal protection to preserve America's natural resources ▪ Dissolved 44 monopolistic corporations and regulated railroad rates to protect the middle/working class ▪ Passed the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act to better regulate food production and labeling ▪ Negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War???? Nobel Prize for this
Political Patronage- politician exchanging jobs/favors in return for political support
Political Machine- political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts
▪ Social work pioneer, researcher, administrator and author
▪ Important in making social work a profession
▪ Called for schools to train professional social workers
▪ Her book Social Diagnosis was first introduction to social casework, theoretical and practical applications for the profession
What Causes Poverty- Theories
▪ Social Class Theory
o Poverty is due to inheritable difference
o Intelligence is the most important factor
▪ Human Capital Theory
o Each individual has skills of “human capital” that the society either does or doesn’t value o People become poor when society doesn’t value their skills economically
▪ Poverty as a Culture
o Cultural beliefs and mentalities regarding life style and expectations are passed on from one generation to the next
o People want you to stay in poverty with them
o Taking advantage of someone unfairly to benefit from their work
o Poverty comes from capitalistic system in which wealthy benefit from taking advantage of poor ▪ Institutional Discrimination
o Deeply embedded practices that are practiced by institutions that serve as gate keepers to a society o Inability to change social class