BIOL 1345-001 Notes for Exam 2
BIOL 1345-001 Notes for Exam 2 BIOL 1345 - 001
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Jimenez on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1345 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Gretchen Lee Gann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see BIOLOGY I FOR NURSING STUDENTS in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells All Life is Made of Cells I. Unified Cell Theory a. All living thigs are made of one or more cells b. Cells are the basic unit of life c. All cells come from outer cells II. Smallest Units if life a. Unicellular i. Carry out all activities necessary of life ii. Examples 1. Bacterium 2. Archaean 3. Protist 4. Some Algae b. Multicellular i. Activities of life are divided among numbers of specialized cells ii. Examples 1. Animal 2. Fungus 3. Plant 4. Some Algae III. All cells have a. A surrounding cell membrane i. A plasma membrane made up of a hydrophobic lipid bilayer IV. Robert Hooke discovered the first cell Prokaryotic Cells I. Characteristics a. No nucleus b. DNA in an unbound region i. Nucleoid 1. No boundary membrane c. No membrane-bound organelles d. Cytoplasm is bound by the plasma membrane e. Few internal membranes Eukaryotic Cells I. Characteristics a. DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope b. Membrane-bound organelles c. Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus II. Generally larger than Prokaryotes III. Showed up 1.5 billion years ago after Prokaryotes BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells IV. Domain a. Eukarya V. Not all are multicellular VI. True nucleus is separated from the surrounding cytoplasm by membranes VII. Cytoplasm contains extensive membrane systems that are for organelles VIII. Parts are related either through physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segments as tiny vesicles IX. Parts a. Plasma Membrane b. Nucleus 1. Membrane consists of two bilayers on top of each other 2. Covered in pores to allow molecules to pass from the nucleus 3. DNA is organized into discrete units called chromosomes a. DNA with proteins i. Together with chromosomes are chromatin 1. Condenses to form discrete chromosomes as the cell prepares to divide b. Largest and most prominent organelle in most cells 4. Function a. Genetic control center b. Store house for heredity information c. Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules ii. Nuclear Envelope 1. Nuclear side is lined by the nuclear lamina, which is composed of proteins and maintains the shape of the nucleus iii. Nucleolus 1. Site of RNA synthesis 2. Eukaryotes contain one or more nuclei c. Ribosomes d. Endoplasmic Reticulum i. Smooth and Rough e. Golgi Apparatus f. Mitochondria g. Vesicles h. Peroxisomes i. Cytoskeleton j. Extracellular matrix BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells X. Parts in Plants a. Chloroplasts b. Central Vacuole c. Cell Wall d. Plasmodesmata XI. Parts in Animals a. Lysosomes b. Centrosome c. Centrioles d. Gap Junctions Evidence of Life I. Earliest evidence of life was 3.5 billion years ago II. Cyanobacteria a. Earliest photosynthesis b. Create layers of rock Cell Size I. Prokaryotes a. 1-10 microns II. Eukaryotes a. 10-100 microns III. Limited by the surface area-to-volume ratio IV. Doubling the diameter of a cell increases its surface area by 4 and the volume by 8 V. Some increase their surface area with extensions or folds VI. Microvilli a. Involved in i. Absorption ii. Secretion iii. Cellular Adhesion b. Increase surface area Microscopes I. Types a. Electron i. TEM (Transmission) ii. SEM (Scanning) iii. Useful for viewing organelles iv. High resolution b. Light i. Can be used to study changes in shape of a living white blood cell ii. Low resolution II. Features a. Magnification BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells i. Ratio of an objects image size to its actual size b. Resolution i. The minimum distance that two points can be separated and still be seen as two points c. Contrast i. The difference in brightness between the light and dark areas of an image Plasma Membrane I. Selectively permeable II. Functions a. Hold contents of the contents of a cell in place b. Takes in food and nutrients c. Aids in building and exporting molecules d. Allows interaction with the environment and neighboring cells e. Dispose of waste products f. Regulate heat exchange III. Phospholipid Bilayer Structure a. Head i. Hydrophilic 1. Attracted to water 2. Polar 3. Gylcerol linked to a Phosphorus-containing molecule 4. Extend toward the extracellular and intracellular fluid b. Tail i. Hydrophobic 1. Nonpolar 2. Not attracted to water ii. Composed of Carbon-Hydrogen chains c. Extracellular Fluid i. Watery fluid outside of the cell d. Intracellular Fluid i. Watery fluid inside of the cell e. Plasmids i. Little circular DNA f. Embedded with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins g. “Gatekeeper” function Endomembrane System I. Functions a. Produces and modifies molecules to be exported to other parts if the organism b. Breaks down toxic chemicals and cellular by-products II. Parts a. Plasma Membrane b. Nuclear Envelope BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells c. Endoplasmic Reticulum d. Golgi Apparatus e. Vesicles f. Central Vacuole g. Lysosomes III. Contents exit the cell when it becomes a part of the plasma membrane Nucleus I. Membrane consists of two bilayers on top of each other II. Covered in pores to allow molecules to pass from the nucleus III. DNA is organized into discrete units called chromosomes a. DNA with proteins i. Together with chromosomes are chromatin 1. Condenses to form discrete chromosomes as the cell prepares to divide IV. Largest and most prominent organelle in most cells V. Function a. Genetic control center b. Store house for heredity information c. Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules Nuclear Envelope VI. Nuclear side is lined by the nuclear lamina, which is composed of proteins and maintains the shape of the nucleus Nucleolus VII. Site of RNA synthesis VIII. Eukaryotes contain one or more nuclei Endoplasmic Reticulum I. “Biosynthetic factory”, “Detox Center” and “Membrane factory” II. Extended interconnected network of membranous channels and cisternae a. Each cisternae is formed by a single membrane that surrounds an enclosed space (ER lumen) Rough I. Proteins are made on the ribosomes attached to the ER and enter the ER lumen, where they fold into their final form II. Chemical modifications, such as addition of carbohydrate groups to produce glycoproteins, occur in the lumen Smooth I. Functions a. Synthesizes lipids such as fatty acids, phospholipids and steroids b. Detoxifies molecules such as alcohol, drugs and metabolic wastes products II. No ribosomes on the surface III. Liver is packed with smooth ER BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells IV. Stores calcium Ions Ribosomes I. “Protein factories” II. Complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein III. Some are freely suspended in the cytosol IV. Others are bound to ER membranes Golgi Apparatus I. “Shipping and Receiving Center” II. Consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae III. Functions a. Modifies products of the ER b. Manufactures certain macromolecules c. Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles Lysosomes I. “Garbage Disposal” a. Acids and enzymes cut up things II. Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules III. Made by Rough ER and then transferred to the golgi apparatus for further processing IV. Not found in plant cells V. Filled with 50 different enzymes VI. Some types of cells can engulf another by phagocytosis, forming a food vacuole VII. Fuses with the food vacuole and digests the molecules Vacuole I. Make up most of the cell II. Large vesicles derived from the ER and golgi apparatus and perform a variety of functions in different kinds of cells III. Multipurpose storage sacs for cells Central Vacuole IV. Found in most mature plant cells V. Holds organic compounds and water Mitochondria I. “Powerhouse” and “Energy Producer” II. Found in all Eukaryotes III. Functions a. Act as all-purpose energy converters b. Harvests energy to be used for cellular functions c. Cellular Respiration BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells i. Energy rich food molecules are broken down and ATP is generated ii. Requires oxygen IV. Has two membranes surrounding an inner compartment Peroxisomes I. Converts H2O2 to water II. Specialized metabolic compartment bound by a single membrane III. Performs reactions that produce H2O2 a. Breaking down fatty acids b. Detoxifying alcohol Chloroplasts I. Found in plants II. Have their own DNA III. Turns CO2 into sugar IV. Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll V. Photosynthesis a. Energy rich sugar molecules from generated using energy from light b. Produces oxygen as a by-product Cytoskeleton I. Functions a. Acts as inner scaffolding of the cell b. Provides shape and support c. Controls intracellular traffic flow d. Enables movement Protein Fibers II. Microtubules a. Thick hollow tubes b. The tracks to which molecules and organelles within the cell may attach and be moved along c. Functions i. Shaping the cell ii. Guiding movement of organelles iii. Cell motility iv. Separating chromosomes during cell divison III. Intermediate Filaments a. Durable, rope-like systems of numerous overlapping proteins b. Give cells great strength c. More permanent d. Bears tension e. Found only in some animals (including vertebrates) f. Support microfilaments in microvilli BIOL 1345 | Chapter 4: Cells IV. Microfilaments a. Long solid-like fibers b. Help with cell contraction and cell division c. Make up the core of microvilli of intestinal cells d. Have polarity e. Functions i. Cell shape ii. Changes in cell shape iii. Muscle contraction iv. Divide the cytoplasm when animal cells divide v. Involved in cytoplasmic streaming Plant Cell Wall I. Functions a. Provides the cell with structural strength b. Gives the cell increased water resistance c. Provides some protection from insects and other animals that might eat plant parts Extracellular Components I. Help coordinate cellular activities II. Plants a. Cell wall b. Plasmodesmata i. Openings in the cell wall that communicate where ions and molecules flow III. Animals a. Extracellular matrix i. Supports and protects cells and provides mechanical linkages between tissues ii. On one side of a cell b. 3 types of cell junctions i. Tight junctions 1. Water tight seal that anchors cells in place 2. Particularly important in the small intestines where digestion occurs ii. Desmosomes 1. Acts like Velcro 2. Has no seal iii. Gap junctions 1. Open channel for communication 2. Found in much of the tissue-lining cavities of animal bodies c. mRNA molecules are not made in the cytoplasm BIOL 1345 | Chapter 5: Cell Membranes Membranes I. Every cell is bordered by a plasma membrane known as the “gate keeper” II. Functions a. Holds contents of a cell in place b. Takes in food and nutrients c. Aids in building and exporting molecules d. Allow interactions within the environment and neighboring cells e. Maintains electrical properties f. Define boundaries of a cell g. Permeability layers III. Made up of two layers that are filled with a variety of pores, molecules, and channels IV. Electrical properties a. Due to uneven distribution of particular ions inside and outside of the cell, signal conduction V. Phospholipids a. The most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane i. Amphipathic molecules Membrane proteins I. Enzymes, transport channels, carrier proteins, receptors, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication II. Have diverse functions a. Transport b. Enzyme activity c. Signal transduction d. Cell-to-cell recognition i. Depends on membrane carbohydrates ii. Varies by species, individuals and cell type e. Intracellular joining f. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix III. Proteins determine its function IV. Integral proteins a. Known as transmembrane proteins b. Span the membrane (amphipathic) V. Peripheral proteins a. Bound to the surface of the membrane VI. Gylcocalyx a. A surface coat where carbohydrates pull in water to make it sticky Fluid Mosaic Model b. Membranes consists of a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded c. “Fluid” i. Phospholipid membranes BIOL 1345 | Chapter 5: Cell Membranes d. “Mosaic” i. Random membrane proteins VII. Fluidity a. Effected by i. High the temperature ii. Type of hydrocarbon tails 1. Saturated 2. Unsaturated b. Stabilized by cholesterol VIII. Movement a. Some float individually in the lipid bilayer, some are attached to the cytoskeleton Transport Proteins I. Allow passage of hydrophilic substances across the membrane II. Passive transport a. No energy required b. Moves ions and molecules with/down the concentration gradient c. Diffusion i. The net movement of ions or molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration ii. Equal exchange to equilibrium iii. Substances diffuse down their concentration gradient iv. Osmosis 1. Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane a. Flows low to high b. Tries to equal out the concentration d. Tonicity i. The ability of the surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water ii. Isotonic 1. Solute concentration is the same that inside the cell; no net water movement across the plasma membrane iii. Hypertonic 1. Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water iv. Hypotonic 1. Solute concentration is less than that inside of the cell; cell gains water e. Facilitated diffusion i. Carrier proteins 1. Undergo a subtle change in shape that translocate the solute-binding site across the membrane ii. Channel proteins BIOL 1345 | Chapter 5: Cell Membranes 1. Also called aquaporins a. Facilitate the passage of water 2. Some are gated channels 3. Has to move through a transport protein iii. If Water is moving from solution A to solution B by inference solution A must have a lower solute concentration III. Active transport a. Energy required b. Moves ions and molecules against the concentration gradient c. Functions i. Uptake of essential nutrients from fluid surrounding cells ii. Removal of secretory or waste materials from cells or organelles iii. Maintenance of intracellular concentrations of H+, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ (ion pumps) d. Contributes to an electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane, called a membrane potential i. Creates potential energy e. Voltages i. Electrical potential energy 1. A separation of opposite changes ii. Cytoplasm 1. Negative and the extracellular fluid is positive iii. Membrane potential ranges from -50 to -200mv f. Sodium potassium pump i. Has a net 1+ charge ii. O2 will diffuse most quickly across a lipid bilayer membrane iii. Takes in 3 Na+ molecules, releases then out of the cell, takes in 2 K+ molecules and releases them in the cell iv. An electrogenic pump is a transport protein that generates voltage a ross a membrane g. Proton pump i. Actively pumps hydrogen ions ii. Electrogenic pumps help store energy that can be used for cellular work h. Cotransport i. Negative in the cell, positive outside of the cell ii. Needs hydrogen ion concentration to do work iii. Two combined forces, collectively called the electrochemical gradient, drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane Selective Permeability BIOL 1345 | Chapter 5: Cell Membranes I. Nonpolar molecules dissolve in the lipid bilayer and pass through the membrane rapidly a. Hydrocarbons II. Polar molecules do not cross the membrane easily a. Sugars and ions Bulk Transport I. For large molecules II. Requires energy III. Types a. Exocytosis i. Removing material out of the cell ii. Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to empty contents b. Endocytosis i. Taking in material into the cell ii. Phagocytosis 1. Plasma membrane reaches outward and engulfs iii. Pinocytosis 1. Takes little “gulps” 2. Plasma membrane pinches in iv. Receptor mediated endocytosis 1. Same as pinocytosis 2. Has specific receptors that respond to specifics BIOL 1345 | Chapter 6: Introduction to Metabolism Food Resources I. Heterotrophs a. Most bacteria and animals b. Eat it II. Autotrophs a. Plants, bacteria and some protisits b. Make their own food i. Through photosynthesis Metabolism I. The chemical reactions in the cell II. Everyone’s enzymes work at a different deficiency III. Everyone’s different metabolic rate action requires an enzyme coated by our DNA IV. Chemical reactions a. Dehydration i. Synthesis of polymers b. Hydrolysis i. Breakdown of polymers V. Cell types vary in their inherent metabolic rates Metabolic Pathways I. Products of one reaction are used immediately as the reactants for the next reaction in the series II. Types a. Catabolic i. Breaks it down b. Anabolic Forms of energy I. Energy is the capacity to do work II. All forms of energy can exist in one of two states a. Kinetic i. Movement ii. Heat energy 1. Associated with random movement b. Potential i. Stored ii. Chemical energy 1. Available for release in a chemical reaction III. Glucose has more energy than carbon dioxide Thermodynamics I. The study of energy transformations II. Forms of energy a. Light BIOL 1345 | Chapter 6: Introduction to Metabolism b. Electricity c. Motion d. Heat III. Organisms are energy transformers IV. Law of thermodynamics a. 1st i. Energy can be changed from one to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed ndii. Also called the principle of conservation of energy b. 2 i. Every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe ii. Heat increases disorder of the universe iii. In all energy exchanges and conversions---if no energy leaves or enters the system under the study---the potential energy in the final state will always be less than the potential energy in the initial state iv. Heat flows from hot body to cold body v. High concentration to low concentration vi. Order becomes disorder vii. All natural occurring processes are exergonic c. Cells convert energy from one to another i. Heat is lost every time ii. Needs a constant input of energy d. Living organisms require input of energy i. Open vs closed systems 1. Higher to lower state 2. Open a. All living organisms b. Order is maintained 3. Closed a. Reactions eventually reach equilibrium and then do no work b. Order becomes disorder ii. Equilibrium is the state of maximum stability e. Spontaneous i. Without an input of energy ii. Processes can be harnessed to perform work f. Exergonic vs endergonic i. Exergonic 1. Releases energy 2. Spontaneous 3. More stable products 4. Catabolic a. Downhill ii. Endergonic BIOL 1345 | Chapter 6: Introduction to Metabolism 1. Requires energy 2. Absorbs free energy 3. Not spontaneous 4. Less stable products 5. Anabolic a. Uphill Free Energy Change ^G I. If ^G is negative a. The reaction will occur spontaneously b. Needs to be more disordered II. ^G of -5.6 kcal/mol would proceed by itself but will be very slow Flow of energy I. The ultimate source of energy is the sun II. ATP is the chemical energy we use in our cell Work I. Anything that takes energy a. Muscle contraction b. Building polymers i. Dehydration synthesis c. Transport in/out of cells d. Etc. II. Food does not directly power, ATP does III. Proteins do all the work in a cell a. ATP pays for the work IV. Hydrolysis of ATP puts out the energy to do cellular work a. Requires an enzyme with a specific binding site for both ATP and the reactant V. Mitochondria a. Main function is cellular respiration to make ATP VI. ATP is regenerated by catabolic pathways VII. Energy coupling a. How energy is transferred into cells b. Use an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction i. Hydrolysis of ATP VIII. Enzymes a. Catalysts, that help reactions occur b. Not used up in reactions c. “Matchmakers” that speed up cell reactions d. Increase the rates of exergonic reactions e. Bonds have to break and reform f. Used to supply activation g. Act by lowering energy barriers i. Bringing the reacting molecules together ii. Changing the shape of the substrate molecules BIOL 1345 | Chapter 6: Introduction to Metabolism iii. Providing a microenvironment that promotes catalysis iv. Participating directly in the chemical reaction Inhibitors I. Normal binding a. Fits at the active site II. Competitive Inhibition a. Competes for the active site b. Can be overcome by increase (substrates) III. Noncompetitive Inhibition a. Binds somewhere else besides the active site IV. Allosteric regulation a. Enzyme’s function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulartory molecule at another site b. Has active and inactive forms c. Uses molecules to “lock” it in d. Has four active sites e. Types i. Activators ii. Inhibitors V. Feedback Inhibition a. End product switches off the metabolic pathway b. Inhibits the beginning enzyme c. Prevents a cell from wasting chemical resources d. Turns it “off”
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