SWSM 210 Midterm Study Guide
SWSM 210 Midterm Study Guide SWMS 210
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maya Kashlan on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SWMS 210 at University of Southern California taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Social Analysis of Gender in Gender Studies at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
https://quizlet.com/156500957/info This has many of the terms to study REMEMBER TO BUY A BLUE BOOK FOR THE EXAM If it ever gets erased again, click on “all changes saved in drive” at the top of the page and open an older revision history. It will restore the version that existed before it got erased List of concepts (definitions, wherntmhh5bxe it came from, example of usage):o Part 1: 3 questions choose 1. One question parts a) b) c) answer all. Link 2 readings! Part 2: Given list, but just choose 8 terms. 3 levels: explain definition, author, article and specific example. 3 – 4 sentences. 8 number, 5 points each. For essays, look at broader concepts as possible topics (social reproductive labor, look to broad ideas in lecture) Essay Example Question #1: How do different readings engage with the concept of “social reproductive labor?” ● Sotelo and Avila, “I’m Here But I’m There” ● Stone, “Getting Back to Equal” ● Collins, “The Meaning of Motherhood in Black Culture and Black MotherDaughter Relationships” ● Udel, “Revision and Resistance” ● Edin and Nelson, Doing the Best I Can ● Messner and BozadaDeas, “Separating the Men from the Moms” ● The Shriver Report Note: There’s a good chance ‘outsider within’ will be a vocab and essay question * Originally comes from Patricia Hill Collins’ theory about Black women being outsiders within the white household “by virtue of being forced”, first through slavery and and later through domestic household work Ferguson FTMs Black women in offices? Transnational motherhood “Just One of the Guys?” Schilt “Intersectional Dignities: Latina immigrant adolescent street vendors in LA” Estrada “Dude, You’re a Fag” Pascoe Lucal, “What it Means to be Gendered Me” Judith Butler’s “Gender Trouble” Evolutionary Anthropology: Article: Margaret Mead readings Meaning: 19th century evolutionary theory about anthropology used for expansionist and colonialist; Used prevailing theories of evolution to justify colonialist violence and exploitation. Evolution traced a path from simplicity to complexity. If animals could be placed on a timeline of complexity, from fish to reptile to ape to human, Europeans decided that then surely evolution could determine the most advanced civilization. As a result, humans were placed on an evolutionary tree. Europeans were placed as the era of progress, and the rest of the human race placed in various less evolved positions. They were interpreted as savage and barbarian, and far behind Europe’s evolutionary progress. By dehumanizing other humans, they made it justifiable (to themselves) to exploit and brutalize them, in the name of “advancing” their culture to that of the more “civilized” European world. Example: Victorian Evolutionary Anthropology: gives a framework through which colonialists could attempt to understand foreign civilizations White civilization is at the top, everyone else is secondary Savagery > barbarism > civilization Framework further provided justification for colonialism (trying to convert savages to civilized human beings) Justification for genocide, military force, exploitation Served a domestic purpose as well: To understand and ‘tame’ domestic working class, women, and children Deprive domestic working class of education or upward social movement Mead & 20th century anthropology: Article: Margaret Mead, “Coming of Age in Samoa” Meaning: Mead’s observations contrasted Evolutionary Anthropology, shift from ‘biological determinism’ of gender to social factors; Mead proposes that gender is socially constructed; Saw a society that took “barbaric” practices and ideals of evolutionary anthropology as normal; Questions the implicit superiority of “civilized cultures” Example: Girls growing up in Samoa have many sexual liaisons which is normal and not frowned upon whereas in Western Culture, it would be considered sort of barbaric to have many sexual liaisons before marriage. Arapesh, Mundugumor and Tchambuli: Article: Mead, “Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies” Meaning: ● Arapesh: very calm and nonviolent, traditionally feminine roles for both men and women: passivity, gentleness, nurturing ● Mundugumor: both men and women were raised to be very aggressive, assertive, not shy away from conflict ● Tchambuli: men and women’s conventional gender roles are reversed, Tchambuli gained from having roles reversed. Importance of Mead’s observations with these 3 societies: Suggests idea that social behaviors are not rooted in biologically given sex. Socialization: Article: Margaret Mead, “Coming of Age in Samoa” and “Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies” Meaning: How we are being taught by our society to interact with each other; Attributes to gender performances; A way of internalizing the values of a society teaches us how to behave. Growing up experiences are determined by culture. Example: Judith Butler’s definition of gender: Article: Judith Butler, “Gender Trouble” Mentioned in Pascoe, “Dude, You’re a Fag” Meaning: Gender is not necessarily what we have biologically, but is what we DO Gender as performance repeated iterations and repudiations in performances of the self (i.e. repeated doing and not doing of particular gestures); gender becomes structured Butler is also against biological determinism These displays are culturally established sets of behaviors, appearances, mannerisms, that we have learned to associate with members of a particular gender (86) These performances create the appearance of a stable, coherent identity – of an inner essence and is situationallyconstructed by active agents Is fluid, varied, conservative/transgressive Regulates our selfpresentation, social behavior Article: Betsy Lucal, “What It Means to be Gendered Me: Life on the Boundaries of a Dichotomous Gender System” (Chapter 8, Prism) Article: Michael Messner, “Barbie Girls versus Sea Monsters” parents perpetuate the notion that boys and girls act in certain ways “they are so different” The three levels of analysis cultural, institutional, and social In opposition to Butler's definition of gender as performative magnified moments: Article: Michael Messner, “Barbie Girls versus Sea Monsters” Meaning: Moments that provide a window into an ongoing process; "episodes of heightened importance, either epiphanies, moments of intense glee or unusual insight, or moments in which things go intensely but meaningfully wrong. In either case, the moment stands out; it is metaphorically rich, unusually elaborate and often echoes [later].” Example: AYSO parade in which boys soccer teams harasses girls soccer team in performance of gender → Parents talking about how boys and girls are so different, creates environment at an early age where gender is already pre-distinguished; Gender boundaries Moment is important because Messner does not believe in interviewing approach, you do not become conscious that you are being observed gender attribution: Article: Betsy Lucal, “What It Means to be Gendered Me: Life on the Boundaries of a Dichotomous Gender System” (Chapter 8, Prism) Meaning: The process by which a society assigns or ascribes a gender and/or sex onto a person with or without (usually without) knowing concretely what sex that person is or what gender they identify as Legitimizes gender scripts and differences such as females having long hair, or nail polish or men wearing hats, baggy clothes Example: People assumed Lucal was a man because she had short hair; she would wear nail polish because that was a female gender attribution Example (nontext): Saying “aww your baby boy is so cute!” just because the child has short hair and is wearing blue “genderphobia” Article: Betsy Lucal, “What It Means to be Gendered Me: Life on the Boundaries of a Dichotomous Gender System” (Chapter 8, Prism) Meaning: The fear and/or hatred of gender variant individuals (people who do not conform to a specific gender / do not portray expected gender attributes) Example: Women reacting negatively to other women who appear masculine in public restrooms “Barbie’s paradoxical encoding”: Article: Michael Messner, “Barbie Girls versus Sea Monsters” Meaning: The message sent to young girls that to succeed as career women, women must also physically display femininity in appropriate ways (i.e. have feminine attributes, wear cute clothes, have perfect hair, etc) Despite whatever women become in life, they are still sexual beings. Society expectation and your gender performance comes together. Given agency. Example: Barbie as career woman (astronaut, basketball player), but still conforms to beauty standards (blonde, long legs, body proportions) that Messner calls “emphasized femininity” (776) paradoxical because there are two gender roles it is trying to associate together Soft essentialism works here because it is adding masculine traits to a feminine figure “gender varies in salience”: Article: Musto, “Athletes in the Pool, Girls and Boys on Deck” Meaning: When children are in an unsupervised environments, the gender difference dawns on the children; Some contexts support gender relation patterns more than others Many factors contribute to how individuals recognize boundaries between genders Gender can take on multiple meanings depending on specific group interactions Not much studies have been done on how gender relations and meanings change across different contexts. Theory: alternative patterns of gender relations might shape social relations when gender is less important/salient Example: Dialogue between the swimmers about how Alex is racing against a girl who happens to have a faster time than him in this case, gender is not as salient; however, in the locker rooms where boys and girls are separated, they focus more on their differences in gender Argument: find how different they are from other, depends on certain context fag discourse: Article: Pascoe, “Dude, You’re A Fag” Meaning: The interactional process through which boys name and repudiate the abject identity of being a “fag” to prove their masculinity. “fag”=the “other” Boys must perpetuate in order to be included a type of male bonding and performance of masculinity. The moment a boy calls another boy fag, the term is transferred onward Any boy can become a “fag” regardless of their sexual orientation If you are being called “fag”, there is pressure to show your masculinity Women called you a “fag”: temporary It is not something that sticks with you, you can also pass to other people by calling them “fag” Example: Boys use the term “fag” to insult each other for irrelevant failures such as “turning a wrench the wrong way” or if a “piece of meat drops out of your sandwich” (Pascoe 337). ***constitutive other: (possible essay question) Every identity has a constitutive other/constitutive outside. To be one is to not be the other The idea of constitutive other helps you strengthen your position in the group by reaffirming your difference from the outside. It draws boundaries (“borderwork”) and gives terms to your membership within a group Article: Estrada, Emir, and Sotelo, “Intersectional Dignities: Latina Immigrant Adolescent Street Vendors in Los Angeles” Meaning: A group that represents the opposite of an identity, allows individuals to distinguish themselves and figure out what they are not Can be used to criticize or justify the actions of a group Examples: Latina migrant workers and Americana women in Sotelo and Avila’s Transnational Motherhood chapter In Intersectional dignities: how the Latino/a street vendor's defined identity in relation to each other and in contrast to the kids who didn’t have to street vend (white kids) Transnational motherhood, Barbie Dark skinned people vs light skinned counterparts (Glen “Yearning for lightness”) racial discursive structure: Article: Pascoe, “Dude, You’re a Fag” | Ferguson “Naughty by Nature” Meaning: The way that people talk about/define (culture representation) races in particular ways; discussion, talk about a topic in society Certain idea repeated again and again, to the point that you believe that it is a mythical norm. Functions with the concept of mythical norm important because the way in which racial stereotypes are repeated, they replicate the identity/position of a person Example: Ferguson describes two structures criminality, endangered black youth Certain stereotypes or modern minority figure in young black man. Mammy figure or aggressive black man Culturalism: Article: Ann Arnett Ferguson “Naughty by Nature” Meaning: the assumption that one’s culture predicts his/her behavior; Interaction of race and class; all individuals of the same racial, social, cultural, ethnic group are all apart of the same identity They are not individuals with individual motives, but are reduced to being labeled as a member of their culture as a whole Example: Tendency to create imaginary stereotype of young black children. They are going through crisis, compare to aggressive by nature When black high schoolers often show the signs of nonconformism Defying authority Can also be related to Miliann Kang, "'I Just Put Koreans and Nails Together'; Nail Spas and the Model Minority" because Asians in general are called the model minority and Koreans in particular are supposed to be inherently good at manicures Adultification: Article: Ferguson, “Naughty by Nature” Meaning: When black children are forced to be more grown up than they are expected. Works through disadvantages of African American children because they are either seen as violent or living in crisis situations Differences in how kids of different races are portrayed. Example: “Ferguson” black children’s actions are viewed through the lenses of cultural images of black men: their transgressions are made to take on a sinister, fully conscious tone that is stripped from any childish naivety biologybased gender determination: Article: FaustoSterling, “Five Sexes Revisited” Meaning: Basing the idea of gender as a constitution of external and internal genitalia, hormones, and chromosomes There is a new system introduced that discusses hermaphrodites and the 5 sexes & the two sex system (platonic dimorphism); this is in contrast to biologybased gender determination Platonic dimorphism a system where gender aligns with sex very clearly Sterling: 5 genders biology based determination. Fostow’s article critiques Sterling that gender is social construction. Example: Gender segregation in sports and laws gender is a biocultural iceberg: Article: Ann FaustoSterling, “Five Sexes, Revisited” (Chapter 1, Prism) Meaning: The metaphor of the iceberg: you only see part of the iceberg, but there is an undetermined part of the iceberg, which includes the individual’s choice. In other words, you cannot determine gender based upon the assigned genitalia. You are the person who should decide what you should do/ who you want to be Example: The discussion of how to treat children with ambiguous genitalia is the tip of the biological iceberg References how gender is a fluid concept that is still being processed and explored Shift to therapy based approach to babies who are nonbinary or their biological sex is unclear Outsiderwithin: **potential essay question ● Article: Schilt, “Just One of the Guys? How Transmen Make Gender Visible at Work” ○ Originated from Patricia Hill Collins talking about black women in white spaces ● Meaning: An individual who has an outsider’s perspective but is within a group (because of their location) and can understand the privileges or challenges of a group because of your identity (hierarchies and structures in certain spaces) holistic understanding of power dynamics that structure social relations ○ Give you access to get to know the new answer. How knowledge system produce and use perspective to solve the issue. ○ “allows them to see the contradictions between the dominant group’s actions and ideologies” ○ Exposes power dynamics within institutions. ○ Perspective. Depends on location and identity. Who you are where you come from. Unique perspective to capture reality of new essence by negotiation your identity and location and access. Why important? Expose the power dynamics. ● Example: FTM (Female to Male): entering labor force after transition know both experience as woman and man. So they could negotiate to multiple level. Can explain power dynamics operating in work spaces. Identity is a fluid concept. Location important because you can define that you outsider within or not. Give new revelation after the transition becoming outside within. An individual who has an outsider’s perspective but is within a group and can understand the privileges or challenges of a group as well ● Other examples: ○ Betsy Lucal, “What It Means to be Gendered Me: Life on the Boundaries of a Dichotomous Gender System” (Chapter 8, Prism): As a woman who looks like a man, she receives some privileges that only men receive but she also is sometimes seen as a deviant woman. Ex. In a mechanic’s shop, treated like she knew what she was doing (like a man). ○ Patricia Collins Ch. 28 Prism ○ Transnational motherhood: mothers who are nannies to other people’s childrens are outsiders within ○ Messner he is a parent and an academic ○ Mead in “Coming of Age in Samoa” using her background culture in Samoa to compare with culture in America Stealth FTM: Article: Schilt, “Just One of the Guys? How Transmen Make Gender Visible at Work” Meaning: An individual who does not make others aware of his FTM status; for example, after transitioning, he will change jobs because he doesn’t want others to know that he was assigned female at birth. People stay stealth for many reasons: fear of judgement/discrimination, privacy, fear of being treated differently, fear to tell anyone Ties into the privilege that given to men: glass escalator vs glass ceiling glass escalator: ** try to link term to glass ceiling is chosen* Article: Schilt, “Just One of the Guys? How Transmen Make Gender Visible at Work” Meaning: An invisible force that helps men who are in womendominated fields into higher positions.; The notion that it is easy for men to move up in femaledominated workplaces Females in maledominated workplaces have to break the “glass ceiling” while men get a relatively easier ride on the “glass escalator” Example: Male teacher among female teachers are often promoted more quickly and moved to higher levels of power such as principle Human Capital Theory Article: Schilt, “Just One of the Guys? How Transmen Make Gender Visible at Work” Meaning: Belief that there is no hierarchy and discrimination; Background does not matter, rather it is all about how hard you work that will help you succeed regardless of gender and ethnicity. Women take off time from work and therefore are less educated/less qualified state protects his rights, they are friendly with him many subjects who don’t fit into this people focus on the ways that they are different from the norm rethink how we understand our own exclusion to then understand the exclusion of other people Example: Also in Schilt article: Gender socialization theory people get socialized into norms, choose the fields that “go with” their gender. Schilt is dissatisfied with this and the human capital theory because they exonerate work institutions and don’t highlight the roles that institutions play in maintaining certain gender differences Gender organization theory FTMs display this theory. They receive some benefits but not the same patriarchal dividends as cis gendered men, FTMs of colour don’t get the same privileges as white men, short/ young FTMs aren’t taken as seriously mythical norm: Article: Audre Lorde “Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference” Meaning: A myth that society functions on because it has been heavily repeated The ideal person who has every privilege: in America white, thin, male, young, heterosexual, Christian, educated, financially secure homogeneity It is merely mythical because almost every individual has at least one deviation and that is what defines their idea of oppression/discrimination Example: Lorde as extreme deviant female, lesbian, black mother in an interracial couple false universalization of experience and ‘sisterhood’: Article: Audre Lorde, “Age, Race, Class, and Sex,” (Chapter 24, Prism) Meaning: Impulse in feminism for White women, for example, to focus on their oppression as women and ignore differences of race, sex, class, and age. Lorde says that not all women fight for the same things, because some are more disadvantaged than others. People who don’t fit at least one standard of the mythical norm assumes that one factor (gender) to be the primary cause of all oppression, forgetting other distortions around difference Because of the word sisterhood, there is a pretense to a homogeneity of experience by the word sisterhood that does not in fact exist She suggests there is a false sisterhood in society saying that all women have the same experiences Interested in the difficult work of making the bridge Address the fact that there are differences but use them as an enhancement of how we act together, to grow and solve issues Example: As an outsider in so many ways (black, lesbian, interracial couple), the author’s experience is not the same as a middle class white woman “I must integrate all parts of who I am”: Article: Audre Lorde, “Age, Race, Class, and Sex,” (Chapter 24, Prism) Meaning: Lorde integrates multiple identities. Importance of understanding intersectionality of identities Look at what you have and what you don’t have and see how that is lacking We have to understand our own exclusions Example: Colorism: Article: Evelyn Nakano Glenn, “Yearning for Lightness: Transnational Circuits in the Marketing and Consumption of Skin Lighteners” Meaning: Prejudice or discrimination against individuals with a dark skin tone, typically among people of the same ethnic or racial group. The preference of lighter skin and discriminating against those with darker skin, remains a persisting frontier of intergroup relations in the twentyfirst century People’s judgments are colored by skin tone so the darker skinned individuals are viewed as less intelligent, trustworthy and attractive than their lighter skinned counterparts Example: Global South/Global North: Article: Rhacel Parrenas, “The Global Migration of Filipino Domestic Workers” Meaning: Countries on the north seem to be more developed and more advanced stages of capitalist, opposite with the southern divide The Global South refers to underdeveloped, third world countries ; makes it sound like the global south is highly underdeveloped Example: Mexico The Global North refers to developed, first world countries Example: USA Becomes a term of political correctness Internal diversity within countries Global south within global north, global north within global south GS and GN are now used to replace “firstworld, third world” because that implies a timeline, when in fact all these civilizations are existing and developing at the same time. Pull factor: “Care deficit” in Global North Decrease in male earning power since 1970 Increase in women’s employment since 1970 In the US, working mothers: 15% in 1950 & 65% today Push factor: Wealth Gap between Global north and Global South Labor in the home has historically been gendered as “women’s work” Decreasing responsibility of the state Little to no increase in men’s participation in domestic labor The gender and sexuality of globalization? This GN to GS relationship mirrors the “traditional relationship between the sexes” GN is “pampered, entitled, unable to cook, clean, or find his socks” GS is “patient, nurturing, and selfdenying.” Women are paid less because they are seen as surplus labor: seen as always replaceable Example: mercury/hydroquinone: Article: Evelyn Nakano Glenn, “Yearning for Lightness: Transnational Circuits in the Marketing and Consumption of Skin Lighteners” (Chapter 10, Prism) Meaning: Products found in skin lightening products that colored people used. Mercury is highly toxic and sustained exposure can lead to neurological damage and kidney disease. Hydroquinone is effective in suppressing melanin production, but exposure to the sun damages skin that has been treated more so. It can turn dark skinned people’s skin blueblack or gray, it can lead to eczema, bacterial and fungal infection, and skin atrophy. Produced in global north countries (EU), illegal in these countries but are shipped to global south Exposes women in global south to toxic effects of these products but women in the global north are protected Example: multiracial feminism: Article: Lisa J. Udel, “Revision and Resistance: The Politics of Native Women's Motherwork” (Chapter 29, Prism) Meaning: The need to take into account the specificities of particular communities Negotiation of identities In response to ‘white feminism’ Example: native, tribal women and their concept of motherhood as opposed to White feminism There is no one gender to take on the role of motherhood LBJ’s ‘war on poverty’ (1964): Enforcing the role of the government Article: Edin, “Doing the Best I Can” Meaning: LBJ is trying to have the state intervene and help the society that is going under crisis (1964); this was a part of the “Great society” trying to make an equal platform Down fall in employment, industries moving out Attempting to secure more jobs for minorities/ low income families The great society vision: state needs to step in and make social welfare available (communities of color need to benefit to whereas before they were kept out of convo) 1964: State will intervene, federal aid on health care measures Example: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1967: Article: “The Shriver Report” Meaning: The act protects individuals from all different types of workplace discrimination: race, sexual identity, culture, etc. It helped to boost women into maledominated fields. Shriver Report Help improve discrimination in the workplace among all: sex, race, etc. Example: Optingout: Article: Pamela Stone, “Getting to Equal” Meaning: The notion that White, middle to upper class women ‘choose’ to leave the workforce to take care of children Retreating from professional success In actuality, women may “choose” not to participate in the workforce due to the lack of accommodations that are provided i.e. unequal wage gap, paid parental leave Stone argues that women suffer all responsibility of parenting all contribute to this phenomenon Example: ‘Mommytracked’: Article: Pamela Stone, “Getting to Equal” Meaning: Working mothers’ attempts to balance motherhood and work without being granted any sort of flexibility. Instead, their efforts are penalized and drive them to quit by negative reinforcement. Example: longhour work culture effectively bars women’s progress in elite jobs and robs all parents, fathers and mothers, of time with their families. new work norms: Article: Pamela Stone, “Getting Equal” Meaning: The idea of “flexibility” in the workplace and the new structures of how work is carried out that looks like it’s helping workers but actually punishes women who are trying to raise a family and work. Because of these new work norms that supposedly allow more freedom ends up with them just quitting their jobs and are seen as opting out but really what has happened is these particular norms have forced them out of their jobs and forced them to choose their children. Example: the second shift: Article: Pamela Stone and Shriver Report ?? Meaning: The second shift of labor that women must do: household work and child care in addition to paid work in the formal sector Example: occupational sexsegregation: Article: Barbie’s vs Monsters, Messner Meaning: The systemic concentration of certain of genders of workers in particular jobs Example: Messner & Deas parents volunteering to fall under sex segregated roles Messner: Women’s job were to assist coaches, calling, etc, not many in leadership position, men were usually the coaches and holding leadership position feminization of poverty: (Can somebody add a little more context to this please?) Article: The Shriver Report??? Meaning: Women representing a disproportionate amount of the world’s impoverished population/ poor population Example: The Moynihan Report: (Doing the best I can) Article: Doing the Best I Can Meaning: The idea that single parent family = vulnerable to poverty; black families are particularly endangered because black men are not obtaining work “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action” written by Assistant Sec. of Labor under LBJ “The gap between the Negro and most other groups in American society is widening. The fundamental problem, in which this is most clearly the case, is that of family structure. The evidence not final, but powerfully persuasive is that the Negro family in the urban ghettos is crumbling. A middleclass group has managed to save itself, but for vast numbers of the unskilled, poorly educated city working class the fabric of conventional social relationships has all but disintegrated. There are indications that the situation may have been arrested in the past few years, but the general postwar trend is unmistakable. So long as this situation persists, the cycle of poverty and disadvantage will continue to repeat itself.” Example: new racism: Article: Meaning: Racist public discourse depicting immigrants as a threat Manipulating ideas with mass media to make it seem like it’s not racist Example: social reproductive labor: (**potential essay topic) Meaning: Labor that reproduces society itself, work that needs to be done to maintain the labor force (tend to be low paid) Regenerating the worker, maintaining and regenerating nonworkers (children or the elderly), birthing new workers (raising next generation of workers) Considered to be a demeaning form of labor, not always considered to be labor Postindustrial society pushed onto women in the household Global north: women who now work push onto others in the global care chain Providing sustenance, providing rest Example: Transnational mothers, Cooks, Body work, nurses, teachers (the last two don’t sound right.) global care chains: Article: “I’m here, but I’m there” | Rhacel Parrenas, "The Global Migration of Filipino Domestic Workers" Meaning: Series of links between people across the globe based on who is doing the labor; Chain runs through the home across the global north and the global south Socially reproductive labor needs to be done (taking care of kids) Transnational Motherhood Example: In USA, white women need someone to do their domestic labor for them. Then those mothers need someone to take care of their children overseas, etc. Burden of domestic care has shifted but not gone away; it’s transferred from person to person, mother to mother to other mother body labor: Article: Miliann Kang, "'I Just Put Koreans and Nails Together'; Nail Spas and the Model Minority" in Meaning: The hygienic process that involves extensive physical care, along with attention to the emotional needs of customers, including engaged conversations Migrant workers are doing these body labors and it’s usually upper class people getting it, paying for a service in order to get this done to their body Example: The Managed Hand: Race, Gender, and the Body in Beauty Service Work. (Prism) livein/liveout: Article: Sotelo and Avila,“I’m Here but I’m There” Meaning: Live in domestic workers work and live in isolation from their families and live out workers do both the nanny and housekeeper position. In contrast to weekly house cleaners clean different houses on different days and it is like a customer vendor relationship. Example: functions of the ‘model minority’ notion: Article: Kang, "'I Just Put Koreans and Nails Together'; Nail Spas and the Model Minority" Meaning: The american embrace of Asians due to their embodied demonstration of economic productivity (US capitalism and expansion) and smooth assimilation into mainstream cultural norms Some whites pointed to AsianAmerican achievement as evidence that racial minorities could get ahead in America, if only they would “try” Example: Koreans and other Asian Immigrants who conform to the upwardly mobile stereotype still occupy a marginalized status in which nail salon work remains among the best of the options available to them (445) slavevictim/agent: Article: “Im here, But Im there” Meaning: Workers are not individuals just slaves to the system They don’t see themselves as victims; there is an illusion that they have a choice No written contracts or benefits.; “you just come to my house and clean” Example: Latina Transnational Motherhood Also the workers are not always legal in the country cult of domesticity: Article: Lorde, Sotelo/ Avila Meaning: An opinion about women in the 1800s starts with industrial revolution. They believed that women should stay at home and should not do any work outside of the home. There were four things they believed that women should be: More religious than men. Pure in heart, mind, and body, purity, Submit to their husbands, Stay at home Found during Second Wave Feminism—50’s and 60’s. White women began to critique idea that a woman’s place is in the home. “cult” implies oppressive, restrictive, unnatural…(calling it a cult came about in the 50s and 60s) Destabilization of idea that men are breadwinners Lorde and Collins and Udel push back against notion that the only way women can free themselves from oppressive structures is through this trajectory—not true for WoC. Women of color not allowed to flourish, structurally interrupted in various forms Happens during industrial revolution—more technology, science, imperialism, PHRENOLOGY Improper gender/sexuality determined by body measuring to discriminate against Black people, women, etc. Example: transnational motherhood: Article: "I'm Here, but I'm There" Meaning: Arrangement where immigrant mothers are separated from their children due to their work in a foreign country. Transnational mothers try to be emotionally present in their children's growth even if they can't be physically present. They provide material and emotional support for their children as both homemaker and breadwinner from afar. Example: Latina women who came to the United States to do domestic work in order to satisfy their families' economic needs in “I’m Here, but I’m There” gender regime: Article: Michael A. Messner & Suzel BozadaDeas “Separating the Men from the Moms: The Making of Adult Sex Segregation in Youth Sports” Meaning: The configuration of gender relations within a particular setting, such as a school, a family or a neighbourhood. every institution has a gender regime, in other words the state of play between gender Gender regime is measured and analyzed through the gender divisions in labor and power Example: Taking how labor is organized within a heterosexual family (implicit norm) to input into the structure of youth sports gendered pipelines: Article: Michael Messner, “Separating the Men from the Moms” Meaning: Informal ways in which men and women are segregated in different career paths. Glass escalator: men get promoted faster in “female dominant” jobs Example: Men often get coach job by being assistant coaches first, got assistant coach job because they were asked. soft essentialism: Article: Michael Messner, “Separating the Men from the Moms” Meaning: Not explicitly spoken gender norms; Actions still reflect this belief even though it’s not okay to say it out loud Hard essentialism would be saying this out loud. Essentialismnecessary things, not because of society but because of nature (women are nurses because they like taking care of people. Men are CEOs because they are assertive.) Tries to seem like it is given women a choice, but gives them no agency Feminists believe in women’s “right to choose” as her responsibility to straddle work and family life, while white men continually to be “naturally” viewed as the main family breadwinner Example: Suggestion that women should take nonleadership roles, never outright said but implied. Team mom not necessarily attributed to gender, but it just “makes sense” for one of the mom’s to take care of snacks, rides, etc. Teamparent: Article: Michael Messner, “Separating the Men from the Moms” Meaning: The vast majority are women volunteers who are “actively recruited” to do the behind the scenes work before, during, and after games that helps to sustain the community “for the kids” Example: The team parent (AKA ‘team mom’) is responsible for organizing snacks, contact lists, team parties, etc. Seen as the ‘secretary’ of the team; more often than not the role was filled by a woman. A man once taking the role (not by choice) and not doing a good job so ever since then it was seen as strictly a “woman’s job” Afrocentric ideology of motherhood: Article: Patricia Hill Collins, “The Meaning of Motherhood in Black Culture and Black MotherDaughter Relationships” Meaning: “Othermothers” tended to care for neighbors or other family members children, work for Black women has been an important and valued dimension, providing to black children’s physical survival and attending to their emotional needs (the majority of black women had to work and could not afford the luxury of motherhood as a non nomically productive, female “occupation), the use of family language in referring to members of the black community, motherhood can be invoked as a symbol of power, actualized through Black mothers’ ideologies as role models, Example: Othermothers: Article: Patricia Hill Collins, “The Meaning of Motherhood in Black Culture and Black MotherDaughter Relationships” Meaning: Other mothers are women who assist bloodmothers (biological mothers) by sharing mothering responsibilities. Example: In AfricanAmerican communities, grandmothers, sisters, aunts, or cousins acted as othermothers by taking on child care responsibilities for each other’s children (p318). Also, the members of community played their roles as “fictive kin” in the community, and this allowed them to have strong bonds or ties within the community. dilemma of Black motherhood: Article: Patricia Hill Collins, “The Meaning of Motherhood in Black Culture and Black MotherDaughter Relationships” Meaning: To ensure their daughters’ physical survival, black mothers must teach their daughters to fit into systems of oppression. And yet mothers know that if their daughters fit too well into the limited opportunities offered black women, they become willing participants in their own subordination. Example: Motherwork: Article: Lisa J. Udel, “Revision and Resistance: The politics of Native Women’s Motherwork” Meaning: Allows woman to take ownership in their community, is deeply valued and becomes a symbol of social power. Example: For Black Mothers, this includes: Intensities, dilemmas, contradictions motherist stance: Article: Lisa J. Udel, “Revision and Resistance: The politics of Native Women’s Motherwork” Meaning: A conscious act of separating certain women from traditional feminists. The women locate their activism not in feminist struggle, but in cultural survival, identifying themselves “not as feminists but as militant mothers, fighting together for [the] survival of [their children].” Women became motherists when “men are forced to be absent (because they are migrant workers or soldiers) or in times of crisis, when the role of nurturance assigned to women has been rendered difficult or impossible. (Excerpts from p.329 prism) Example: Native women living on and off reservations where employment opportunities are scarce for men, as well as for women who lose their mothering capacity to sterilization or their living children to boarding schools. (From p.329) ‘socializing’/ ‘affiliation’: Article: Kathryn Edin, “Doing the Best I Can” Meaning: Terms that some of the men used as opposed to ‘dating’ or ‘having sex with’ Implying that they were together quite a bit but weren’t actually a couple Affiliation: stage between just meeting and sex, not a solidified relationship; expected fidelity so birth control/contraceptives not necessarily used if both partners are clean of STDs (wearing condom in this stage sends signals of distrust in part Example: sexual script (aka cultural sexual script): Article: Kathryn Edin, “Doing the Best I Can” Meaning: What each gender is ‘supposed to do’ whilst performing sexual acts conventions/implicit rules that tell us how to behave/respond during sex that change over time (and over the metamorphosis of the relationship) Example: Dating: ‘men should ask out women’ ‘men supposed to pay’ ‘not necessarily monogamous’ Relationship: ‘not wearing a condom’ ‘monogamous’ have to bring gifts’ Marriage: man should propose, ‘have kids after marriage’ ‘one person stays home, usually the woman’ This is where reproduction ideally occurs. Function of age and relationship status or seriousness. Hookingup: ‘not monogamous’ ‘just sex’ ‘casual/ not serious’ ‘don’t get pregnant’ Typically in college, young men understand they do not want children as a result of hookups “Hooking up” Guys can hook up but girls are “sluts” for doing so. Contraception—men tend to expect women to be on birth control if they say not to use a condom. Condom usage—women are supposed to be the one taking care of birth control. Cross class—women always expected to take care of birth control. Men worried women think they’re unclean if they use condoms. How does “One thing leads to another” flip these cultural scripts? Having a kid is less of a big deal to men because she got pregnant, not him. Comes about “casually.” Men explain that this is how conception occurs through stages socializing (in a group, checking out) affiliation (expectation of fidelity, hooking up) assumption that there is enough trust in fidelity that you don't need contraceptives because you agree neither has STDs. Concern that if a man decides to wear a condom with a woman he is affiliated with, she will think he thinks she's dirty. People casually stop taking birth control, wearing condoms, etc. and men don’t care because it is a woman’s decision to take a pregnancy to term, etc. Women don’t care because they don't see themselves as being on track for a career or school so it doesn't matter. Childbirth may distract them from upward mobility, but it is an opportunity to raise their child better than they were raised—especially men with absent fathers.?
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