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Exam 2 Soc class and poverty

by: Iana amsterdam

Exam 2 Soc class and poverty SOC 3600

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These notes got me a 95.167 on the exam
Social Class and Poverty
Dr. Wentworth
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This 43 page Study Guide was uploaded by Iana amsterdam on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 3600 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Wentworth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Class and Poverty in Sociology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Test 2 Soc3600             Fall 2016 Dr. William M. Wentworth Textbook questions:  Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US  Society, by Christopher B. Doob 1.Chapter Three is about the rise and inevitable decline in global power and  control emanating from two countries (Holland, Great Britain), historically, and  currently, from one country (US). a.  True b.  False 2.Chapter Three talks about two countries whose rise to wealth and power was a national effort that took advantage of the resources of a colonial empire. a.     True b.  False 3.The third nation discussed in Chapter Three was different in the mechanism  used to become a global power.  In that third nation multinational corporations  took advantage of both their originating nations and the resources of lands that  were no longer colonies: the poor and developing nations. a.  True b.  False 4.The book describes colonies as too expensive to maintain.  Colonization  requires the building of an administrative government, deployed military garrisons and substantial investment in infrastructure.  Multinational corporations continue  the process of taking advantage in a manner of very pure rent­seeking:  taking  advantage without adding commensurate value back into the developing  countries’ society. a.  True b.  False 5.While multinational corporations must make some investments in any country  where they seek advantage, they obviously take more than they invest.  This is  called profit.  But we must note that substantial corporate investment is not  infrastructural at all it goes to what the chapter calls securing “top­level collusion”:  the corruption of national and local government. a.  True b.  False 6.The idea of profit is to get out more than you put in.  But the idea of profit has  historically been reckoned with the larger picture of economic development.  A  corrupted government cannot work for the common good, protect a nation from  greed and provide the necessary balance to rent­seeking profiteering.  Unsurprisingly then, a UN Human Development report indicated that as  compared to 15 years earlier, 18 of the world’s poorest nations had declining  income and life­expectancies. a.  True b.  False 7.When we speak of the national level, we use (and have used in class) the Iron  Law of Oligarchy and speak of “rule by the few”.  In speaking at the level of  international economic relations the word typically chosen to replace oligarchy is  _____________. a.  Domination b.  Hegemony c.  Supremacy d.  Subjugation 8.Both indirectly and directly, the book associates the rise of  __________________ wealth and control with a decline of US national economic dominion.  a.  A strong agricultural sector b.  A strong military c.  multinationals’ power, d.  semi­peripheral states’ 9.World economic power and profit has been supported historically and currently  by a dominating nation’s capacity a.  for a strong agricultural sector b.  for fielding a strong military c.  to produce and maintain political stability at home d.  to ensure quality products and agricultural abundance 10.The book uses two concepts that are part of national and international  economic domination: ________, ____________ a.  free trade, educated workforce b.  high­quality goods, efficient shipbuilding c.  raw materials, cheap but educated labor d.  exploitation, free trade 11.A(n) _____________ is the complex of values and beliefs that support a  society’s existing social­stratification system (i.e., the existing inequality among  classes) a.  culture complex b.  constitution c.  ideology d.  ethical system 12.In the book (pp. 27, 30, 82, 104, 107, 369) and in lectures we find a near  synonym for the term requested in the previous question.  It is a.  structured social inequality b.  false consciousness c.  ideology d.  hegemony 13.The phrasing for the world­wide capitalist economy with a single dominant  division of status and labor is _______________ a.  globalization b.  globalism c.  modern world system d.  military­industrial complex 14.The three elements to the world­wide capitalist economy are the core nations, the semiperpheral nations and the peripheral nations. a.  True b.  False 15.The investment of multinationals in semiperipheral and peripheral nations has  quite consistently led to a.  Open markets b.  Agricultural disruption and increased hunger c.  Structural distortion of the invaded economy d.  All of the above 16.Calls for open markets and free trade a.  Are an economic necessity for market stability, overall growth of wealth and  the spread of prosperity b.  Typically benefit the poor nations at the expense of rich nations c.  Are typically used to the benefit of the  powerful nations and corporations, while they  limit market access with various trade barriers d.  All of the above 17._____________________ is a condition modern corporations can control  operations and costs by threatening downsizing, outsourcing, offshoring or plant  closure a.  Hegemonic despotism b.  Corporate disloyalty c.  Employee perfidy d.  False reciprocity 18.Globalization is leaving perilous instability and rising inequality in its wake. a.  True b.  False c.  After only 35 years and no historical precedents, it is too early to agree or  disagree 19.Globalized workers typically are more likely to face a.  Slavery or “forced servitude” b.  Rape, racism and sexism c.  Low pay, dangerous work conditions and long hours d.  All of the above [The information in the book on Brazil is out of date, see Stiglitz.  Brazil has pulled back from globalization and now better controls its sovereignty, its  economy and it seeks for the common good of its people to a much greater extent than ever before in its history.  Its prosperity is growing and  spreading among the people of is population.] Squatter communities occur in the US in cities living in abandoned and  condemned buildings and make do among the US homeless.  Globally,  squatter communities are on the rise.  Wherever they are found, squatters  are masses of people excluded by various barriers and limitations from the  mainstream or formal economy.   These members of the world’s  underclasses must create their own informal and black­market economies.  Some such communities are famed for living off the garbage of nearby  urban areas.  20.While squatters lead very fragile and vulnerable lives with their living areas  and economies subject to police invasion and destruction by government  bulldozers squatters are hard­working and resourceful.  Severe stratification  (inequality) ensures scarcity, including too few jobs for a population of potential  workers.  There are simply more people than there are jobs in every country. a.  True b.  False 21.Table 4.1 shows a.  Incomes rising in the middle three income categories b.  Incomes rising in both the two poorest and the two highest income categories c.  Incomes falling in five out of the seven  income categories, the highest two categories  show rising incomes d.  Only the lowest two income groupings have rising incomes 22.Chapter four is largely about how beliefs and institutions in America are  organized by the ruling class or elite class in order to create a false  consciousness of perceptions concerning mobility and opportunity (among other  things) and shape national policies in a way to enhance their own wealth and  power. a.  True b.  False 23.The solid data about classes, income, wealth, mobility, opportunity and  inequality in the US, is in quite sharp contrast with the actuality of people’s lives,  vulnerabilities to accident and crisis health and well­being.  Thus we live within a  bubble of false consciousness. a.  True b.  false Our present modern version of false consciousness is sustainable as long  as a critical mass of people have sustainable and sufficient levels of  comfort.  24.In an era of growing inequality and spreading individual and family crises, the  false reality loses its unquestioned air of truth and begins to be doubted.  Resentment and fear rise with growing hardship among people “who have done  everything right” but still suffer. a.  True b.  False “Media framing” is an inevitable consequence of any reliance on mass  media.  Framing also occurs as a result on any perspective we take.  Framing is a bias to the presentation of all information.  Framing, however, can highlight truth, facts and reality, or it can highlight false  consciousness, ideological position, and untruth.  25.However, the questions vital to the textbook’s discussion of media framing  concern who orchestrates the framing and is there a consistent bias that favors  some social groupings and their interests while discounting other groupings. a.  True b.  False 26.The national mass media are owned by giant corporations.  As a result, the  book shows that their selective coverage and framing favors the interests and  “truths” of corporate world and the specific corporations linked to any item  deemed newsworthy.  This means that the mass media do not tend to be liberal  but rather to present a version of reality that conserves the interests of the  already powerful. a.  True b.  False c.  According to the book,  the above paragraphs in this question are both true  and false – their truth status depends on the particular medium (e.g., TV versus  print news) 27.Deskilling is a very widespread and old phenomenon.  But, it is increasing in  its workforce prevalence. Deskilling means a.  Illnesses associated with long hours sitting as a desk: desk­illing (long­term  sitting for hours is bad for your health) b.  The transformation of work by machines  such that machine operators replace craftsmen c.  The transformation of a workforce such that they become less and less  educationally and vocationally prepared for the challenges of modern work. d.  The use of IT to make obsolete whole categories of jobs (e.g. ATMs replace  bank tellers, automatic switching voice recognition software replaces telephone  operators, etc.) 28.Doob, following Perrucci and Wysong, labels and describes the  ________________________ actual, but unseen source of important national  policies a.  World Economic Council b.  Center for Consumer Freedom c.  Invisible Empire d.  Citizens for a Sound Economy/Center for Consumer Freedom 29.Neoconservatives are those who espouse a political ideology characterized  by an emphasis on free­market capitalism and international economic  exploitation, the broad and muscular use of American military power, and an  interventionist foreign policy with the heavy use of private contractors.  Neoconservatives do not support domestic policies that help the less fortunate:  educational grants, any form of transfer (welfare, food stamps, Medicaid, etc.).  They want all government services privatized and for profit (e.g., prisons,  schools). a.  Their policies favor the wealthy and large corporations b.  Think tanks heavily influenced by this ideology include the Heritage  Foundation and The American Enterprise Institute c.  The neoconservative influence helped pass a huge 1980s tax cut that  benefitted the wealthy more than any other group; the loosening of clean water  and clean air standards; and, a (1996) welfare “reform” that had the effect of  pushing millions of  unprepared and ill­equipped families off welfare roles d.  All of the above 30.As far as the ruling class is concerned:  foundations, think tanks, universities,  policy­making groups, lobbying and massive campaign donations are all part of a coordinated effort.  This effort challenges democratic processes while supporting  oligarchy, and that effort has successfully created a false consciousness among  citizens.  That ideologically based belief system fosters support for laws and  policies that go against the economic interests of the majority.  (This successful  and coordinated effort is at the heart of growing inequality, the hollowing out of  the middle class, the weakening of unions, and the stagnation or decline in  wages over the last 30­35 years.) a.  The above statements do not summarize a large part of the argument in  Chapter 4 of the Doob textbook. b.     The above statements summarize a large  part of the argument in Chapter 4 of the Doob  textbook. c.  Statements such as the above, that are fact­based and derive from decades  of research with uniformly consistent findings, are most likely why the Powell  Memorandum point to Social Science faculty as threatening d.  B and c above 31.As our founders knew, a democracy depends on a well­informed citizenry.  The textbook suggests that facing very limited opposition, the domination by  what it sometimes calls the “superclass” persists, in part, and quite invisibly, a. Despite longstanding and almost relentless exposure by the mainstream  media b. Because no one paid any attention to the Occupy Wall Street movement c  Because we know, love and respect our wealthy overlords J d.  Because the mainstream media  (composed of large corporations) give little or  no effective coverage of many issues that  impact on social inequality 32.Figure 4.2 shows that since 1950 a.  Individual income tax has stayed consistently high while corporate income  taxes have climbed by about 20% b.  Individual income taxes and corporate income have stayed at about the same percentage c.  Individual income taxes have stayed at  much higher percentages than corporate income taxes that have fallen by nearly 20 percentage  points d.  Individual income taxes have stayed at much higher percentages than  corporate income taxes that have fallen by about  15 percentage points 33.Table 4.5 shows that since 1940 public assistance to families a.  Has risen as a percentage of federal budget outlays b.  Has consistently fallen as a percentage of  federal budget outlays 34.Table  4.5 shows that since 194 military (defense) spending a.  Has risen in dollars and as a percentage of  federal budget outlays b.  Has fallen in dollars but risen as a percentage of federal budget outlays c. Has fallen consistently without respect to wartime or peace time Questions from The Price of Inequality, by Joseph E. Stiglitz; the two  Prefaces There is inequality that is expected and acceptable.  There is growing  inequality.  And there is growing inequality that becomes unacceptable and directly harmful to people in society and harmful to the society’s  successful functioning.  35.In the Joseph Stiglitz book we learn that the developed nations (but in  particular the US) are in a bout of the last, the harmful, inequality. a.  True b.  False 36.In the two prefaces of the Stiglitz book we learn of the specific harms of  rapidly growing inequality.  We learn that that growth confounds the balancing  mechanisms that keep society reasonably fair and reasonably just.  a.  True b.  False 37.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and  wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain  enormous gains: a.  Fewer full­time jobs and more part­time jobs being created b.  A very high level of youth unemployment c.  Several segments of the population are evidencing decreased life­expectancy d.  All of the above 38.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and  wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain  enormous gains: a.  There is a general and large increase in  rent­seeking b.  There is a decrease in malnutrition c.  There is an increase in opportunity d.  There is a decline in poor health 39.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and  wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain  enormous gains: a.  An increasing amount of wealth among the very wealth is being turned to job  creation in the US economy b.  Among the most wealthy, the idea of the common good is seen with  increased urgency and favorability c.  As measured in years, not portions of a  year, life­expectancy has declined among those  hardest hit by growing inequality d.  All of the above 40.Rent­seeking is an economic concept that refers to a.  The restriction of mortgage­backed ownership of real property b.  The increase in lease­to­buy interest rate fraud on the part of banks and  against minorities c.  What used to be called “extortionary lending” d.  Obtaining wealth, power, or advantage  without returning commensurate value to the  structure of exchanges 41.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and  wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain  enormous gains: a.  There is greater political power and control in the hands of and on behalf of  the wealthy b.  There is a decline in the contribution by the wealthy – via taxes – to the  common good c.  There is, among the wealthy, a hostility to even the idea of the common good. d.  All of the above Questions from Principles of Urbanization handout (Urban Areas and the  Wealth of Nations), Bb Content 42.In class, we looked at the processes and components of successful  urbanization as a way of seeing what is necessary for an economy – any  economy – to succeed.  We called it economy maintenance, not economics. a.  True b.  False 43.In examining the elements of the urban economy, the class was told that  those components needed integration, protection and management.  It was said  that these components do not magically self­organize to produce roads, guard  shipping lanes, negotiate treaties and trade agreements, build public works (like  granaries or irrigation systems), etc.  This is a way of indicating that an active,  trading economy requires cooperation between governing, trading and  producing. a.  True b.  False 44.Important aspects of governing (managing) any economic system with  multiple parties concerns a.  Preventing cheating on the accepted, but evolving, rules of exchange b.  Engaging in the activities of “economy maintenance” c.  Seeking to maintain or increase efficiency in the economy and in production d.     All of the above 45.An important aspect of governing a particular economy is the maintenance of a.  All its parts b.  Men (labor), markets (proper regulation to prevent cheating or unfair  advantage) c.  Material (proper supplies), money (the forms and media of exchange) d.     All of the above 46.Because economy is but a facet of society, what hurts society hurts economy, and vice versa.  Modern, common sense economy maintenance of the market  would entail the exclusion of a.  Fraud and stealing b.  Unsafe and unhealthy work environments, environmental degradation c.  Various forms of market distorting monopoly and collusion d.     All of the above 47.“Markets work the way they should only when they operate within a  framework of appropriate government regulations.”  This statement was made by _____________ a.  Milton Freidman b.  Joseph Stiglitz c.  Paul Krugman 48.Because economy is but a facet of society, what hurts society hurts economy, and vice versa.  Since class position and general well­being are heavily  influenced by economy it is in the interests of society (and all its members) to  properly regulate economic activity and engage in economy maintenance. a.  True b.  False c. This statement is true except in time of economic crisis where it is the interest of all concerned to let the market fix itself, let the cheaters police themselves and  reduce our concerns for worker safety and well­being Questions from “Prosperity Middle Class, Unions…(pictograph)”, Bb  Content 49. After WWII certain conditions came together and the U.S. experienced its  lowest inequality and greatest prosperity.  Elements of those conditions include: a. the smallest ideological differences between the two major political parties (red and blue graph lines), with both trending politically leftward (downward slopes) b. strong economic regulation that prevented ‘cheating’ and reduced the length  and depth of recessions (see thickness of vertical red lines) c. strong unions and a growing middle class (the two are related) d. growing approval of civil rights and poverty legislation, environmental concern e. all of the above Questions from the Map of inequality among the U.S. states, Bb Content 50. Choose: a. Economic inequality is inversely related to urbanization (and population  density) because urbanization is a signal of economic development.  b. The poorest states tend to be the southern states and these tend to be states  with the greatest inequality. c. As stated in class, while discussing this map, as economic inequality  increases, the status of women decreases. d. Old South states, along with New Mexico and eastern Arizona are  encompassed by the “Continental Poverty Divide” e. all of the above Questions from the “Timeline: Early Industrial Revolution” document (Bb  content) and class lecture 51. Choose: a. We related the U.S. Industrial Revolution to the birth of the brand new ‘working class’ and to a massive rural to urban migration that lasted until 1970 (a census  year). b. The people of this new class had been largely agriculturists but were pushed  off the land by the mechanization of agriculture and simultaneously drawn toward northern cities for employment c. The housing, general environment and workplaces were dirty, dank and  dangerous, at the same time the pay was at a bare survival level d. The Civil War encouraged government efforts to improve the industrial  infrastructure in the North, while the South’s economy was utterly devastated and remained underdeveloped for over 100 years. e. all of the above 52. After the Civil War, labor unions were able to organize more successfully,  achieve more leverage in strikes and negotiations and attain wage increases:  first the “living wage”, then the “family wage”.  This change in wages, was for  men mostly; women organized later than men and even then did not achieve  wage parity with me.  The gender pay gap is old.  From the increase in male  wages, marriage rates increased.  Also, city governments began to improve the  sanitary environment and drainage, improve drinking water, and regulate food  quality against rotting and spoilage. a. This sounds like about what was said in class b. Nothing like that was said or implied 53. The Civil War created large sex ratio imbalances (one million marrying age  men ‘disappeared’ from society) such that traditional marriage and family  patterns could no longer be replicated in rural and small town life.  This pushed  many young women into the migration flow from hinterland to city. a. True b. False 54. The new wage structure encouraged higher marriage rates, and together the  two created the new “ideal” family template (for both the working class and the  future middle class):  the home­place is separated from the main workplace, the  go­to­work father, the stay­at­home mother, and the dependent children (who  increasingly attended mandatory schooling). a. True b. False 55. Unions stayed strong and wages kept increasing. Thus appeared disposable  income in the working class.  Money created demand, supply created the new  Consumer Economy ­­ an economy where people could buy more than  necessity, and where what had been unattainable luxuries were transformed into  affordable necessities.  This is the birth of the American class system as we have come to know it. a. True b. False [There is no free lunch.  So of course, remember, the same forces that  create wealth also create poverty (and inequality).] Questions from “Factors Leading to Post WWII Suburbanization”, Bb  Content Suburbia:  The place that class built and class that place built. 56.  After WWII the U.S. had enormous industrial productive capacity and a wide­ open world market.  The “Virtuous Circle” (last test) was an operative principle in  relations between labor and management. a. Real wages doubled in the 1950s and  continued a steep increase in the 1960s b. As economic equality declined, the size of the middle class started to shrink. c. Because of growing inequality there occurred a post WWII marriage boom,  baby boom, divorce boom, housing boom and obesity boom d. all of the above 57. Suburbanization met a 25 million unit pent up housing demand. a. True b. false 58. Government loan innovations made mortgage payments more affordable and private banks had to match the terms of VA and FHA loans. a. True b. False 59. Suburbanization vastly increased the number of nuclear families and, indeed, a nucleated class isolated from extended family and friends in old neighborhood. a. True b. False 60. The isolation of the middle class in new subdivisions encouraged the creation of a new middle class culture. a. True b. False 61. The baby boom rapidly changed the ratio of children to adults, especially in  the nuclear and nucleated, suburban middle class families.  (And school class  size per teacher shot up, too.)  As a result, the baby boom children were quite cut off from the transmission of traditional American culture.  The result was a child  culture.  They formed their own ‘counter­culture’ based (as are all cultures) on  their lives, particularly on their experiences of life in suburbia.  They were able to  find the moral contradictions in mainstream culture and see through the  smokescreen of false consciousness because what they lived did not match the  values mouthed by their parents. a. True b. False 62. Government aided the suburbanization of the growing middle class with its  mass building techniques borrowed by private developers, with its changes in  mortgage loan structures, increased road and bridge building, the even larger  Interstate Highway Act of 1956, and large subsidies for the building of new  schools. a.  True b.  False Test 2 Soc3600 Fall 2016 Dr. William M. Wentworth Textbook questions: Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society, by Christopher B. Doob 1.Chapter Three is about the rise and inevitable decline in global power and control emanating from two countries (Holland, Great Britain), historically, and currently, from one country (US). a. True b. False 2.Chapter Three talks about two countries whose rise to wealth and power was a national effort that took advantage of the resources of a colonial empire. a. True b. False 3.The third nation discussed in Chapter Three was different in the mechanism used to become a global power. In that third nation multinational corporations took advantage of both their originating nations and the resources of lands that were no longer colonies: the poor and developing nations. a. True b. False 4.The book describes colonies as too expensive to maintain. Colonization requires the building of an administrative government, deployed military garrisons and substantial investment in infrastructure. Multinational corporations continue the process of taking advantage in a manner of very pure rent-seeking: taking advantage without adding commensurate value back into the developing countries’ society. a. True b. False 5.While multinational corporations must make some investments in any country where they seek advantage, they obviously take more than they invest. This is called profit. But we must note that substantial corporate investment is not infrastructural at all it goes to what the chapter calls securing “top-level collusion”: the corruption of national and local government. a. True b. False 6.The idea of profit is to get out more than you put in. But the idea of profit has historically been reckoned with the larger picture of economic development. A corrupted government cannot work for the common good, protect a nation from greed and provide the necessary balance to rent- seeking profiteering. Unsurprisingly then, a UN Human Development report indicated that as compared to 15 years earlier, 18 of the world’s poorest nations had declining income and life-expectancies. a. True b. False 7.When we speak of the national level, we use (and have used in class) the Iron Law of Oligarchy and speak of “rule by the few”. In speaking at the level of international economic relations the word typically chosen to replace oligarchy is _____. a.  Domination b.  Hegemony c.  Supremacy d.  Subjugation 8.Both indirectly and directly, the book associates the rise of Power wealth and control with a decline of US national economic dominion. Semi- peripheral states’ a. A strong agricultural sector b. A strong military c. multinationals’ power, d. semi-peripheral states’ 9.World economic power and profit has been supported historically and currently by a dominating nation’s capacity a. for a strong agricultural sector b. for fielding a strong military c. to produce and maintain political stability at home d. to ensure quality products and agricultural abundance 10.The book uses two concepts that are part of national and international economic dominion: ________, ____________ a. free trade, educated workforce b. high-quality goods, efficient shipbuilding c. raw materials, cheap but educated labor d. exploitation, free trade 11.A(n) ________ is the complex of values and beliefs that support a society’s existing social-stratification system (i.e., the existing inequality among classes) a.  culture complex b.  constitution c.  ideology d.  ethical system 12.In the book (pp. 27, 30, 82, 104, 107, 369) and in lectures we find a near synonym for the term requested in the previous question. It is a. structured social inequality b. false consciousness c. ideology d. hegemony 13.The phrasing for the world-wide capitalist economy with a single dominant division of status and labor is a.  globalization b.  globalism c.  modern world system d.  military-industrial complex 14.The three elements to the world-wide capitalist economy are the core nations, the semiperpheral nations and the peripheral nations. a. True b. False 15.The investment of multinationals in semiperipheral and peripheral nations has quite consistently led to a. Open markets b. Agricultural disruption and increased hunger c. Structural distortion of the invaded economy d. All of the above 16.Calls for open markets and free trade a. Are an economic necessity for market stability, overall growth of wealth and the spread of prosperity b. Typically benefit the poor nations at the expense of rich nations c. Are typically used to the benefit of the powerful nations and corporations, while they limit market access with various trade barriers d. All of the above 17._____________________ is a condition modern corporations can control operations and costs by threatening downsizing, outsourcing, offshoring or plant closure a. Hegemonic despotism b. Corporate disloyalty c. Employee perfidy d. False reciprocity 18.Globalization is leaving perilous instability and rising inequality in its wake. a. True b. False c. After only 35 years and no historical precedents, it is too early to agree or disagree 19.Globalized workers typically are more likely to face a. Slavery or “forced servitude” b. Rape, racism and sexism c. Low pay, dangerous work conditions and long hours d. All of the above [REMEMBER: Capitalism is an economic system, not a moral system.] [The information in the book on Brazil is out of date, see Stiglitz. Brazil has pulled back from globalization and now better controls its sovereignty, its economy and it seeks for the common good of its people to a much greater extent than ever before in its history. Its prosperity is growing and spreading among the people of is population.] I Squatter communities occur in the US in cities living in abandoned and condemned buildings and make do among the US homeless. Globally, squatter communities are on the rise. Wherever they are found, squatters are masses of people excluded by various barriers and limitations from the mainstream or formal economy. These members of the world’s underclasses must create their own informal and black-market economies. Some such communities are famed for living off the garbage of nearby urban areas. 20.While squatters lead very fragile and vulnerable lives with their living areas and economies subject to police invasion and destruction by government bulldozers squatters are hard-working and resourceful. Severe stratification (inequality) ensures scarcity, including too few jobs for a population of potential workers. There are simply more people than there are jobs in every country. a. True b. False 21.Table 4.1 shows a. Incomes rising in the middle three income categories b. Incomes rising in both the two poorest and the two highest income categories c. Incomes falling in five out of the seven income categories, the hghest two categories show rising incomes d. Only the lowest two income groupings have rising incomes 22.Chapter four is largely about how beliefs and institutions in America are organized by the ruling class or elite class in order to create a false consciousness of perceptions concerning mobility and opportunity (among other things) and shape national policies in a way to enhance their own wealth and power. a. True b. False 23.The solid data about classes, income, wealth, mobility, opportunity and inequality in the US, is in quite sharp contrast with the actuality of people’s lives, vulnerabilities to accident and crisis health and well-being. Thus we live within a bubble of false consciousness. a. True b. false Our present modern version of false consciousness is sustainable as long as a critical mass of people have sustainable and sufficient levels of comfort. 24.In an era of growing inequality and spreading individual and family crises, the false reality loses its unquestioned air of truth and begins to be doubted. Resentment and fear rise with growing hardship among people “who have done everything right” but still suffer. a. True b. False “Media framing” is an inevitable consequence of any reliance on mass media. Framing also occurs as a result on any perspective we take. Framing is a bias to the presentation of all information. Framing, however, can highlight truth, facts and reality, or it can highlight false consciousness, ideological position, and untruth. 25.However, the questions vital to the textbook’s discussion of media framing concern who orchestrates the framing and is there a consistent bias that favors some social groupings and their interests while discounting other groupings. a. True b. False 26.The national mass media are owned by giant corporations. As a result, the book shows that their selective coverage and framing favors the interests and “truths” of corporate world and the specific corporations linked to any item deemed newsworthy. This means that the mass media do not tend to be liberal but rather to present a version of reality that conserves the interests of the already powerful. a. True b. False c. According to the book, the above paragraphs in this question are both true and false – their truth status depends on the particular medium (e.g., TV versus print news) 27.Deskilling is a very widespread and old phenomenon. But, it is increasing in its workforce prevalence. Deskilling means a. Illnesses associated with long hours sitting as a desk: desk-illing (long- term sitting for hours is bad for your health) b. The transformation of work by machines such that machine operators replace craftsmen c. The transformation of a workforce such that they become less and less educationally and vocationally prepared for the challenges of modern work. d. The use of IT to make obsolete whole categories of jobs (e.g. ATMs replace bank tellers, automatic switching voice recognition software replaces telephone operators, etc.) 28.Doob, following Perrucci and Wysong, labels and describes the ________________________ actual, but unseen source of important national policies a. World Economic Council b. Center for Consumer Freedom c. Invisible Empire d. Citizens for a Sound Economy/Center for Consumer Freedom 29.Neoconservatives are those who espouse a political ideology characterized by an emphasis on free-market capitalism and international economic exploitation, the broad and muscular use of American military power, and an interventionist foreign policy with the heavy use of private contractors. Neoconservatives do not support domestic policies that help the less fortunate: educational grants, any form of transfer (welfare, food stamps, Medicaid, etc.). They want all government services privatized and for profit (e.g., prisons, schools). a. Their policies favor the wealthy and large corporations b. Think tanks heavily influenced by this ideology include the Heritage Foundation and The American Enterprise Institute c. The neoconservative influence helped pass a huge 1980s tax cut that benefitted the wealthy more than any other group; the loosening of clean water and clean air standards; and, a (1996) welfare “reform” that had the effect of pushing millions of unprepared and ill-equipped families off welfare roles d. All of the above 30.As far as the ruling class is concerned: foundations, think tanks, universities, policy-making groups, lobbying and massive campaign donations are all part of a coordinated effort. This effort challenges democratic processes while supporting oligarchy, and that effort has successfully created a false consciousness among citizens. That ideologically based belief system fosters support for laws and policies that go against the economic interests of the majority. (This successful and coordinated effort is at the heart of growing inequality, the hollowing out of the middle class, the weakening of unions, and the stagnation or decline in wages over the last 30-35 years.) a. The above statements do not summarize a large part of the argument in Chapter 4 of the Doob textbook. b. The above statements summarize a large part of the argument in Chapter 4 of the Doob textbook. c. Statements such as the above, that are fact-based and derive from decades of research with uniformly consistent findings, are most likely why the Powell Memorandum point to Social Science faculty as threatening d. B and c above 31.As our founders knew, a democracy depends on a well-informed citizenry. The textbook suggests that facing very limited opposition, the domination by what it sometimes calls the “superclass” persists, in part, and quite invisibly, a. despite longstanding and almost relentless exposure by the mainstream media b. because no one paid any attention to the Occupy Wall Street movement c. Because we know, love, and respect our wealthy overlords. d. Because the mainstream media (composed of large corporations) give little or no effective coverage of many issues that impact on social inequality 32.Figure 4.2 shows that since 1950 a. Individual income tax has stayed consistently high while corporate income taxes have climbed by about 20% b. Individual income taxes and corporate income have stayed at about the same percentage c. Individual income taxes have stayed at much higher percentages than corporate income taxes that have fallen by nearly 20 percentage points d. Individual income taxes have stayed at much higher percentages than corporate income taxes that have fallen by about 15 percentage points 33.Table 4.5 shows that since 1940 public assistance to families a. Has risen as a percentage of federal budget outlays b. Has consistently fallen as a percentage of federal budget outlays 34.Table 4.5 shows that since 194 military (defense) spending a. Has risen in dollars and as a percentage of federal budget outlays b. Has fallen in dollars but risen as a percentage of federal budget outlays c. Has fallen consistently without respect to wartime or peace time Questions from The Price of Inequality, by Joseph E. Stiglitz; the two Prefaces There is inequality that is expected and acceptable. There is growing inequality. And there is growing inequality that becomes unacceptable and directly harmful to people in society and harmful to the society’s successful functioning. im 35.In the Joseph Stiglitz book we learn that the developed nations (but in particular the US) are in a bout of the last, the harmful, inequality. a. True b. False 36.In the two prefaces of the Stiglitz book we learn of the specific harms of rapidly growing inequality. We learn that that growth confounds the balancing mechanisms that keep society reasonably fair and reasonably just. a. True b. False 37.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain enormous gains: a fewer full time jobs and more part time jobs being created b. a very high level of youthful unemployment c. several segments of the population are evidencing decreased life expectancy d. all of the above 38.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain enormous gains: a. There is a general and large increase in rent-seeking b. There is a decrease in malnutrition c. There is an increase in opportunity d. There is a decline in poor health 39.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain enormous gains: a. An increasing amount of wealth among the very wealth is being turned to job creation in the US economy b. Among the most wealthy, the idea of the common good is seen with increased urgency and favorability c. As measured in years, not portions of a year, life-expectancy has declined among those hardest hit by growing inequality d. All of the above 40.Rent-seeking is an economic concept that refers to a. The restriction of mortgage-backed ownership of real property b. The increase in lease-to-buy interest rate fraud on the part of banks and against minorities c. What used to be called “extortionary lending” d. Obtaining wealth, power, or advantage without returning commensurate value to the structure of exchanges 41.Which of the following are harms associated with declining incomes and wealth in the bottom 80% of our population, while the top 1% and .1% obtain enormous gains: a. there is a greater political power and control in the hands of and on behalf of the wealthy b. There is a decline in the contribution by the wealthy - via taxes - to the common good c. there is, among the wealthy, a hostility to even the idea of the common good d. All of the above????? Questions from Principles of Urbanization handout (Urban Areas and the Wealth of Nations), Bb Content 42.In class, we looked at the processes and components of successful urbanization as a way of seeing what is necessary for an economy – any economy – to succeed. We called it economy maintenance, not economics. a. True: I think this is true, it doesn’t say it out right in the notes b. False 43.In examining the elements of the urban economy, the class was told that those components needed integration, protection and management. It was said that these components do not magically self-organize to produce roads, guard shipping lanes, negotiate treaties and trade agreements, build public works (like granaries or irrigation systems), etc. This is a way of indicating that an active, trading economy requires cooperation between governing, trading and producing. a. True b. False 44.Important aspects of governing (managing) any economic system with multiple parties concerns 45.An important aspect of governing a particular economy is the maintenance of production? it says the central rule of economy is to maintain or increase efficiency of production a. all its part b. me (labor), markets (proper regulation to prevent cheating or unfair advantage) c. Material (proper supplies), money (the forms and media of exchange) d. all of the above 46.Because economy is but a facet of society, what hurts society hurts economy, and vice versa. Modern, common sense economy maintenance of the market would entail the exclusion of a. fraud and stealing b. unsafe and unhealthy work environments, environmental degradation c. various forms of market distorting monopoly and collusion d. all of the above 47.“Markets work the way they should only when they operate within a framework of appropriate government regulations.” This statement was made by _____________ a. Milton Freidman b. Joseph Stiglitz c. Paul Krugman 48.Because economy is but a facet of society, what hurts society hurts economy, and vice versa. Since class position and general well-being are heavily influenced by economy it is in the interests of society (and all its members) to properly regulate economic activity and engage in economy maintenance. a. True b. False c. This statement is true except in time of economic crisis where it is the interest of all concerned to let the market fix itself, let the cheaters police themselves and reduce our concerns for worker safety and well-being Questions from “Prosperity Middle Class, Unions…(pictograph)”, Bb Content 49. After WWII certain conditions came together and the U.S. experienced its lowest inequality and greatest prosperity. Elements of those conditions include: a. the smallest ideological differences between the two major political parties (red and blue graph lines), with both trending politically leftward (downward slopes) b. strong economic regulation that prevented ‘cheating’ and reduced the length and depth of recessions (see thickness of vertical red lines) c. strong unions and a growing middle class (the two are related) d. growing approval of civil rights and poverty legislation, environmental concern e. all of the above Questions from the Map of inequality among the U.S. states, Bb Content 50. Choose: a. Economic inequality is inversely related to urbanization (and population density) because urbanization is a signal of economic development. b. The poorest states tend to be the southern states and these tend to be states with the greatest inequality. True, I mean it’s southern central states c. As stated in class, while discussing this map, as economic inequality increases, the status of women decreases. d. Old South states, along with New Mexico and eastern Arizona are encompassed by the “Continental Poverty Divide” True, line goes through there E) All the above Questions from the “Timeline: Early Industrial Revolution” document (Bb content) and class lecture 51. Choose: a. We related the U.S. Industrial Revolution to the birth of the brand new ‘working class’ and to a massive rural to urban migration that lasted until 1970 (a census year). b. The people of this new class had been largely agriculturists but were pushed off the land by the mechanization of agriculture and simultaneously drawn toward northern cities for employment. True c. The housing, general environment and workplaces were dirty, dank and dangerous, at the same time the pay was at a bare survival level d. The Civil War encouraged government efforts to improve the industrial infrastructure in the North, while the South’s economy was utterly devastated and remained underdeveloped for over 100 years. e. all of the above - I would assume this one after looking at the table on BB 52. After the Civil War, labor unions were able to organize more successfully, achieve more leverage in strikes and negotiations and attain wage increases: first the “living wage”, then the “family wage”. This change in wages, was for men mostly; women organized later than men and even then did not achieve wage parity with men. The gender pay gap is old. From the increase in male wages, marriage rates increased. Also, city governments began to improve the sanitary environment and drainage, improve drinking water, and regulate food quality against rotting and spoilage. a. This sounds like about what was said in class - b. Nothing like that was said or implied 53. The Civil War created large sex ratio imbalances (one million marrying age men ‘disappeared’ from society) such that traditional marriage and family patterns could no longer be replicated in rural and small town life. This pushed many young women into the migration flow from hinterland to city. a. True b. False 54. The new wage structure encouraged higher marriage rates, and together the two created the new “ideal” family template (for both the working class and the future middle class): the home-place is separated from the main workplace, the go-to-work father, the stay-at-home mother, and the dependent children (who increasingly attended mandatory schooling). a. True - makes the most sense for the time b. False 55. Unions stayed strong and wages kept increasing. Thus appeared disposable income in the working class. Money created demand, supply created the new Consumer Economy -- an economy where people could buy more than necessity, and where what had been unattainable luxuries were transformed into affordable necessities. This is the birth of the American class system as we have come to know it. a. True - graph shows went from barely living wage, to living wage achieved, to family wage achieved to roaring twenties b. False [There is no free lunch. So of course, remember, the same forces that create wealth also create poverty (and inequality).] Questions from “Factors Leading to Post WWII Suburbanization”, Bb Content Suburbia: The place that class built and class that place built. 56. After WWII the U.S. had enormous industrial productive capacity and a wide-open world market. The “Virtuous Circle” (last test) was an operative principle in relations between labor and management. a. real wages doubled in the 1950s and continued to steep in the 1960s. b. as economic quality declined the size of the middle class started to shrink. c. because of growing inequality there occurred a post ww2 mariage boom , baby boom , divorce boom, housing boom, and obesity boom. d. all of the above. 57. Suburbanization met a 25 million unit pent up housing demand. a. True b. false - its 9 million 58. Government loan innovations made mortgage payments more affordable and private banks had to match the terms of VA and FHA loans. a. True b. False 59. Suburbanization vastly increased the number of nuclear families and, indeed, a nucleated class isolated from extended family and friends in old neighborhood. a. True b. False 60. The isolation of the middle class in new subdivisions encouraged the creation of a new middle class culture. a. True b. False 61. The baby boom rapidly changed the ratio of children to adults, especially in the nuclear and nucleated, suburban middle class families. (And school class size per teacher shot up, too.) As a result, the baby boom children were quite cut off from the transmission of traditional American culture. The result was a child culture. They formed their own ‘counter-culture’ based (as are all cultures) on their lives, particularly on their experiences of life in suburbia. They were able to find the moral contradictions in mainstream culture and see through the smokescreen of false consciousness because what they lived did not match the values mouthed by their parents. a. True b. False 62. Government aided the suburbanization of the growing middle class with its mass building techniques borrowed by private developers, with its changes in mortgage loan structures, increased road and bridge building, the even larger Interstate Highway Act of 1956, and large subsidies for the building of new schools. a. True b. False Test 2 Soc 3600             Fall 2016 Dr. William M. Wentworth Textbook questions:  Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society, by  Christopher B. Doob 1.Chapter Three is about the rise and inevitable decline in global power and control  emanating from two countries (Holland, Great Britain), historically, and currently, from  one country (US). a.   True b.      False 2.Chapter Three talks about two countries whose rise to wealth and power was a  national effort that took advantage of the resources of a colonial empire. a.       True b.  False 3.The third nation discussed in Chapter Three was different in the mechanism used to  become a global power.  In that third nation multinational corporations took advantage of both their originating nations and the resources of lands that were no longer colonies:  the poor and developing nations. a.   True b.      False 4.The book describes colonies as too expensive to maintain.  Colonization requires the  building of an administrative government, deployed military garrisons and substantial  investment in infrastructure.  Multinational corporations continue the process of taking  advantage in a manner of very pure rent­seeking:  taking advantage without adding  commensurate value back into the developing countries’ society. a.       True b.  False 5.While multinational corporations must make some investments in any country where  they seek advantage, they obviously take more than they invest.  This is called profit.  But we must note that substantial corporate investment is not infrastructural at all it goes to what the chapter calls securing “top­level collusion”:  the corruption of national and  local government. a.       True b.  False 6.The idea of profit is to get out more than you put in.  But the idea of profit has  historically been reckoned with the larger picture of economic development.  A corrupted government cannot work for the common good, protect a nation from greed and provide  the necessary balance to rent­seeking profiteering.  Unsurprisingly then, a UN Human  Development report indicated that as compared to 15 years earlier, 18 of the world’s  poorest nations had declining income and life­expectancies. a.       True b.  False 7. When we speak of the national level, we use (and have used in class) the Iron Law of  Oligarchy and speak of “rule by the few”.  In speaking at the level of international  economic relations the word typically chosen to replace oligarchy is _____________. a. Domination b.Hegemony c. Supremacy d. Subjugation 8. Both indirectly and directly, the book associates the rise of __________________  wealth and control with a decline of US national economic dominion.   a.  A strong agricultural sector b.  A strong military c.  multinationals’ power, d.     semi­peripheral states’ 9. World economic power and profit has been supported historically and currently by a  dominating nation’s capacity a.  for a strong agricultural sector b.     for fielding a strong military c.  to produce and maintain political stability at home d.  to ensure quality products and agricultural abundance 10. The book uses two concepts that are part of national and international economic  dominion: ________, ____________ a.  free trade, educated workforce b.  high­quality goods, efficient shipbuilding c.     raw materials, cheap but educated labor d.  exploitation, free trade 11. A(n) _____________ is the complex of values and beliefs that support a society’s  existing social­stratification system (i.e., the existing inequality among classes) a.  culture complex b.  constitution c.     ideology d.  ethical system 12. In the book (pp. 27, 30, 82, 104, 107, 369) and in lectures we find a near synonym  for the term requested in the previous question.  It is a.  structured social inequality b.     false consciousness c.  ideology d.  hegemony 13. The phrasing for the world­wide capitalist economy with a single dominant division of status and labor is _______________ a.  globalization b.  globalism c.     modern world system d.  military­industrial complex 14. The three elements to the world­wide capitalist economy are the core nations, the  semiperpheral nations and the peripheral nations. a.       True b.   False 15. The investment of multinationals in semiperipheral and peripheral nations has quite  consistently led to a.  Open markets b.  Agricultural disruption and increased hunger c.  Structural distortion of the invaded economy d.     All of the above 16. Calls for open markets and free trade a.  Are an economic necessity for market stability, overall growth of wealth and the  spread of prosperity b.  Typically benefit the poor nations at the expense of rich nations c.     Are typically used to the benefit of the  powerful nations and corporations, while  they limit market access with various trade  barriers d.  All of the above 17. _____________________ is a condition modern corporations can control operations and costs by threatening downsizing, outsourcing, offshoring or plant closure a.     Hegemonic despotism b.  Corporate disloyalty c.  Employee perfidy d.  False reciprocity 18. Globalization is leaving perilous instability and rising inequality in its wake. a.       True b.   False c.   After only 35 years and no historical precedents, it is too early to agree or disagree 19. Globalized workers typically are more likely to face a.  Slavery or “forced servitude” b.  Rape, racism and sexism c.  Low pay, dangerous work conditions and long hours d.     All of the above [REMEMBER:  Capitalism is an economic system, not a moral system.] [The information in the book on Brazil is out of date, see Stiglitz.  Brazil has pulled back from globalization and now better controls its sovereignty, its economy and  it seeks for the common good of its people to a much greater extent than ever  before in its history.  Its prosperity is growing and spreading among the people of  is population.] Squatter communities occur in the US in cities living in abandoned and  condemned buildings and make do among the US homeless.  Globally, squatter  communities are on the rise.  Wherever they are found, squatters are masses of  people excluded by various barriers and limitations from the mainstream or  formal economy.   These members of the world’s underclasses must create their  own informal and black­market economies.  Some such communities are famed  for living off the garbage of nearby urban areas.  20. While squatters lead very fragile and vulnerable lives with their living areas and  economies subject to police invasion and destruction by government bulldozers  squatters are hard­working and resourceful.  Severe stratification (inequality) ensures  scarcity, including too few jobs for a population of potential workers.  There are simply  more people than there are jobs in every country. a.       True b.   False 21. Table 4.1 shows a.  Incomes rising in the middle three income categories b.  Incomes rising in both the two poorest and the two highest income categories c.     Incomes falling in five out of the seven  income categories, the highest two  categories show rising incomes d.  Only the lowest two income groupings have rising incomes 22. Chapter four is largely about how beliefs and institutions in America are organized by the ruling class or elite?


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