Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 1101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Study Guide for Exam #2: Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 Explanation: The lists below contain an outline of the main topics that we covered for each chapter. The majority of the exam questions will come from these areas. If a word is bolded, it is a vocabulary term that you should be able to define and apply to examples. Chapter 3: Consciousness (Sleep & Drugs) 1. Consciousness a. Awareness of ourselves and our environment 2. Parallel processing a. Our Attention has various levels to them (doing more than one thing at a time) b. Aka multitasking 3. Selective attention a. Cocktail part effect i. In a setting with a lot of distractions and hearing something you didn’t hear before b. Inattentional blindness i. Something a person should see but does not because they are focused on another task 4. Problems with multitasking a. Can cause a huge distraction when doing something important (i.e. texting and driving) 5. Biological rhythms a. Circadian rhythms: The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms i. For humans our rhythm is set at 25 hours ii. Bodies aren’t in sync with our environment iii. Decreased light increases melatonin (hormone) production iv. Increased light decreases melatonin production b. Superchiasmatic Nucleus i. A tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus. It is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms c. Melatonin i. Hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness d. Measuring sleep activity (eye movements, muscle tension, EEG waves) e. Stages of sleep i. REM sleep: Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. ii. Alpha waves: The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state 1. Slow breathing and irregular brain waves of nonREM stage 1 sleep iii. Delta Waves: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 iv. Beta Waves: high frequency low amplitude brain waves that are commonly observed while we are awake. f. Theories of why we sleep i. Helps protect us ii. Helps with recuperation iii. Restores and rebuilds memories iv. Helps support our growth g. Sleep deprivation effects and treatments i. Loss of sleep can lead to increased hunger, depression, a decrease in the immune system, and can cause slow reactions and can cause and increase of errors h. Sleep disorders i. Insomnia: When one has a hard time getting to sleep or staying asleep and can lead to depression ii. Narcolepsy: Uncontrollable sleep attacks that are often triggered by strong emotions iii. Sleep apnea: Temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings iv. Night terrors: High arousal and appearance of being terrified, unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep v. Sleepwalking and sleep talking: Usually childhood disorders and, like narcolepsy, they run in families. Both are harmless vi. Natural sleep aids i. Theories of why we dream i. To file away memories ii. Develop and preserve neural pathways iii. Make sense of neural static iv. Reflect cognitive development 2. Psychoactive drugs a. Drug disorder i. Addiction: Compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors i. Tolerance: The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of drug, requiring the user to take larger doses before experiencing the drugs effect ii. Withdrawal: The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinuing an addictive drug or behavior iii. Drug use disorder criteria (chart: know four general categories) 1. Diminished control a. Uses more substance, or for longer, than intended b. Tries unsuccessfully to regulate use of substance. c. Spends much time acquiring, using, or recovering from effects of substance. d. Craves the substance 2. Diminished Social Functioning Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 a. Use disrupts commitment at work, school, or home b. Continues use despite social problems c. Causes reduced social, recreational, and work activities 3. Hazardous use a. Continues to use the drug despite hazards 4. Drug Action a. Experiences tolerance (needing more substance for the desired effect). b. Experiences withdrawal when attempting to end use. b. Types of drugs i. Depressants: Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions 1. Alcohol: Acts as a disinhibiter and increases tendencies more than you would have when sober a. Causes slow neural processing, memory disruption, and reduced selfawareness and selfconsciousness 2. Barbiturates: Drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairs memory and judgement 3. Opiates: Depresses neural activity, temporality Lessing pain and anxiety a. Heroin and morphine are popular opiates ii. Stimulants: Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions 1. Caffeine: Acts as a mild stimulant to the central nervous system and can help improve alertness, and attention 2. Nicotine: A stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco 3. Cocaine: Powerful and addictive stimulant that is derived from the cocoa plant, that produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria a. Depletes the brains supply of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine 4. Ecstasy (MDMA): A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with shortterm health risks and longerterm harm to serotoninproducing neurons and to mood and cognition. 5. Methamphetamine: A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. iii. Hallucinogens 1. Marijuana: A drug that includes THC, which causes mild hallucinogens 2. LSD: A powerful hallucinogenic drug, which results in colorful dreams and realities Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Chapter 4: Development 1. General themes (issues) in developmental psychology a. Nature vs. nurture: We are not formed by either nature or nurture, but by the interaction between them. Biological, psychological, and socialcultural forces interact. b. Continuity vs. stages: Some researches see development as a slow, continuous shaping process which others see it as a sequence of genetically stages or steps c. Stability vs. change: Research shows that we experience both stability and change as we age we change over time. 2. Prenatal development: a. Zygote: The fertilized egg; it enters a 2week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo b. Embryo: The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. i. At this stage the babies heart begins to beat and starts to get nutrients through the mother c. Fetus: The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. i. Embryo starts to look human 3. Teratogens: Chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm a. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out ofproportion head and abnormal facial features. 4. Newborn capacities a. Preferences for faces (preferential looking task) b. Motor skills c. Brain maturation: Influenced by both genes and experience i. Synaptic Pruning: process by which extra neurons and synaptic connections are eliminated in order to increase the efficiency of neuronal transmissions. ii. Infant memory experiment: Infants memory changes overtime because they are constantly developing 5. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development (ages, achievements/limitations at each stage) a. Schema: A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. i. Our intellectual progression reflects unceasing struggles to make sense of our experiences b. Assimilation: Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas. c. Accommodation: Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. d. Sensorimotor stage: The stage (from birth to nearly 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. e. Preoperational stage: The stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. Symbolic thought ii. Object permanence: The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived iii. Egocentrism: The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view. f. Concrete operational stage: The stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. g. Formal operational stage: The stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. 6. Attachment a. Harlow’s experiments: Bread monkeys for his experiment i. Contact comfort: Recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment. To pit the drawing power of a food source against the contact comfort of the blanket, they created two artificial mothers ii. Stranger anxiety: The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. b. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation i. Secure attachment: Crave acceptance but remain alert to signs of rejection. ii. Insecure attachment: people experience discomfort when getting close to others and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others. c. Romanian orphanages 7. Parenting styles a. Authoritative: Parents are coercive. They impose rules and expect obedience b. Permissive: Parents are unrestraining. They make few demands and use little punishment. They may be indifferent, unresponsive, or unwilling to set limits. c. Authoritarian: Parents are confrontive. They are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules, but, especially with older children, they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions. 8. Kohlberg’s levels of moral thinking a. Preconventional morality: Selfinterest obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards b. Conventional morality: Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order c. Post conventional morality: Actions reflects beliefs in basic rights and self defined ethical principles Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, & Sexuality 1. Sex vs. Gender definitions a. Sex: In psychology, the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males and females Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. biological status, defined by our chromosomes and anatomy b. Gender: In psychology, the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women i. cultural expectations about what it means to be male or female ii. the product of the interplay among our biological dispositions, our developmental experiences, and our current situations 2. Prenatal sexual development a. Chromosomal sex: The X (female) or Y (male) chromosome that comes from the father determines the child’s sex b. Y chromosome & sry gene: Y chromosome prompts testes to develop and produce testosterone c. Gonadal sex d. Influence of androgens (testosterone) on: i. Internal genitalia: Around 7 week: Y chromosome prompts testes to develop and produce testosterone ii. External genitalia: Triggers the development of external male sex organs in the fetus iii. Brain structures (Brain sex): Between 4 and 5 month: Sex hormones (from testes/ovaries) in fetal brain support brain wiring that tends toward either male or female 3. Puberty a. Primary sex characteristics: Body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible b. Secondary sex characteristics: Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair 4. Idea that variations in sexual development exist 5. Gender role vs. gender identity 6. How gender is learned a. Social learning theory b. Gender schemas c. Transgender Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception 1. General concepts a. Sensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment b. Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. c. Sensory receptors: specialized neurons or nerve endings that respond to changes in the environment by converting energy from a specific stimulus into an action potential d. Transduction: changing physical energy into electrical signals (neural impulses) that can make their way to the brain. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 a. Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. b. difference threshold: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. i. Weber’s Law: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount). c. Sensory adaptation: Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation 2. Vision a. Light i. Wavelength/frequency (hue): The distances from the peak of one light wave or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission. ii. Amplitude (brightness): Wave length in our eyes b. Anatomical structures of the eye i. Cornea: Where light enters and helps, which bends light to help provide focus ii. Pupil: Small adjustable opening surrounded by the iris iii. Lens: Transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. iv. Retina: The lightsensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information. 1. Photoreceptors: rods and cones know different features v. Fovea: The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster. vi. Blind spot: The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there vii. Optic nerve: The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain Chapter 9: Intelligence 1. Defining Intelligence/Intelligence Tests (know how each person/test defines intelligence) a. Binet i. Mental Age: Child’s current ability compared to other children of different ages b. Terman i. Intelligence Quotient: Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. c. Spearman Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. General intelligence: A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test d. Wechsler i. WAIS (subtests) ii. Application of normal curve e. Emotional Intelligence: Social intelligence is an important indicator of life success. Emotional intelligence is a key aspect, consisting of perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions i. Perceiving emotions ii. Understanding emotions iii. Managing emotions iv. Using emotions f. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences i. Intrapersonal intelligence: Understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners. ii. Interpersonal intelligence: Understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, Email. iii. Linguistic intelligence: Using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture. iv. Logicalmathematical intelligence: Reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. v. Bodilykinesthetic intelligence: Use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, handson learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects g. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. Analytical intelligence: Analytical giftedness is influential in being able to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen. ii. Creative intelligence: Deals mainly with how well a task is performed with regard to how familiar it is. iii. Practical intelligence: Deals with the mental activity involved in attaining fit to context 2. Nature vs. Nurture Interaction of Genetics and Environment on intelligence
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