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CSU - PSY 320 - PSY 320 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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CSU - PSY 320 - PSY 320 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image PSY 320 Exam 2 Study Guide 
Chapter 5 
Anxiety Disorders (Fight or Flight Response) 
- Physical and psychological responses - fight a threat or flee  - Noticeable effects  ● Pupil dilation 
● Dry mouth 
● Tensing of muscles in neck and shoulders 
● Pounding heart 
● Breathing is fast and shallow (oxygen needed for muscles) 
● Sweating 
- Hidden effects  ● Adrenaline produced 
● Liver releases glucose (energy for muscles) 
● Blood pressure rises 
● Brain gets body ready for action 
- Activate 2 systems  1. Sympathetic Nervous System  ● Uses nerve pathways to initiate reactions 
● Release norepinephrine 
○ Neurotransmitter responsible for vigilant concentration  2. Adrenal-cortical system  ● Uses bloodstream to initiate reactions 
● Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 
○ Activates the adrenal cortical system  ● Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  ○ Increased production and release of cortisol   
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 
- Diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 requires:  a) Exposure (at least 1)  ● Directly experience or witness traumatic event 
● Learn event happened to someone close 
● Experience repeated/extreme exposure to the details of event 
b) Intrusive symptoms  ● Reliving event 
● Dreams 
● Dissociative reaction (flashbacks) 
● Psychological distress and physical reactions to cues that resemble the 
event  c) Persistent avoidance 
background image ● Avoid thoughts, or memories of event 
● Avoid physical cues (people, places) 
d) Negative changes in thought and mood associated with event  ● Inability to remember key details 
● Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs 
● Distorted and negative beliefs of event - lead to guilt 
● Persistent negative state 
● detachment/estranged from others 
● Inability to experience positive emotions 
e) Changes in arousal and reactivity  ● Extreme irritability 
● Hypervigilance 
● Exaggerated startle response 
● Reckless self destructive behavior 
● Difficulty concentrating 
● Sleep disturbances 
f) Duration of at least one month 
g) Significant distress or impairment on social life or occupation 
h) Not due to physiological effect, substance abuse or other medical condition 
G and F are on every diagnosis in DSM  - Common causes  ● Rape 
● War 
● Natural disasters 
● Car or plane crashes 
● Terrorist attacks 
● Sudden death of loved one 
● Kidnapping 
● Assault 
● Sexual, emotional or physical abuse 
● Childhood neglect 
● First responders 
- Theories of why some people get PTSD and others don’t  ● Environmental and social factors  ○ Severity and duration 
○ Proximity to trauma 
○ Social support available 
● Psychological factors  ○ Pre-existing conditions 
○ Coping strategies 
● Gender and cross cultural differences 
background image ○ Women more prone - more documented cases, because rape is #1 cause  and men are less likely to admit PTSD issues and more likely to self 
○ African americans have higher rates - again, not really a biological reason  that African Americans would have more PTSD, there are just more 
documented cases 
● Biological factors  ○ Neuroimaging findings - brains of people with PTSD more reactive to  emotional stimuli, can’t tell which comes first emotional reactivity or PTSD  ○ Biochemical findings  ■ Exaggerated physiological response to stress 
■ Exposure to extreme or chronic stress during childhood 
○ Genetics  ■ Vulnerability to PTSD can be inherited  
■ Problem with this - child growing up with someone who has PTSD 
could predispose them to get the disorder, not necessarily genetic  - Treatments for PTSD  ● Cognitive Therapy  ○ Systematic desensitization - associate pleasant relaxed state with anxiety  triggering stimuli  ● Cognitive restructuring  ○ Make sense of bad memories 
○ Sometimes memory differs from event 
● Stress-inoculation therapy - therapists teach clients skills for overcoming  problems that:  ○ Increase stress 
○ Result from PTSD 
● Biological therapies  ○ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - Prozac, Zoloft 
○ Benzodiazepines - Xanax 
Other Trauma Related Disorders 
- Acute stress disorder - occurs with traumas similar to PTSD  ● Lasts no longer than 4 weeks  - Adjustment disorder - emotional and behavioral symptoms arise within three weeks    Phobias  - Unreasonable or irrational fears of specific objects or situations  ● Common phobias:  ○ Arachnophobia - fear of spiders 
○ Ophidiophobia - fear of snakes 
○ Acrophobia - fear of heights 
○ Agoraphobia - fear of open or crowded spaces 
background image ○ Cynophobia - fear of dogs 
○ Astraphobia - fear of thunder/lightning 
○ Claustrophobia - fear of small spaces 
○ Mysophobia - fear of germs 
○ Aerophobia - fear of flying 
○ Trypophobia - fear of holes 
● Categories according to DSM-5  ○ Animal type  ■ Snakes & spiders  ○ Natural environment type  ■ Heights  ○ Situation type  ■ Claustrophobia  ○ Blood-injection-injury type  ■ Germs & disease 
■ Dentist & doctor 
- Theories of Phobias  ● Behavioral  ○ Negative reinforcement - anxiety is reduced by avoidance 
○ Classical conditioning - conditioning to certain objects or situations 
■ Little Albert  ● Biological  ○ Related people share phobias  - Treatment of Phobias  ● Exposure to extinguish fear  ○ Systematic desensitization - start with it far away from you (mentally and  then physically)  ○ Modeling - showing that other people are calm and okay with situation 
○ Flooding - have them face fear right away 
● Applied tension technique   ○ Tension increases blood pressure to keep from fainting  ● Biological treatment - Benzodiazepines     Social Anxiety Disorder  - Anxiety in social situations  ● Rejected, judged, or humiliated in public 
● Focus on avoiding such events 
● More common in women 
● Develops often in adolescence  
- Treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder  ● Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 
● Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) 
● Cognitive-behavioral therapy 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Martha Amberg
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: PSY320, abnormalpsychology, exam2, and Amberg
Name: PSY 320 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Prof Amberg Personality disorders, anxiety disorders, depression, and phobias
Uploaded: 10/06/2016
18 Pages 94 Views 75 Unlocks
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