Chem 1110, Exam 3 Study Guide
Chem 1110, Exam 3 Study Guide Chem 1110-02
Dixie State University
Popular in Organic Chemistry
Popular in Chemistry
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory M on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1110-02 at Dixie State University taught by Dr. Feller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Dixie State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
CHEM 1110: CHAPTER 3 STUDY GUIDE – STUDY SOUP 3.1- Compare & Contrast Ionic Covalent Alternate Names Salt Molecule Starting Atoms M+nm nm+nm Valence Electrons Transfer Share Final Components Ions Atoms % of compounds 5% 95% Bond Type Ionic Covalent Octet Rule (8) Obedient “feels” obedient **be able to arrange electrons in an octet (really know valence electrons). 3.2- Electron-dot Symbols (Lewis Structures) for each element, NOT transition metals. NAMING Cations Anions Keep FULL name and add “ion” (Sodium Ion) Change suffix to “ide” and add “ion” (Nitride Ion) Positive Ions + Negative Ions - From Metal Atoms From Nonmetal Atoms 1+, 2+, 3+ charges 1-, 2-, 3- Charges Polyatomic Ions (Name, Transition Metals Nonmetal Anion Names & Formula, & Charge) Charge Ammonium (NH4)+ Fe2+, Fe3+ Nitride Ion (N3-) Bicarbonate (HCO3)- Iron (II) Ion, Iron (III) Ion Phosphide Ion (P3-) Carbonate (CO3)2- Cu+, Cu2+ Oxide Ion (O2-) Nitrate (NO3)- Copper (I) Ion, Copper (II) Ion Sulfide Ion (S2-) Hydroxide (OH)- Fluoride Ion (F-) Ag+ Sulfate (SO4)2- Silver (I) Ion Chloride Ion (Cl-) Acetate (C2H302)- Bromide Ion(Br-) Iodide Ion (I-) 3.3- Ionic Name Formula Ex. Potassium Chloride K & Cl (since one is positive and one is negative they cancel one another) Formula = KCl Ex. Iron (III) Sulfide 3+ 2- Fe & S (+3 and -2 don’t equal, so we cross over the numbers as subscripts so they equal +6 and -6, which is equal) Formula = Fe2 3 Formula Ionic Name Ex. MgO Magnesium Ion & Oxide Ion (Drop “Ion”) Ionic Name: Magnesium Oxide Ex. Cu2S Copper (I) Ion & Sulfide Ion (Look at charges to know which ionic state the transition metal is.) Again Drop “Ion”. Ionic Name: Copper (I) Sulfide (we use roman numerals when there is more than one ionic state for an element.) 3.4- Lewis structures for: CH4 NH3 H2O CO2 Bonding: 8 Bonding: 6 Bonding: 4 Bonding: 8 Nonbonding: 0 Nonbonding: 2 Nonbonding: 4 Nonbonding: 8 Name: Methane Name: Ammonia Name: Water Name: Carbon Dioxide “Natural gas” “cleaner” Naming Covalent Compounds: Prefixes Meaning Mono- 1 -Element on the left will get full name. di- 2 -Element on the right will drop the last few letters and replace with “-ide”tri- 3 Tetra- 4 -With covalent compounds subscripts will now be included in the name. Penta 5 Hexa- 6 -Never start the name of a covalent compound with “mono-,“ it’s always assumed. Hepta- 7 Octa- 8 Ex. H2O Nona- 9 Dihydrogen Monoxide Deca- 10 3.5- ATOMS MOLES MASS MOLECULES IONS AV# (6.02x10 ) MM (Atomic Mass #/mole) MOLAR MASS FOR A COMPOUND: -Separate the elements and use the atomic mass # rounded (on the periodic table) to help multiply. EX. C2H6O2 C- 12 x 2 = 24 H- 1 x 6 = 6 O- 16 x 2 = 32 = 62g/mol 3.6- Getting Covalent Bonds into Shape…..Haven’t discussed in class. 3.7- Electronegativity and Molecular Polarity -Electronegativity (EN) increases as you move toward fluorine on the periodic table. -Left and up on the PT = more EN -Right and down on the PT = less EN *Do not memorize EN #’s. Polarity: -polarity is only used in a covalent bond, this is because ionic compounds don’t share electrons they transfer them. -Non-polar will always be between 2 of the same element (or when carbon and hydrogen bond). -Polar will be between 2 different elements. One side will be partially negative (this one has more EN or “pull”) and the other will be partially positive (this one has less EN or “pull”). Ex. HCl…..Because Chlorine has more EN it will be our partially negative side and Hydrogen will be our partially positive side.
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