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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kayla Patterson

Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 1101

Kayla Patterson
GPA 3.9

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This is the study guide for our second exam.
Study Guide
Pysch., Study Guide, midterm
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Study Guide for Exam #2:   Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 Explanation: The lists below contain an outline of the main topics that we covered for each  chapter. The majority of the exam questions will come from these areas. If a word is bolded, it is  a vocabulary term that you should be able to define and apply to examples. Chapter 3:  Consciousness (Sleep & Drugs) 1. Consciousness a. Awareness of ourselves and our environment 2. Parallel processing  a. Our Attention has various levels to them (doing more than one thing at a time)  b. Aka multitasking 3. Selective attention a. Cocktail part effect i. In a setting with a lot of distractions and hearing something you didn’t  hear before b. Inattentional blindness i. Something a person should see but does not because they are focused on  another task 4. Problems with multitasking a. Can cause a huge distraction when doing something important (i.e. texting and  driving) 5. Biological rhythms a. Circadian rhythms: The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms i. For humans our rhythm is set at 25 hours ii. Bodies aren’t in sync with our environment iii. Decreased light ­­­ increases melatonin (hormone) production    iv. Increased light ­­­ decreases melatonin production b. Superchiasmatic Nucleus i. A tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus. It is responsible for  controlling circadian rhythms c. Melatonin i. Hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness d. Measuring sleep activity (eye movements, muscle tension, EEG waves) e. Stages of sleep  i. REM sleep: Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during  which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep,  because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other  body systems are active. ii. Alpha waves: The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state 1. Slow breathing and irregular brain waves of non­REM stage 1  sleep iii. Delta Waves: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 iv. Beta Waves: high frequency low amplitude brain waves that are  commonly observed while we are awake. f. Theories of why we sleep i. Helps protect us ii. Helps with recuperation  iii. Restores and rebuilds memories iv. Helps support our growth g. Sleep deprivation effects and treatments i. Loss of sleep can lead to increased hunger, depression, a decrease in the  immune system, and can cause slow reactions and can cause and increase  of errors h. Sleep disorders i. Insomnia: When one has a hard time getting to sleep or staying asleep  and can lead to depression ii. Narcolepsy: Uncontrollable sleep attacks that are often triggered by  strong emotions iii. Sleep apnea: Temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and  repeated momentary awakenings iv. Night terrors: High arousal and appearance of being terrified, unlike  nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM­3 sleep, within two or three  hours of falling asleep v. Sleepwalking and sleep talking: Usually childhood disorders and, like  narcolepsy, they run in families. Both are harmless vi. Natural sleep aids i. Theories of why we dream i. To file away memories ii. Develop and preserve neural pathways  iii. Make sense of neural static iv. Reflect cognitive development 2. Psychoactive drugs a. Drug disorder  i. Addiction: Compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors i. Tolerance: The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of  drug, requiring the user to take larger doses before experiencing the  drugs effect ii. Withdrawal: The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinuing an addictive drug or behavior iii. Drug use disorder criteria (chart: know four general categories) 1. Diminished control a. Uses more substance, or for longer, than intended b. Tries unsuccessfully to regulate use of substance. c. Spends much time acquiring, using, or recovering from  effects of substance. d. Craves the substance 2. Diminished Social Functioning Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 a. Use disrupts commitment at work, school, or home b. Continues use despite social problems c. Causes reduced social, recreational, and work activities 3. Hazardous use a. Continues to use the drug despite hazards 4. Drug Action a. Experiences tolerance (needing more substance for the  desired effect). b. Experiences withdrawal when attempting to end use. b. Types of drugs  i. Depressants: Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions 1. Alcohol: Acts as a disinhibiter and increases tendencies more than  you would have when sober a. Causes slow neural processing, memory disruption, and  reduced self­awareness and self­consciousness 2. Barbiturates: Drugs that depress central nervous system activity,  reducing anxiety but impairs memory and judgement 3. Opiates: Depresses neural activity, temporality Lessing pain and  anxiety a. Heroin and morphine are popular opiates ii. Stimulants: Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body  functions 1. Caffeine: Acts as a mild stimulant to the central nervous system  and can help improve alertness, and attention 2. Nicotine: A stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in  tobacco 3. Cocaine: Powerful and addictive stimulant that is derived from the cocoa plant, that produces temporarily increased alertness and  euphoria a. Depletes the brains supply of neurotransmitters dopamine,  serotonin and norepinephrine 4. Ecstasy (MDMA): A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen.  Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short­term health  risks and longer­term harm to serotonin­producing neurons and to  mood and cognition. 5. Methamphetamine: A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates  the central nervous system, with accelerated body functions and  associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce  baseline dopamine levels. iii. Hallucinogens  1. Marijuana: A drug that includes THC, which causes mild  hallucinogens 2. LSD: A powerful hallucinogenic drug, which results in colorful  dreams and realities Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Chapter 4: Development 1. General themes (issues) in developmental psychology a. Nature vs. nurture: We are not formed by either nature or nurture, but by the  interaction between them. Biological, psychological, and social­cultural forces  interact. b. Continuity vs. stages: Some researches see development as a slow, continuous  shaping process which others see it as a sequence of genetically stages or steps c. Stability vs. change: Research shows that we experience both stability and  change as we age we change over time. 2. Prenatal development:   a. Zygote: The fertilized egg; it enters a 2­week period of rapid cell division and  develops into an embryo b. Embryo: The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization  through the second month. i. At this stage the babies heart begins to beat and starts to get nutrients  through the mother c. Fetus: The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. i. Embryo starts to look human 3. Teratogens: Chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal  development and cause harm a. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out­ of­proportion head and abnormal facial features. 4. Newborn capacities a. Preferences for faces (preferential looking task) b. Motor skills c. Brain maturation: Influenced by both genes and experience i. Synaptic Pruning: process by which extra neurons and synaptic  connections are eliminated in order to increase the efficiency of neuronal  transmissions. ii. Infant memory experiment: Infants memory changes overtime because  they are constantly developing  5. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development (ages, achievements/limitations at each stage) a. Schema: A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. i. Our intellectual progression reflects unceasing struggles to make sense of  our experiences b. Assimilation: Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas. c. Accommodation: Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate  new information. d. Sensorimotor stage: The stage (from birth to nearly 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor  activities. e. Preoperational stage: The stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age)  during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the  mental operations of concrete logic. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. Symbolic thought ii. Object permanence: The awareness that things continue to exist even  when not perceived iii. Egocentrism: The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point  of view. f. Concrete operational stage:  The stage of cognitive development (from about 7  to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable  them to think logically about concrete events. g. Formal operational stage: The stage of cognitive development (normally  beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about  abstract concepts. 6. Attachment a. Harlow’s experiments: Bread monkeys for his experiment i. Contact comfort: Recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket  contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with  nourishment. To pit the drawing power of a food source against the  contact comfort of the blanket, they created two artificial mothers ii. Stranger anxiety: The fear of strangers that infants commonly display,  beginning by about 8 months of age. b. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation i. Secure attachment: Crave acceptance but remain alert to signs of  rejection. ii. Insecure attachment: people experience discomfort when getting close to others and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others. c. Romanian orphanages 7. Parenting styles a. Authoritative: Parents are coercive. They impose rules and expect obedience b. Permissive: Parents are unrestraining. They make few demands and use little  punishment. They may be indifferent, unresponsive, or unwilling to set limits. c. Authoritarian: Parents are confrontive. They are both demanding and  responsive. They exert control by setting rules, but, especially with older children, they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions. 8. Kohlberg’s levels of moral thinking a. Preconventional morality: Self­interest obey rules to avoid punishment or gain  concrete rewards b. Conventional morality: Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or  maintain social order c. Post conventional morality: Actions reflects beliefs in basic rights and self­ defined ethical principles Chapter 5:  Sex, Gender, & Sexuality 1.   Sex vs. Gender definitions  a. Sex: In psychology, the biologically influenced characteristics by which people  define males and females Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. biological status, defined by our chromosomes and anatomy b. Gender: In psychology, the socially influenced characteristics by which people  define men and women i. cultural expectations about what it means to be male or female ii. the product of the interplay among our biological dispositions, our  developmental experiences, and our current situations 2. Prenatal sexual development a. Chromosomal sex: The X (female) or Y (male) chromosome that comes from the father determines the child’s sex b. Y chromosome & sry gene: Y chromosome prompts testes to develop and  produce testosterone c. Gonadal sex d. Influence of androgens (testosterone) on:  i. Internal genitalia: Around 7  week: Y chromosome prompts testes to  develop and produce testosterone ii. External genitalia: Triggers the development of external male sex organs  in the fetus iii. Brain structures (Brain sex): Between 4  and 5  month: Sex hormones  (from testes/ovaries) in fetal brain support brain wiring that tends toward  either male or female 3. Puberty a. Primary sex characteristics: Body structures (ovaries, testes, and external  genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible b. Secondary sex characteristics: Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female  breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair 4. Idea that variations in sexual development exist 5. Gender role vs. gender identity 6. How gender is learned a. Social learning theory b. Gender schemas c. Transgender Chapter 6:  Sensation and Perception 1. General concepts a.  Sensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system  receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment b.  Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information,  enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. c. Sensory receptors: specialized neurons or nerve endings that respond to changes  in the environment by converting energy from a specific stimulus into an action  potential d. Transduction: changing physical energy into electrical signals (neural impulses)  that can make their way to the brain. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 a. Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular  stimulus 50 percent of the time. b.  difference threshold: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for  detection 50 percent of the time. i. Weber’s Law: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli  must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant  amount). c. Sensory adaptation: Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant  stimulation 2. Vision a. Light   i. Wavelength/frequency (hue): The distances from the peak of one light  wave or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths  vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio  transmission. ii. Amplitude (brightness): Wave length in our eyes b. Anatomical structures of the eye i. Cornea: Where light enters and helps, which bends light to help provide  focus ii. Pupil: Small adjustable opening surrounded by the iris iii. Lens: Transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the  cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. iv. Retina: The light­sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the  receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information. 1. Photoreceptors: rods and cones ­ know different features v. Fovea: The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones  cluster. vi. Blind spot: The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a  "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there vii. Optic nerve: The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the  brain Chapter 9:  Intelligence  1. Defining Intelligence/Intelligence Tests (know how each person/test defines intelligence) a. Binet i. Mental Age: Child’s current ability compared to other children of  different ages b. Terman i. Intelligence Quotient: Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma)  to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On  contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age  is assigned a score of 100. c. Spearman Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i.  General intelligence: A general intelligence factor that, according to  Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore  measured by every task on an intelligence test  d. Wechsler  i. WAIS (subtests) ii. Application of normal curve e. Emotional Intelligence: Social intelligence is an important indicator of life  success. Emotional intelligence is a key aspect, consisting of perceiving,  understanding, managing, and using emotions i. Perceiving emotions ii. Understanding emotions iii. Managing emotions iv. Using emotions f. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences i. Intrapersonal intelligence: Understanding one's own interests, goals.  These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their  inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a  strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through  independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative  materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the  learners. ii. Interpersonal intelligence: Understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for  others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities,  seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer  conferencing, E­mail. iii. Linguistic intelligence: Using words effectively. These learners have  highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like  reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be  taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together.  Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and  lecture. iv. Logical­mathematical intelligence: Reasoning, calculating. Think  conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and  relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic  questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations,  mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. v. Bodily­kinesthetic intelligence: Use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making  things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be  taught through physical activity, hands­on learning, acting out, role  playing. Tools include equipment and real objects g. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 i. Analytical intelligence: Analytical giftedness is influential in being able  to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen. ii. Creative intelligence: Deals mainly with how well a task is performed  with regard to how familiar it is. iii. Practical intelligence: Deals with the mental activity involved in  attaining fit to context 2. Nature vs. Nurture ­ Interaction of Genetics and Environment on intelligence


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